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Full text of "American journal of pharmacy"

J 



554: 




GPO 16—53001-1 



THE 

american 
Journal of Pharmacy 

PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 

EDITED BY 

HENRY KRAEMER 

PUBLICATION COMMITTEE FOR 1909 

SAMUEL P. SADTLER M. I. WILBERT 

JOSEPH W. ENGLAND FLORENCE YAPLE 

JOSEPH P. REMINGTON CHARLES H. LaWALL 

AND THE EDITOR 

VOLUME 81 



PHILADELPHIA 



THE AMERICAN" 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



JANUARY, igog 



THE CULTIVATION OF ATROPA BELLADONNA IN 
PHILADELPHIA. 

By John A. Borneman, P.D. 

During the past fifteen years I have been engaged in the cultivation 
of Belladonna along with other medicinal plants, and I have at all 
times found the cultivation of the plant profitable and most interest- 
ing. I find it to be the easiest of all the imported plants to cultivate, 
and, if a market could be found for the domestic drug, it would pay 
very well to cultivate it on a large scale. At first considerable diffi- 
culty was experienced in getting plants from the seed, due I think 
to two causes : ( i ) inferiority of the seeds imported from Europe, 
and (2) planting of the seeds too deep in the soil. I tried planting 
the seeds direct in the open, covering them with a slight mulch of 
straw, but found that only one out of every fifty seeds would ger- 
minate. I then planted the seeds under a cold cover in the early part 
of April, and found that over 75 per cent, came up. The young 
plants were transplanted after they had reached a height of about 
six inches directly to the open field about the middle of May, about 
25 per cent, of the seedlings being lost by transplanting. The soil 
was well tilled and fertilized, it being a good garden soil and having 
been used for years for the cultivation of flowers and garden veg- 
etables. The soil has to be tilled several times during the year and 
kept free of weeds. By the middle of June the plants reach the 
height of about 25 inches, and by the middle of July bear a large 
number of flowers. Two crops of leaves can be obtained in one 
season, the first about the end of July, the second the latter part of 
October. 

' (1) 



Cultivation of Atropa Belladonna. 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 
January, 1909. 



If the root is not wanted, it should be left in the soil until the 
hitler part of October and then taken up and buried in a shed to 




Part of field of Atropa Belladonna. 



protect it from freezing during the winter. Early the next spring 
the roots are again taken up and separated. One root sometimes 



Am. Jour. Pharm. | 
January, 1909. f 



Analysis of Headache Mixtures. 



3 



yields from four to six rootlets that can be used for propagation. In 
late years I have not found it necessary to propagate from the seed 
at aft; always using last year's roots. It saves much labor and always 
assures a good crop. The plants which are raised from the roots 
direct sometimes reach a height of about 65 inches if the season is 
neither too dry nor too wet. Some of the plants will weigh five 
pounds, about sixty per cent, in weight being lost by drying. 

The yield of one acre of Belladonna is from six to eight thousand 
pounds. If the plants are propagated from the roots, as described, 
some of the seeds from the hardiest looking plants should be col- 
lected each year and germinated the following spring for the pro- 
duction of a new stock of plants. There will be no difficulty expe- 
rienced if the seeds of cultivated plants are used, and care taken not 
to bury the seeds too deep in the soil. 

Insects do not give much trouble in the raising of Belladonna. 
Sometimes, however, the young plants wither and turn black, due to 
a worm which attacks the roots. This year the yield of a quarter of 
an acre amounted to eighteen hundred pounds. The plants did not 
reach a height over 40 inches, due to the dry season. 

Among other plants which I have under cultivation I may mention 
the following : Hyoscyamus, Matricaria, Pulsatilla, Conium, Taba- 
cum, Calendula, Passiflora, Hydrastis, Inula, Digitalis, Absinthium, 
Arnica, and Echinacea. 



ANALYSIS OF HEADACHE MIXTURES.* 

By Dr. W. O. Emery. 

• The advent of the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, has 
rendered necessary among other things the establishment of suf- 
ficient data upon which reliable methods could be based for the 
quantitative estimation of those drugs inhibited by this Act. In this 
connection it was thought desirable if not equally imperative to in- 
clude in such investigations all other active drug principles in so far 
as it might be found possible to effect satisfactory determination 
of same. 



* Read ,at a stated meeting of the City of Washington Branch of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, December 14, 1908. 



4 Analysis of Headache Mixtures. {^JS^^T 

An important and certainly widely distributed class of medicinal 
preparations is found in headache, neuralgia and laxative mixtures, 
occurring mostly in powder or tablet, less frequently in liquid form. 
Such mixtures have in the past commonly consisted of acetanilid, 
caffeine and sodium or ammonium bicarbonate. Since the passage 
of the act or quite recently the acetanilid has in many instances 
been replaced in whole or in part by acetphenetidin, less frequently 
perhaps by antipyrin. Ingredients like acetanilid, acetphenetidin, 
antipyrin, and caffeine as well, all belong to true " synthetic " drugs, 
though some manufacturers have seen fit to describe their head- 
ache mixtures as being " synthetic " in themselves, either from a 
misconception of the word or possibly with a view to deceiving 
not only the suffering public, but the physician as well. 

When the Food and Drugs Act went into effect there were known 
to the jobbing trade some eight hundred headache, neuralgia and 
laxative preparations containing acetanilid. As has already been 
stated, the acetanilid in many of these mixtures has been replaced 
m whole or part by acetphenetidin ; on the other hand the price of 
acetanilid being so much less than that of acetphenetidin, some per- 
sons have ventured on the possibly more lucrative but unquestion- 
ably very dangerous road of adulteration. 

It would hardly be possible within the limits of this paper to go 
into the minutiae of the methods which have been found best suited 
to an examination of the least complicated of these headache prepa- 
rations. With a view, however, of inviting discussion, it is proposed 
to outline briefly certain methods for the analysis of quite simple 
mixtures, such as sodium bicarbonate, caffeine and acetanilid, with 
or without acetphenetidin. 

Some fourteen years ago the writer had occasion to examine 
preparations like or similar to those put out by the Antikamnia 
Co., of St. Louis, at which time a method for estimating acetanilid, 
caffeine and sodium bicarbonate was elaborated, which, though never 
published, has been frequently used since on many preparations of 
a similar character, and now constitutes the basis of a procedure 
employed in the Bureau of Chemistry for determining the three sub- 
stances in question. According to this procedure the separation of 
the organic constituents from the sodium bicarbonate is rapidly and 
easily effected by means of chloroform, the insoluble residue rep- 
resenting the sodium compound, which may be weighed as bicar- 
bonate, converted to the sulphate or titrated with standard acid. 



A jan J ua U ry 1909 m " } Analysis of Headache Mixtures. 5 

The residue, obtained on distilling off the chloroform and consist- 
ing of caffeine and acetanilid, is heated with sulphuric acid in order 
to change the acetanilid into aniline sulphate, the caffeine extracted 
with chloroform and weighed, and the aniline sulphate titrated with 
a solution of standard potassium bromide-bromate, substantially as 
has been described by Riedel in some work on carbolic acid and 
on aniline. 

In mixtures containing acetphenetidin in place of acetanilid, the 
procedure is similar in every way to that just outlined for the pre- 
ceding mixture, with the one exception that the phenetidin sul- 
phate formed in the operation cannot be titrated, as is done in the 
case of aniline sulphate, but is by means of acetylization converted 
back to acetphenetidin and as such weighed. 

The problem becomes somewhat more complicated when both 
acetanilid and acetphenetidin are present in the same mixture, and 
it required diligent search to discover a satisfactory basis of separa- 
tion. The sodium bicarbonate and caffeine may be eliminated in 
the manner already described. The resulting sulphates of aniline 
and phenetidin are converted to acetanilid and acetphenetidin re- 
spectively and the mixture treated with iodine and potassium iodide 
in the presence of an acid. An iodine addition product of acetphe- 
netidin is formed, practically insoluble in the liquids used. It may 
be filtered off and made to yield the acetphenetidin held in combi- 
nation, or the iodine absorbed in the reaction is determined volu- 
metrically. The acetanilid is found in the filtrate from the acetphenet- 
idin compound and can, after suitable treatment, be extracted with 
chloroform and titrated with bromide-bromate of potassium as pre- 
viously noted. This method of separating acetanilid and acetphenet- 
idin is proving exceedingly useful in the hands of the Bureau 
workers, affording as it does, a rapid and convenient check on acet- 
phenetidin sophistication. 

When headache mixtures contain, in addition to the synthetics 
just considered, cinchona, coca or opium alkaloids, laxative princi- 
ples and other extractive matter, their analysis sometimes presents 
problems not at all easy of solution, so that one is required to develop 
an analytical procedure applicable only to the particular case in hand. 



6 



An Analysis of Cloves. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1909. 



AN ANALYSIS OF CLOVES. 

By T. R. Hodgson, M.A, A.I.C. 

The analysis of the twelve samples of cloves, recorded in this 
paper, appeared to be of interest, inasmuch as the number of analyses 
on record is very small and also as the purity of the samples is 
undoubted. The moisture in the samples was determined by McGill's 
method (Canada. Dept. of In. Rev., Bui. 73) by exposing 2 grammes 
of the sample over perfectly colorless sulphuric acid in vacuo ; at 
the beginning of the discoloration, the sample was removed and 
weighed, loss in weight being due to moisture. 



A 


826 


per cent. 


K 


7.71 per cent. 


B 


.7.99 


u 


M. . . . 


7-86 


C 


.7.02 




P 


8.23 


D 


811 




Q 


7.90 «- 


F 


811 


a 


R 


8.26 


H 


•7-65 




T 


8.26 


Maximum, 


8.26 


per cent. ; 


minimum 7.02 


per cent. ; mean, 



7.95 per cent. 

McGill finds the moisture to be between 5.05 per cent, and 11.8 
per cent., while Winton, Ogden and Mitchell give 7.03 per cent, to 
8.26 per cent. The Ash was determined as usual by first incinerating 
the residue obtained from the moisture determination, over a naked 
flame and afterwards heating more strongly in a muffle. 

A 4.20 per cent. K 4.98 per cent. 

B 5.84 " M 6.00 

C. 6.00 " P 4-80 

D 4-98 " Q 5-90 

F 6.90 " R 6.94 

H 440 " T 445 " 

Average, 5.45 per cent. ; maximum, 6.94 per cent. ; minimum, 
4.20 per cent. 

The following results have been obtained by other observers : 
McGill, 5.03-7.00 per cent.; Winton, Ogden and Mitziiell, 5.28-6.22 
per cent. ; Raw, 6.94 per cent. ; Moor, 5.2-5.9 per cent. ; Priest, 6.0- 
6.1 per cent. ; Gladwyn, 5.2 per cent. ; Umney, 4.8 per cent. ; Richard- 
son, 5.50-13.05 per cent. 

The minimum ash of these twelve samples is lower than any other 
on record. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1909. j 



An Analysis of Cloves'. 



/ 



The method used for the determination of the Alcoholic Extract 
was that due to Winton, Ogden and Mitchell (U. S. Dept. of Agric, 
Bur. of Chem., Bui. 65), 2 grammes of the powdered sample being 
extracted with 100 c.c. of 95 per cent, alcohol with continuous 
shaking for eight hours and then being allowed to stand for sixteen 
hours; after having been shaken and allowed to stand for the re- 
quired time, it is filtered and 50 c.c. are evaporated to dryness and 
the residue heated at no° C. until constant. 

A 14.90 per cent. K 13-80 per cent. 

B ..1345 " M 1345 " • . 

C. 11.98 " P 11.55 

D- • • n-55 " Q 11-55 

- F 12.63 " R 1345 

H 12.50 " T 12.70 " 

Maximum, 14.90 per cent.; minimum, 11.55 P er cent.; average, 
12.79 P er cent. 

Winton, Ogden and Mitchell give an Alcoholic Extract of from 
13.99 t° I 5-58 J which is higher than those recorded above. In the 
determination of the Crude Fibre, 2 grammes of the substance were 
first extracted with ether and afterwards boiled successively with 
acid and alkali, the Crude Fibre, after boiling with the alkaline solu- 
tion, being separated by means of a centrifuge. 

A 9.75 per cent. K 9.62 per cent. 

B 10.35 " M 10.20 " 

C 9.90 . " P 9.99 

D. .. 10.55 " Q 10.11 

- F 975 " R 9-87 " 

H 9.50 " T 10.43 

Maximum, 10.55 P er cent. ; minimum, 9.50 per cent. ; average, 
10.00 per cent. 

Winton, Ogden and Mitchell obtained from 7.06 per cent, to 9.02 
per cent, of Crude Fibre, which is considerably lower than that shown 
by any of the above samples. 

The Nitrogen was determined as usual by Kjeldahl's method, the 
factor 6.33 being used to convert the Nitrogen into Albuminoids. 



Nitrogen. Albuminoids. 

A 0.91 per cent. 5.76 per cent. 

B ......0.91 " 576 

C 0.95 " 6.01 

D m 0.94 " 5-94 



8 



An Analysis of Cloves. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
{ January, 1909. 



Nitrogen. Albuminoids. 

F 0.91 per cent. 5.76 per cent. 

H . 0.93 " 5.89 " 

K 0.95 " 6.01 " 

M 0.95 " 6.01 " 

P 0.91 " 576 " 

Q .0.92 " 5.82 '« 

R 0.92 " 5.82 " 

T 0.92 " 5.82 



Maximum, 0.95 per cent. ; minimum, 0.91 per cent. ; average, 
0.93 per cent. 

Winton, Ogden and Mitchell find that the albuminoids vary from 
5.88 per cent, to 7.06 per cent. 

The twelve samples are remarkably constant in Nitrogen, which 
also appears in the majority of cases to be somewhat lower than the 
results on record. 

The method used for the determination of the Ether Extract was 
that described by Richardson in the U. S. Dept. of Agric, Div. of 
Chem., Bui. 13, page 165. By this method the total, volatile and 
non-volatile extracts are obtained. 



Total. Volatile. Non-volatile. 

A 25.25 per cent. 19.00 per cent. 6.25 per cent. 

B 24.17 " 17.93 " 6.24 

C 24.67 " 18.41 " 6.26 

D 26.92 " 20.53 " 6.39 

F .24.68 " 18.41 " 6.27 

H 26.73 " 20.49 " 6.24 " 

K 24.86 " 18.62 " 6.24 

M 26.88 " 20.51 " 6.37 

P 24.51 " 18.22 " 6.29 " 

Q 24.06 " 17.82 " 6.24 " 

R 24.29 " 18.00 " 6.29 " 

T 24.27 " 17.91 " 6.36 

Maximum. Minimum. Average. 

Total 26.92 percent. 24.06 percent. 25.11 percent. 

Volatile 20.53 " 17-82 " 18.90 



Non-volatile.. 6.39 " 6.24 " 6.29 " 

Moor gives a total ether extract of 2.51 per cent., and Winton, 
Ogden and Mitchell give a volatile extract of from 17.82 per cent, 
to 20.53 P er cent, and a non-volatile extract of from 6.24 per cent, 
to 6.67 per cent. The volatile and non-volatile extracts are prac- 
tically the same as those obtained by Winton, Ogden and Mitchell, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1909. j 



An Analysis of Cloves. 



9 



while the average total extract is almost the same as that given by 
Moor, but some of the samples show a much higher total extract 
than this number and others a much lower, so that Moor's number 
cannot be taken as a standard. 

The determination of the " Oxygen Equivalent " was carried out 
by means of Richardson's method (U. S. Dept. of Agric, Div. of 
Chem., Bui. 13, page 167), which is a modification of Lowenthal's 
tannin process. 

It is necessary to point out that the quality of the Indigo used as 
the indicator is of very great importance, as with inferior qualities it 
is utterly. impossible to get a sharp end point. 

" Oxygen As Querei 

Equivalent." Tannic Acid. 

A 2.20 17.13 

B 2.63 20.54 

C 2.52 19.63 

D 2.50 J9.47 

F 2.58 ' 20.09 

H: 2.56 19.94 

K 2.63 20.54 

M 2.63 20.54 

P 2.63 20.54 . 

Q. 2.56 19.94 

R 2.54 1978 

T 2.58 20.09 

Maximum. Minimum. Average. 

"Oxygen Equivalent" 2.63 2.20 2.55 

As Querei Tannic Acid 20.54 17.13 18.19 

Winton, Ogden and Mitchell give a maximum for the " Oxygen 
Equivalent " of 2.63 and a minimum of 2.08, with an average of 
2.33 ; and for the Querei Tannic Acid a maximum of 20.54, a mini- 
mum of 16.25 and an average of 18.19. The figures shown by the 
twelve samples given above follow very closely in both cases those 
of Winton, Ogden and Mitchell. 

In conclusion, the determination of the Alcoholic Extract is of no 
practical value, the determination of the Crude Fibre and moisture 
may in some cases be of considerable use, whereas in others may 
be of no value whatsoever; the determination of the Ether Extract 
is advisable ; but undoubtedly the three determinations upon which 
the greatest reliance may be placed are the determinations of Ash, 
Nitrogen and the Oxygen Equivalent. 

The University, Birmingham. 



10 



Liquor Sodii Phosphatis Compositus. 



(Am. Jour. Pharni 
| January, 1909. 



A NOTE ON LIQUOR SODII PHOSPHATIS COMPOSITUS. 

By John K. Thum, Ph.G., 
Pharmacist at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

There is considerable dissatisfaction and complaint among retail 
pharmacists about the U. S. P. compound solution of phosphate of 
sodium. When first made the solution seems perfect, but after stand- 
ing for a few days, especially at a low temperature, crystals of 
sodium phosphate appear on the bottom of the container. With 
the object of preventing this deposit of crystals from taking place, 
the writer experimented by changing the U. S. P. formula in va- 
rious ways. 

The plan of using double the amount of citric acid was tried with 
apparent great success, the solution being subjected to a low tem- 
perature without any recrystallization occurring whatever, but on 
testing the solution it was found to be decidedly acid. From this 
point of view, and a most important one, it was a failure. 

Physicians use sodium phosphate because of its alkalinity quite 
as much as for its laxative and purgative properties. Keeping this 
in mind, the writer endeavored to make a solution which would 
not crystallize, and would also be free of acidity or in which the 
acidity would be very slight. 

Citric acid to the amount of 13 per cent, is called for in the 
U. S. P. formula; this was increased to 15 per cent., and the sodium 
nitrate omitted, with the object of finding if the sodium nitrate 
played an important part in aiding or facilitating solution of the 
sodium phosphate. With the aid of a water-bath complete solu- 
tion took place very readily and sufficient distilled water was added 
to make up to the proper volume. On being subjected for some 
time to a very low temperature and carefully watched it was noticed 
that the first crystals to appear were " colorless translucent, right 
rhombic prisms," typical of citric acid. On continued exposure to 
this temperature sodium phosphate appeared in considerable quan- 
tity. While it required some time for recrystallization, in this in- 
stance, to take place, the addition of the U. S. P. amount of sodium 
nitrate caused recrystallization to take place very rapidly at the same 
temperature. This seemed to prove that the U. S. P. quantity of 
sodium nitrate facilitated recrystallization. 

Although the citric acid and sodium phosphate combination kept 



Am. jour, pjarm.1 The Canadian Formulary. n 

January, 1909. J •> 

very well at room or even outside temperature, the writer was not 
satisfied with its appearance. Even after careful filtration it did 
not have that clear, sparkling appearance that the official formula 
gives. While efficiency in the manufacture of a pharmaceutical 
preparation should be the first consideration, elegance should also 
be earnestly striven for. 

In the next experiment the amount of citric acid was the same 
as before, 15 per cent., but the amount of sodium nitrate was re- 
duced one-fourth. This readjustment of the formula answered very 
well indeed. The solution, on filtration, was clear, colorless and 
sparkling; and after a fifteen-hour exposure to a temperature of 
38 F., recrystallization had not occurred. This was encouraging, 
and in the next experiment the quantity of citric acid was reduced to 
13 per cent, and the same quantity of sodium nitrate used, as 
in the previous experiment, namely, 1 per cent. This solution was 
satisfactory in many ways. It was efficient, elegant, and stable. 
After an exposure of fifteen hours to a temperature of 38 F., there 
was not the slightest trace of recrystallization. There appeared 
to be no reaction to red or blue test-paper. On treating with sodium 
carbonate T. S. a very slight effervescence was observed. 

It was concluded by the writer that the quantity of sodium nitrate 
in the U. S. P. formula facilitates recrystallization while the reduc- 
tion of it to 1 per cent, inhibits recrystallization. 

In lieu of the Pharmacopceial directions for making this solution 
the writer would advise the following method of procedure as 
being more satisfactory. Place the two salts and the acid, with a 
small quantity of water, in a graduated flask and heat on a water- 
bath until completely liquefied ; then add sufficient distilled water 
to make to the required volume. 



THE CANADIAN FORMULARY. 

By Charles H. La Wall. 

The second edition of the Canadian Formulary of Unofficial 
Preparations, published by the authority of the Ontario College 
of Pharmacy, was issued in the spring of 1908, and as many of 
the articles contained therein have been taken from the U. S. P. or 
N. F., it is of interest to note the liberties which have been taken 
in transposing and altering these formulas, especially as this same 



12 The Canadian Formulary. {^Sy.wST' 

charge was made with reference to the 1906 edition of the N. F., 
when it appeared, in connection with the formulas taken from the 
foreign Pharmacopoeias. 

The Canadian Formulary contains 149 formulas, of which fifty- 
four have been taken from the U. S. P. and N. F. Of these 
fifty-four, eighteen have been altered in some respect, not always in 
a manner leading to any vital difference in the finished preparation, 
but deviations of any kind in formulas which are given as coming 
from another authority are not warranted, unless such deviation is 
stated in a footnote. Several other preparations merit criticism in 
some respects, and a brief synopsis will be given of such formulas 
as seem worthy of comment. 

Formula No. 2 is for Alcohol Deodoratum, and the process given 
is that of the N. F. 1896 edition, in which alcohol is deodorized by 
the use of quicklime, alum, spirit of nitrous ether and animal char- 
coal. The formula is correctlv gfiven and attention is called to it 
only because of its questionable utility and the probability of its 
being misbranded under the Food and Drugs Act. 

Under Formula No. 7. Ceratum Galeni, is given the synonym 
" Cold Cream." This formula calls for a preparation differing 
materially from the cold cream as used in the United States, espe- 
cially in that it contains liquid paraffin to the extent of about 60 
per cent, and resembles what is commonly called " Theatrical Cold 
Cream." The use of the term t( Cold Cream " for a preparation 
containing paraffin oil is hardly justifiable, as the preparation does 
not have the same cooling effect as one made from vegetable oils. 

In No. 13, Elixir of Ammonium Bromide, which is claimed to 
have the same strength as the N. F. preparation, we find 91.5 Gm. 
of the salt in 1000 c.c.. and the statement that each fluidrachm con- 
tains 5 grains of ammonium bromide. As the N. F. formula also 
makes the statement that each fluidrachm contains 5 grains of 
ammonium bromide, and differs in containing 85 Gm. to the 1000 
c.c, it would seem that there is a difference in the number of cubic 
centimetres calculated to the fluidrachm on the other side of the 
Canadian border. The calculation made from this formula would 
indicate that instead of 4 c.c. to the fluidrachm, as is ordinarily 
considered the equivalent in this country, the Canadian formula has 
3.8 c.c. to the fluidrachm. 

Formula 14, Elixir Anisi, has the synonym Anise Seed Cordial 
and while no definite reference is made to the N. F. preparation, it 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 190'J. / 



The Canadian Formulary. 



13 



corresponds exactly with the formula contained in that work. The 
same is true of No. 15, Aromatic Elixir, in which nothing is said 
with regard to its conformity with the U. S. P. formula, with which 
it agrees perfectly. 

No. 21, the formula for Elixir of Cinchona and Iron is given 
the same as N. F., 1906, but the quantity of ferric phosphate is 
changed from 35 Gm. in the N. F. to 36.6 ex., which is palpably 
an error, and the quantity of boiling water is increased from 60 c.c. 
to 125 c.c. 

In formula No. 25, Elixir of Quinine, Iron and Strychnine, iden- 
tical with N. F., 1906, the only deviation is in the amount of alco- 
hol, which has been reduced from 35 c.c. to 25 c.c. 

Compound Digestive Elixir, No. 33, is stated as being the same 
as the N. F., 1906, but an examination of the formula shows that 
the amount of lactic acid has been increased from one-half gramme 
to 1.5 c.c, the quantity of hydrochloric acid from 1 c.c. to 3 c.c, 
and the quantity of tincture of cudbear from 15 c.c. to 125 c.c, the 
latter quantity certainly being far in excess of that necessary to 
produce the desired color in this preparation. 

The formula for Elixir of Pepsin and Bismuth, No. 36, similar to 
that of the N. F., 1906, has been changed slightly by the use of 
pepsin and glycerin instead of the glycerite of pepsin used in the 
N. F., and a calculation shows the amount of pepsin in the finished 
preparation to be slightly different. 

Formula No. 37, Elixir of Potassium Bromide, has the same 
discrepancy in the amount of salt as previously mentioned under 
Elixir of Ammonium Bromide. 

Formula No. 52, Compound Essence of Vanillin, stated to be 
identical with Compound Tincture of Vanillin, N. F., 1906, has 
the amounts of vanillin, coumarin, alcohol and compound tincture 
of cudbear, all slightly altered, although no essential difference will 
be noted in the finished preparation. 

Formula No. 65, for Lac Humanisatum, N. -F., 1906, has the 
proportions of three of its constituents slightly altered, the cows' 
milk and distilled water being decreased from 62 c.c to 56.8 c.c, 
and the quantity of water being decreased from 15 c.c. to 14 c.c, 
although the amount of milk powder remains the same. 

Under Formula 66, White Liniment, supposed to be identical with 
Acetic Turpentine Liniment, N. F., 1906, the amounts of all the con- 
stituents except the egg have been increased, but not in uniform 
ratio. 



The Canadian Formulary. 



( Am. Jour. Pharcu. 
\ January, 1909. 



Formula 76, for Sodium of Carmine, N. F., 1906, shows a de- 
crease of carmine from 65 G111. to 60 Gm., and of solution of am- 
monia and glycerin from 365 c.c. each to 350 c.c. each, the quantity 
of the end product remaining the same. 

Formula No. 80, for Solution of Saccharin, contains a slightly 
larger amount of saccharin and a smaller amount of sodium bicar- 
bonate than the N. F. solution, although the same statement is made 
as to strength, L c, four grains to the fluidrachm. 

Formula 87, for Solution of Sodium Hydroxide, is stated to be the 
same as the U. S. P., 1905. but instead of using 5.6 Gm. of sodium 
hydroxide, so as to give a strength of 5 per cent, absolute sodium 
hydroxide, the formula calls for 5 Gm. in 100, which would give a 
strength of 4.50 per cent. 

Formula 95, for Pepsinum Saccharatum, contains a statement that 
it is U. S. P., 1905. This is an error, as it was dismissed from the 
last revision and is now in the appendix of the X. F. 

Formula 122, for Aromatic Syrup of Blackberry, X. F., 1906, 
shows a slight alteration in the amounts of blackberry root bark, 
cinnamon and nutmeg, but no alteration in the amounts of cloves, 
allspice or sugar. 

No. 135, for Compound Tincture of Cudbear, shows a change in 
the amount of cudbear from 16.5 Gm. to 17 Gm., the other constitu- 
ents remaining the same. 

Formula 147 for Wine of Coca, said to be U. S. P., 1905, has the 
amount of sugar increased from 65 to 75 Gm., the other constitu- 
ents remaining the same. 

A few comments might also be made upon other preparations 
which are not stated to conform to any given authority. Formula 
132, for Elixir of Papain, is presumably a digestive elixir, and the 
presence of 1.15 Gm. of saccharin to 1000 c.c. would certainly be 
of doubtful value, if not actually harmful. It would certainly have 
an inhibiting effect upon the digestive power of papain, which is 
feeble at its best. 

X'o. 43, Elixir of Terpin Hydrate and Heroin; among the ingre- 
dients are noted 16 c.c. of brandy in 1000 c.c. As this could hardly 
have any flavoring effect in the presence of 4 c.c. of tincture of 
vanilla, and as it could hardly be used for its alcoholic value, there 
being 375 c.c. of alcohol already present, the reason for the addi- 
tion of this small amount of brandy is not apparent. 

Formula Xo. 49, for Essence of Lemon, gives a strength of 2.5 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 1 
January, 1909. i 



The Canadian Formulary. 



15 



per cent, of lemon oil, adding another to the already growing list 
of standards for flavoring extracts which are eagerly seized upon 
as authoritative by manufacturers,, when, as in this case, they are 
below the standards generally recognized by the food laws. 

Formula 97 is for Compound Powder of Acacia, to be used as an 
emulsifying agent. It contains 5 per cent, of boracic acid, and in 
the light of the prohibitory legislation regarding boron compounds 
in this country, its presence would seem to be objectionable, at least 
on this side of the border. 

No. 105 calls for powder for chalk mixture. It differs essentially 
in character from the powder used officially in this country in that 
it contains tragacanth instead of acacia. 

No. 120, for Syrup of Tar, prescribes the use of fifteen times 
as much tar as is present in the U. S. P. syrup of tar, although the 
directions for its preparation are practically the same. It is ques- 
tionable whether this increased amount of tar would result in pro- 
ducing a preparation of any greater efficiency, owing to the com- 
parative slight solubility of that constituent in the boiling water. 

Formula No. 128, for Tincture of Fresh Sweet Orange Peel, is 
half the strength of the U. S. P. 8th Rev. formula. 

No. 140, for Diachylon Ointment, consists of equal parts of 
lead plaster and soft paraffin, flavored with oil of bergamot, and 
differs materially from the U. S. P. preparation, which is made 
from lead plaster and olive oil, flavored with oil of lavender. 

It is unfortunate that errors and inconsistencies of this kind 
should find their way into an authoritative work of this character, 
which, in some sections of our country, at least, is of importance, 
but slightly inferior to our own U. S. P. and N. F., and it is to be 
hoped that any future edition will contain corrections of many of 
these formulas. 



16 Customs Regulations of 1908. f Am - Jour - pharm - 



January, 1909. 



EXAMINATION OF DRUGS AND MEDICINAL PREPARA- 
TIONS UNDER THE CUSTOMS REGULATIONS 
OF 1908. 

By Benjamin P. Ashmead, 
Examiner of Drugs, Port of Philadelphia. 

In accordance with the Customs Regulations of 1908 all drugs and 
medicinal preparations are examined as provided by the Drug Act 
of 1848, in reference to their quality, purity, and fitness for medicinal 
purposes. The examination also includes an inquiry into their iden- 
tity as specified upon the invoice, and as to the foreign market value 
at the time of shipment. 

As all ports are governed by the same regulations it is safe to 
say that the procedure is uniform throughout the United States. 

The special examiner of drugs at this port upon receipt of an 
invoice, whenever in his judgment it is deemed necessary, transmits 
to the chemists in the Government Laboratory for analysis a sample 
of such crude drugs as are enumerated in the Act of 1848, among 
which are Aloes, Cinchona, Colocynth, Jalap, Opium, Rhubarb and 
Senna, together with such others as are required by the U. S. Phar- 
macopoeia to conform to a definite standard. If this examination 
shows that the importation is not of the required standard, the result 
of the assay is reported to the collector of customs, and if upon 
appeal by the importer the government assay is verified, the collector 
takes the prescribed steps for the exportation of the condemned 
merchandise. 

Medicinal leaves and flowers, barks and roots of recent collection 
are admitted when in perfect condition without analysis, the physical 
examination satisfying our requirements. 

At this port all tests have been made to conform to the U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia and Dispensatory, no disputes having arisen by reason 
of any differences between these standards and the standards of the 
country of origin of the merchandise. 

The enormous increase in the importation of crude drugs since 
the passing of the Act of 1848 and the satisfactory administration 
of this branch of the Customs Service is probably due to the fact that 
the Act is of such elasticity as will admit of any change in tests for 
purity that may arise from advanced scientific methods. 

The Customs Regulations should be amended by striking out the 



A jam?a u iy wo™' f Drugs and Food Acts of 1848 and ipo6. 17 

present enumeration of drugs with the prescribed tests, and sub- 
stituting a general provision that crude drugs of every kind shall 
conform to the standards prescribed in the current editions of the 
Pharmacopoeia and Dispensatory. Such change would tend to uni- 
formity and would eliminate a cause of complaint usually found with 
a dual standard. 



THE DRUG IMPORTATION ACT OF 1848 AND THE FOOD 
AND DRUGS ACT OF JUNE 30, 1906. 

By L. F. Rebler, M.D., Ph.G., 
Chief of Drug Division of the Bureau of Chemistry, Washington, D. C. 

I have listened with very much interest to the proceedings of this 
meeting and am pleased to add a few words to the interesting dis- 
cussion. We always welcome the views and opinions of those 
directly interested in drug products. The resolution printed in your 
circular was read with very much interest, and in order to have it 
before us, it is herewith reproduced : 

"Resolved, That we earnestly urge the United States Customs authorities 
to have steps taken whereby, (1) the law of June 26, 1848, shall be repealed 
and a new law enacted, (2) the U. S. Pharmacopoeia shall be recognized as 
the legal standard for medicinal products imported into the United States, as 
is the same authority by the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, (3) that 
the new law shall be framed in harmony with the Food and Drugs Act of 
June 30, 1906, to the end that intra-state commerce shall be made uniform 
with inter-state commerce, (4) that foreign Pharmacopoeias shall be recog- 
nized only where drugs are not official in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, and (5) 
that new regulations be made by the U. S. Customs Service whereby abso- 
lutely uniform conditions in the entry of drugs into the country shall obtain 
at all the ports." 

It hardly seems necessary to discuss the several items individually, 
but I believe that the same purpose will be met by setting forth 
existing conditions. 

It appears that the sheet anchor of hope for dealers of adulterated 
and debased drugs resides in the proviso of Section 7 of the Food 
and Drugs Act. Various importers have taken the position that if a 
drug product, recognized by the United States Pharmacopoeia, is 
marked in harmony with the proviso contained in this section, irre- 
spective of adulteration, debasement, sophistication, or dangerous 
character, it can be imported notwithstanding the harmful effects it 



i8 Drugs and Food Acts of 1848 and 1906. { A j au J u ° a U ry 



Pharm. 
1909. 



may have upon the public health. I have personally defended this 
section, believing that if dealers act wisely under its proviso many 
annoying trade-disturbing features could be avoided. It was, how- 
ever, not intended as a loop-hole for fraud. A similar view was 
taken relative to Section 8 dealing with misbranding. 

About a year ago our attention was directed to an importation at 
New Orleans with the following name : " Espey's Syrup for Chil- 
dren's Dentition." The label plainly stated that the preparation 
contained a certain amount of cocaine hydrochloride to the bottle. 
The question naturally suggested was, Is it possible -under the Food 
and Drugs Act that a pernicious product of this type can be im- 
ported ? Some time subsequently an asthma spray was offered for 
importation, guaranteed under the above Act, containing 4^ grains 
of cocaine nitrite to the rluidounce. Other cases of a similar type 
were met with, but these serve to illustrate the possibility of import- 
ing dangerous, pernicious, habit-forming agents under Section 8 
of the law. It was considered extremely unfortunate that such a 
condition should obtain, particularly in view of the fact that many 
states were prohibiting the sale of these commodities, except on 
physicians' prescriptions. 

We shall now turn our attention to the adulterated, debased and 
deleterious drug products entered for importation under Section 7 
of the Act. I hold in my hand a specimen of sarsaparilla rhizome, 
a portion of the plant specifically directed by the Pharmacopoeia to 
be eliminated in the manufacture of sarsaparilla preparations. These 
rhizomes have the following history : The sarsaparilla proper with 
the rhizomes attached was shipped to England, where the rhizomes 
were separated from the roots and shipped to the United States. 
Several importations were offered under the name sarsaparilla and 
properly refused entry. Another importation of these rhizomes was 
offered under the name, " smilax rhizomes." By this name it was 
undoubtedly intended to establish a precedent and open an avenue 
for the entrance of articles of this type. The importation was 
refused, first, because these rhizomes did not possess any recognized 
medicinal virtue, and second, because the name is meaningless and 
would open the door to a multitude of sins. The importer repre- 
sented that large pharmaceutical manufacturers had been using these 
rhizomes for the manufacture of Pharmacopceial preparations, which 
contention was supplemented by a letter from such manufacturer, 
which reads in part as follows : 



A Jam;arv P W09 m '} DfUgS Olid Food ActS of 1848 (Hid Ipo6. 1 9 

'' Answering your esteemed inquiry of yesterday, subject, Sarsaparilla 
Rhizomes, we have been using these rhizomes, as you perhaps know, for 
quite a number of years. My personal observation leads me to believe that 
the rhizomes contain quite as large a proportion of the peculiar extractive 
which is supposed to represent the medicinal virtues of sarsaparilla root, as 
the ordinary form of root with the usual proportion of rootlets." 

The package before you is a specimen of inferior asafetida, a 
product for the importation of which all forms of schemes have been 
resorted to. When the Act governing the importation of drug 
products was first enforced, much leniency was extended to the 
importation of asafetida, even though the strength was found to be 
below the standard prescribed by the Pharmacopoeia. It was soon 
found, however, that the quality of successive importations was 
gradually diminishing. For example, some of the first consignments 
examined contained 40 per cent, and over of alcohol soluble material. 
Subsequent importations began to arrive containing 35-30-25-20 
per cent, of alcohol soluble material and one entry was offered con- 
taining as low as 15 per cent, of alcohol soluble material, according 
to the markings upon the packages. One of the claims made was 
that the asafetida was intended for the miller's use, who standardized 
it before offering it for consumption. How baseless ! 

Senna sweepings or siftings, of which this is a sample, frequently 
contain from 25 to 35 per cent, of sand. An importer, while pleading 
for the release of such a consignment, stated that it was largely used 
by a number of firms, whose names he mentioned, but when asked 
whether he would be willing to give his children compound licorice 
powder in the preparation of which such a sand-laden senna was 
used, he demurred. 

I now hold in my hand a sample of worthless digitalis leaves, the 
use of which, or preparations made from it, would not only be useless 
but might prove fatal to a patient urgently in need of a heart 
stimulant. 

Here I have a sample of belladonna root containing a large per- 
centage admixture of poke root. Poke root, itself, is of service as a 
medicinal agent, but when mixed with belladonna root it may be 
absolutely detrimental to the ultimate consumer. I have here also a 
sample of so-called belladonna leaves which upon examination was 
found to be a mixture of belladonna and scopola leaves. An admix- 
ture of this character could be used neither for the manufacture of 
belladonna nor scopola preparations. If it should be used for the 



20 Drugs and Food Acts of 184.8 and 1906. { A ^ n ^ ^gj™- 

manufacture of one or the other the resulting product would cer- 
tainly not possess the therapeutic properties of either and would 
therefore be unsafe. Recently an importation of couch grass was 
offered which aroused suspicion. No one in the Drug Division was 
able to recognize it, but inasmuch as it belonged to the grass family, 
the sample was referred to an expert in grasses of the Bureau of 
Plant Industry who promptly identified it as Bermuda grass. In this 
connection, mention should be made of the fact that the services of 
specialists are freely utilized. Recently a so-called " cancer cure," 
a liquid, advertised as being radium impregnated, was submitted to 
a specialist on the subject, for examination. Arrangements have 
been about completed whereby the services of specialists of foreign 
lands can be utilized. 

The claim is frequently made that nature does not always grow 
drugs of the strength prescribed by the Pharmacopoeia. Our expe- 
rience is not in accord with this view and there is no agreement 
among dealers ; some hold that an ample supply of a certain drug 
of prime quality is available, while others contend that such is not 
the case. Our experience is that a few cents difference in price is 
the basic factor. 

Strenuous efforts are made from time to time to import debased 
and deleterious drugs under Section 7, often with the aid of legal 
talent. In many cases it is difficult, if not impossible, to determine 
who the ultimate consignee is, because the importation is consigned 
to an express company, a freight agency, a broker or some other 
intermediary. 

It would seem that the above few cases are sufficient to show to 
any one interested in the welfare of mankind and the purity and 
high quality of drug products that the importation of such goods 
would be a great step backwards from the ultimate goal of uniform 
and pure drugs to be used by the pharmacist in the manufacture of 
his agents to supply the needs of the physician. Much has been said 
about drug nihilism in the last few years and to my mind nothing 
would tend more to such nihilism than the use of drugs of the char- 
acter set forth above. The only surprise to me is, that faith in drugs 
has not been more seriously impaired. 

The prospects for excluding debased and dangerous drugs of 
the above character did not look very encouraging for some time, 
but this audience and upright dealers can rest assured that those 
delegated to administer .the law did not believe that Congress would 



^nuTry, i909 m '} Drugs and Food Acts of 1848 and 1906. 



21 



pass a law which would permit the importation of such drugs. The 
law was therefore carefully studied and it was ultimately discovered 
that part of Section 1 1 covered the situation fully, and for the pur- 
pose of bringing it before the meeting, I desire to read it at this 
time. It is as follows : 

" and if it appear from the examination of such samples that any article 
of food or drug offered to be imported into the United States is adulterated 
or misbranded within the meaning of this Act, or is otherwise dangerous to 
the health of the people of the United States, or is of a kind forbidden entry 
into, or forbidden to be sold or restricted in sale in the country in which it is 
made or from which it is exported or is otherwise falsely labelled in any 
respect, the said article shall be refused admission, . . ." 

It was held that inasmuch as Section 11 deals specifically with 
imported products, this section wonld prevail, if there should be any 
repugnancy between the two sections. In discussing this feature 
with one of the officials of the Department of Justice, I was informed 
that there was no repugnancy between Sections 7 and 11, for the 
reason that Section 11 covers not only adulteration and misbranding 
within the meaning of the Act relative to imported products, but in 
addition directs that admission shall be refused to drugs dangerous 
to the health of the people of the United States, or to drugs for- 
bidden entry into, or forbidden to be sold, or restricted in sale in 
the country of production or exportation. An article recognized by 
the United States Pharmacopoeia, in order that it may be imported 
must comply not only with the adulterating and misbranding features 
of the Act, but also with the additional requirements of Section 11. 
In order to avoid disturbing trade conditions materially, certain 
adulterated and debased drugs were refused importation on the fol- 
lowing basis : 

(1) Any article recognized by the United States Pharmacopoeia 
which differs from the standard set by this authority, is considered 
improper, unsafe and may be dangerous for medicinal purposes ; 
except in such cases where the drug is to be used for the manufacture 
of certain definite principles, sUch as strychnine from nux vomica, 
or in preparations which are subsequently standardized. If, however, 
a crude drug is so debased, or is of so low a standard as to preclude 
its use in the manufacture of standardized preparations, it will not 
be considered as coming within the meaning of the above ruling. 

(2) If a drug is restricted in sale or forbidden to be sold in the 
country of production or exportation. 



22 Drugs and Fovd Acts of 1848 and 1906. | A ^J™^ 

The above ruling permits, for example, the importation of a bella- 
donna root which does not contain the proper alkaloidal content pre- 
scribed by the Pharmacopoeia, provided the consignment is marked 
as prescribed in Section 7, but does not allow the introduction of 
belladonna root adulterated with poke root or some other substance 
which may affect the medicinal virtues of the root or preparations 
in the manufacture of which it is used. In case a product is not 
recognized by the United States Pharmacopoeia but is recognized by 
the Pharmacopoeia of the country of production or exportation, the. 
standard set by the Pharmacopoeia of such country shall obtain. For 
example, if a drug not recognized by the United States Pharma- 
copoeia, is purchased or manufactured in England or any of the 
English colonies, but is recognized by the British Pharmacopoeia, 
the standard set by the latter authority prevails. 

Under the above ruling certain interests contended that inferior 
asafetida is entitled to importation because it is powdered and 
standardized by millers, but when requested to submit substantial 
evidence to this effect, it was not forthcoming. To the best of my 
knowledge, there are no methods recognized by any authority for 
the standardization of powdered asafetida. Furthermore, such a 
product, in my opinion, is an improper one for the reason that a con- 
siderable portion of the therapeutic activity is eliminated by the 
drying necessary for powdering. 

Your attention is also called to another point. During the past 
few years, the Department of Justice, by authority of Congress, has 
been codifying the various Federal laws so as to include, in compact 
form, all of the legislation covering certain features. In looking over 
chapter 3, page 1571, Revision of 1907, under the heading "Regu- 
lation of Importation and Transportation of Foods, Drugs, Grain 
and Seeds " it was found that no reference whatever was made to the 
drug law of 1848. On making inquiry of the codifier relative to this 
point, I was informed that the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, 
contained all of the features embodied in the law of 1848, and, being 
a later one, superseded it. This does not mean that the law of 
1848 is no longer in existence, but that the two laws stand together 
in so far as there is no repugnance between them. In case of any 
conflict, the latter law prevails. In this connection permit me to 
call your attention to several extracts taken from a decision of the 
Attorney-General, February 23, 1907, entitled : " Tea-Inspection 
Act — Food and Drugs Act Construction." 



A januTry,i909 rm '} Drugs and Food Acts of 1848 and 1906. 23 

" This Food and Drugs Act contains no repealing clause whatever, and 
does not refer to either the tea-inspection Act or any of the other earlier 
statutes regulating the admission of other food and drugs, such as the Act of 
June 26, 1848, providing for the examination at the Custom House of drugs 
and medicines with reference to their quality, purity, and fitness for medicinal 
purposes." 

" In the absence of an express repeal of an earlier statute by a later one 
covering the same subject, the rule is well settled that, as repeals by implica- 
tion are not favored, effect shall be given to both statutes, unless there is a 
positive repugnancy between them, in whole or in part, in which case the 
earlier statute is repealed by implication to the extent of such repugnance ; 
or unless the provisions of the later statutes cover the whole subject-matter 
of the earlier and are plainly intended for a substitute therefor, in which case 
there is likewise a repeal of the earlier statute by implication." (Wood vs. 
United States, 16 Pet., 342; Davies vs. Fairbairn, 3 How., 636; United States 
v. Tynen, 11 Wall., 88; Henderson's Tobacco, 11 Wall., 652;' State v. Stoll, 
17 Wall., 425 ; Fabbri v. Murphy, 95 U. S., 191 ; Ex-Parte Crow Dog, 109 
U. S., 556; Chew Hoeng v. United States, 112 U. S., 536.) 

In Wood v. United States (16 Pet., 342, 362), it is said in refer- 
ence to the question of the repeal of an earlier statute by implication : 

" It is not sufficient . . . that subsequent laws cover some or even all 
of the cases provided for by it; for they may be merely affirmative, or cumu- 
lative, or auxiliary." 

And in State v. Stoll (17 Wall., 425, 431), the rule is thus stated: 

" If, by any reasonable construction, the two statutes can stand together, 
they must so stand. If harmony is impossible, and only in that event, the 
former law is repealed in part or wholly, as the case may be." 

Further, in Ex-Parte Crow Dog (109, U. S., 556, 570), it is said, 
in reference to the rule that a later general act is not to be construed 
as repealing a previous special act, except by express provision or 
positive repugnancy: 

"It, of course, follows from what has been said that, if in the adminis- 
tration of these laws there should develop a repugnancy between any specific 
provisions of the two statutes to the extent of such repugnancy the provisions 
of the Food and Drugs Act would prevail, and any conflicting provisions of 
the tea-inspecting Act would, to such extent, be impliedly repealed." 

It seems hardly necessary to state that practically all of the 
features contemplated by the resolution under discussion are pro- 
vided for. Inasmuch as the tentative bill read here virtually con- 
templates the re-enactment of the law of 1848 with the addition of 
Section 7 of the Food and Drugs Act, I desire to call your attention 



24 Act of 1848; Importation Regulations. {""^ S™' 

to one feature contained in the law of 1848, which materially limits 
if it does not negative certain portions of the Act. This feature reads 
as follows : 

" If on examination, any drugs, medicines, medicinal preparations, whether 
chemical or otherwise, including medicinal essential oils, are found in the 
opinion of the examiner, to be so far adulterated, or in any manner deteri- 
orated, as to render them inferior in strength and purity to the standard 
established . . . and thereby improper, unsafe or dangerous to be used 
for medicinal purposes, a return to that effect shall be made upon the invoice, 
and the articles so noted shall not pass the Custom House, unless, on a re- 
examination of a strictly analytical character, called for by the owner or 
consignee, the return of the examiner shall be found erroneous, and it is 
declared as the result of such analysis, that the articles may properly, safely 
and without danger, be used for medicinal purposes." 

" In case this report, which shall be final, shall declare the return of the 
examiner to be erroneous, and the articles to be of the requisite strength and 
purity according to the standards referred to in the next preceding section, 
the entire invoice shall be passed without reservation, on payment of the 
customary duties." 

All chemists and medical men conversant with existing conditions 
are well aware that it is impossible to determine from " a strictly 
analytical character " whether or not certain drugs are " improper, 
unsafe or dangerous to be used for medicinal purposes." Chemists, 
furthermore, are not as a rule, qualified to pass judgment on a purely 
medical question. A clause of this character virtually negatives the 
law in case of importations sufficiently large to warrant the consignee 
or owner to have an examination of " a strictly analytical character " 
made, as a basis of action. 



THE ACT OF 1848 AND REGULATIONS ON DRUGS 
IMPORTED INTO THE UNITED STATES FROM THE 
POINT OF VIEW OF THE IMPORTER. 

By W. J. Gesell. 

Before the Food and Drugs Act became effective, on June 30, 
1906, the importation of drugs, medicines, medicinal specialties, 
including medicinal essential oils and chemical preparations used 
wholly or in part as medicines, was regulated, with reference to their 
quality, purity and fitness for medicinal purposes, by Sections 2933 



A January, i909 m '} Act °f l8 4 8 ' Importation Regulations. 25 

to 2936 of the Revised Statutes, which in part had their origin in 
the Customs Act of June 26, 1848. 

These regulations, if properly applied and carried out, are equally 
as effective to prevent the importation of adulterated or otherwise 
inferior products or medicinal preparations as is the Food and Drugs 
Act. In fact they are even more stringent than the latter, inasmuch 
as they forbid the importation of " any drugs, medicines, medicinal 
preparations, whether chemical or otherwise, found, in the opinion of 
the examiner, to be so far adulterated or in any manner deteriorated 
as to render them inferior in strength and purity to the standards 
established by the United States, Edinburgh, London, French and 
German Pharmacopoeias and Dispensatories." Since the enactment 
of the Food and Drugs Act, and the establishment of the Food and 
Drugs Inspection Laboratory in charge of the Department of Agri- 
culture, importers have endeavored to comply with the requirements 
of that law, especially with Section 7, and when the standards of 
strength, quality or purity varied from that laid down in the United 
States Pharmacopoeia the degree of strength and purity was stated 
on the container, and the products were thus accepted and passed 
by the Department 6f Agriculture. In some instances, however, the 
appraiser, or rather the examiner of drugs in the Customs Service, 
has rejected, under the authority of Section 2935 of the R. S. 1848 
above referred to, the same merchandise that the Department of 
Agriculture had passed, when it did not meet the requirements of 
the Customs Regulations. This it was his duty to do, but this action, 
of course, has led to dissatisfaction on the part of the importers and 
to difficulties with them. 

* The requirements of Sections 2933 to 2936 of the R. S., and espe- 
cially of Section 2935, being too general and sweeping to be carried 
into effect, the Secretary of the Treasury found it necessary to estab- 
lish regulations for the guidance of the customs examiners, and 
therefore published in the Customs Regulations of 1899, Section 
1288, a list of some of the principal drugs to be entitled to entry if 
they met the requirements, as follows : 

Aloes, when affording 80 per cent, of pure aloetic extract. 

' Asafetida, when affording 50 per cent, of its peculiar bitter resin and 3 per 
cent of volatile oil. 

Bark Cinchona, whether Peruvian, Calisaya, Alicante, Carthagena, Maracaibo, 
Santa Martha, Bogota, or under whatever name or from whatever place, 
when affording 1 per cent, pure quinine. 



26 Act of 1848; Importation Regulations. { A j a / u ary iS™' 

Bark Cinchona, when affording 2 per cent, of the several natural alkaloids 
combined, as quinine, cinchonine, quinidine. ricene, etc., the barks of such 
strength being admissible as safe and proper for medicines, and useful for 
chemical manufacturing purposes. 

Benzoin, when affording 80 per cent, of resin. 

Benzoin, when affording 12 per cent, of benzoic acid. 

Coloc}mth 3 when affording 12 per cent, of colocynthin. 

Elaterium, when affording 30 per cent, of elaterin. 

Galbanum, when affording 60 per cent, of resin. 

Galbanum, when affording 19 per cent, of gum and 6 per cent, of volatile oil. 
Gamboge, when affording 70 per cent, pure gamboge resin and 20 per cent, 
gum. 

Guaiac, when affording 80 per cent, pure guaiac resin. 

Gum Ammoniac, when affording 70 per cent, resin and 18 per cent. gum. 

Jalap, in root or powder, when affording 11 per cent, resin jalap. 

Manna, when affording 37 per cent, pure mannite. 

Myrrh, when affording 30 per cent, resin and 50 per cent. gum. 

Sagapenum, when affording 50 per cent, resin, 30 per cent, gum and 3 per 

cent, volatile oil. 
Scammony, when affording 70 per cent, scammony resin. 

Since these regulations were established, the drug examiners have 
practically confined their inspection to these products, and according 
to the good nature, diligence or zeal of the examiner in charge the 
control has been exercised with more or less circumspection. 

In the Customs Regulations of 1908, just published., the Sections 
2933 to 2936 R. S. have been retained, appearing therein as 
Articles 899, 900,. 905. 907, and 908, together with new regulations 
which the Secretary of the Treasury has formulated in accordance 
with Section 11 of the Food and Drugs Act. As the Food and 
Drugs Act makes the U. S. P. the standard authority. Section 1288 
of C. R. of 1899 has therefore been superseded by Article 903 of 
the C. R. of 1908, which reads as follows : 

"Art. 903. Drugs Tested. — The following is a list of some of the prin- 
cipal drugs to be tested according to the standard authorities : Aloes, 
Asafetida, Bark Cinchona, Benzoin, Colocynth, Elaterium, Galbanum, Gam- 
boge, Guaiacum, Gum Ammoniac, Jalap, Manna, Myrrh, Opium, Rhubarb. 
Sagapenum, Scammony, Senna." 

Again, the execution of Section 7 of the Food and Drugs Act, so 
far as it relates to drugs to be imported into the United States, is 
interfered with by Article 903 of the regulations of the C. R. of 1908. 
and leaves customs examiners no choice when drugs are entered for 
importation which fall below the Pharmacopceial standard except to 



^muTrv i909. m 'f Act °f l8 4 8 > Importation Regulations. 27 

reject them, although the standard of purity and strength may be 
properly stated on the containers in accordance with Section 7 of 
the Food and Drugs Act. The examiner is not restricted to the 
drugs listed in Article 903, for Article 900, which is based on R. S. 
2935, is now amended to read as follows : 

Art. 900. Standard. — All imported drugs, medicines, and medicinal prepa- 
rations are to be tested in reference to strength, and purity by the standard 
established by the United States, Edinburgh, London, French and German 
Pharmacopoeias and Dispensatories. If the articles in question be manu- 
factured, produced, or prepared in England, Scotland, France, or Germany, 
and conform in strength and purity to the Pharmacopoeia and Dispensatory 
of the country of their origin, they are exempt from the penalties of the 
law ; but if produced, manufactured or prepared in any other country than 
those last mentioned, the}" must conform to the United States Pharmacopoeia 
and Dispensatory. 

The examiners can reject any imported drugs, medicines, medici- 
nal preparations which do not comply in strength and purity with 
the standards of the Pharmacopoeias mentioned in Article 900. These 
requirements are much seA~erer than those of the Department of 
Agriculture under Section 7 of the Food and Drugs Act which would 
admit all imported drugs, medicines and medicinal preparations, pro- 
vided the standard of quality and purity is marked on the container 
even should they fall below the requirements of the U. S. P. It is 
because of these conditions that members of the drug trade and 
importers feel the necessity for a change in these conflicting laws 
and regulations so as to enable customs examiners to carry out 
examinations of drugs in accordance with well understood rules 
which permit of no variation, and avoid conflict of the authorities of 
two departments of our government. 

In my opinion the Food and Drugs Act of June 30. 1906, embodies 
in its sections every element of protection against wilful adulteration 
and misbranding. It is more comprehensive in its scope than the 
Customs Act of 1848, which in its original form, and as amended 
by Customs Regulations since that time, regulates the importation of 
drugs. It is compiled with greater care and accuracy, and gives 
full protection to the consumer. It should therefore be the endeavor 
of members of the drug trade to have the Act of June 26, 1848, 
repealed by act of Congress, and the Secretary of the Treasury 
should be .required to issue Customs Regulations under Section 11 
of the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, for the guidance of 



28 Act of 1848; Importation Regulations. { A m } :J^ ^J™- 

officers of the customs, to the end that the examination of drugs to 
be admitted to entry shall be carried out in compliance and in har- 
mony with all the sections of the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 
1906. 

I do not approve the resolutions offered before this body at the 
last meeting, October 20, in their entirety. 

Their adoption would lead to increased difficulties for the import- 
ers and the entire drug trade, and bring in its train unsurmountable 
obstacles to the obtaining of adequate supplies of drugs of good 
quality, many of which, in their crude state, do not meet the require- 
ments of the Pharmacopoeias of the United States and other 
countries. 

I propose that these resolutions be amended as follows : 
The law of Tune 26, 1848. shall be repealed, thus permitting the 
Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906. to cover importation of drugs 
the same as for interstate commerce. 

If these resolutions as offered embody the wish of the majority of 
the drug trade, what is the object of abolishing the Act of 1848, 
which makes the U. S. P. the standard authority, along with the 
German, French and other Pharmacopoeias as well ? If this law were 
strictly carried out it would put the drug trade and chemical trade 
in the United States at a tremendous disadvantage as compared 
with these trades in other civilized countries. It would make it 
impossible to import into the United States any drugs falling below 
the standard requirements of quality and strength of the U. S. P. 
and the Pharmacopoeias of other civilized countries. It would 
effectively shut out for quinine making, cinchona bark which ialls 
below the requirements of the U. S. P., and our quinine manufac- 
turers would hardly be able to use the high priced, so-called drug- 
gists' bark which alone meets U. S. P. requirements, for the extrac- 
tion of the alkaloid and still be in position to compete with their 
foreign rivals. 

It would keep out all drugs which in their crude state do not 
comply with the severe requirements of the U. S. P. ; it would keep 
out all basic crude chemical material, such as crude phosphoric acid, 
crude stearic acid, crude tannic acid, crude wool fat, crude glycerin, 
crude camphor. All these do not meet Pharmacopceial requirements, 
and yet manufacturers can use all these goods to advantage for the 
purpose of making from them the refined products which meet the 
requirements of the U. S. P. ; it would keep out many alkaloidal 



A January iqoq 111 '} Act °f T ^4^j Importation Regulations. 29 

crude drugs such as coca leaves, colchicum seed, etc., which often 
fall below U. S. P. requirements, although manufacturers can use 
such material for the manufacture of active preparations provided 
they can obtain the crude material at a satisfactory price. 

The conditions of the importations of drugs have radically changed 
since the enactment of the law of 1848 and the Food and Drugs Act 
now regulates the interstate sale of drugs, and most of the States 
having adopted the National Law as their own and so the sale of 
adulterated or even of inferior drugs and medicinal preparations is 
made very difficult, and as the possibility for their sale ceases the 
importation of inferior drugs will cease also as a matter of course. 
The drug trade, in order to compete with its foreign rivals in acquir- 
ing foreign trade, must not be hampered and restricted, and must 
be able to draw upon all the resources open to it to obtain crude 
products and raw materials for manufacturing purposes of whatever 
quality it can use to advantage. The Food and Drugs Act offers 
most efficient protection to the consumer against wilful adulteration 
and misbranding. 

Having charge of the importations of Messrs. Lehn & Fink, I 
have had sufficient experience to know that the importers of drugs 
can carry out most of the requirements of the Food and Drugs Act, 
and that it is possible to overcome gradually all the difficulties now 
and then arising from the fact that the requirements of our law 
are not fully understood by the shippers of products in foreign coun- 
tries, with the exception of that part of Section 7 which requires a 
statement of strength, quality and purity to appear upon the con- 
tainers. It is often impossible to put this statement on all containers, 
such as hogsheads, barrels, bales, crates, etc., which are not intended 
for sale to the consumer in the condition in which they are imported. 
It is difficult and often impossible to put this statement upon such 
packages for the reason that the sellers of the drugs from which 
we buy them are often located in remote districts. They have no 
facilities for carrying out purity tests, nor have they any knowledge 
of chemistry to fix the standard of the product which we purchase 
and which they are making ready for shipment. Because of this 
fact we cannot now buy drugs requiring any assay from first hands, 
from the producers, and are compelled to secure supplies from second 
and third hands, from dealers in the large trade centres who have 
the facilities for making the required assay, and who can classify 
and purify the products which they receive from first hands in their 



3 o Act of 1848; Importation Regulations, { A ^nZy^ m ' 

crude state, and who may be willing to assume the responsibility for 
the quality or purity of these products. The result is that we have 
to pay a much higher price for this merchandise which we cannot 
now secure at first hands, and accordingly the retail druggists and 
consumers in this country have to pay more for their requirements 
of these products. 

In order to overcome this difficulty the Secretary of the Treasury 
should be requested to issue a regulation which will permit the 
importer of crude drugs in bulk packages, not intended for sale to 
the consumer in the state in which they are imported, to make a 
declaration at the time of entry declaring the standard of strength, 
quality and purity of the merchandise which he desires to bring into 
the United States. Importers could readily carry out such a regula- 
tion, as they can obtain without difficulty samples by mail represent- 
ing the merchandise which is in transit. They can make an examina- 
tion of the merchandise themselves before arrival and before the 
goods enter the United States. This procedure is also attended with 
less expense than the present method, as all manufacturers maintain 
analytical laboratories and have the facilities for carrying out chem- 
ical research, while when these examinations are made abroad an 
additional expense is incurred by the importer and yet he has no 
guarantee or assurance that the test carried out at his expense is 
correct and reliable. If this plan is carried out American importers 
of crude drugs will be enabled to obtain their supplies from first 
hands as heretofore, and prevent a considerable rise in price of many 
of the most important drugs used by the retail drug trade and the 
manufacturers of medicinal preparations. Many of the drugs which 
require an assay under the Food and Drugs Act have advanced in 
price, not because of any scarcity of supplies abroad, but because of 
the difficulty the importers meet in buying them from collectors and 
first hands at the lowest price; many American firms have entirely 
ceased importing drugs which require an assay, as they find it diffi- 
cult and unremunerative to comply with present conditions. 



A January MoT 1 '} Dra f t °f a Proposed Importation Act. 31 

DRAFT OF A PROPOSED ACT TO PREVENT THE IMPOR- 
TATION OF ADULTERATED, SPURIOUS OR 
MISBRANDED DRUGS. 

By George M. Beringer. 

The agitation for the correction of the evils resulting from the 
customs authorities endeavoring to perform their duties under two 
distinct national congressional acts, both still in force, and the annoy- 
ance to importers of drugs resulting therefrom, has received con- 
siderable impetus and renewed interest therein has resulted from 
the discussions at the recent meeting of the National Wholesale 
Druggists' Association. 

We can appreciate the unfortunate position of the Treasury Depart- 
ment and the Customs officials who are endeavoring to obey two 
different laws with conflicting works given as authorities. On the 
other hand the manufacturer and importer is entirely correct in 
demanding that he should not be subjected to the annoyance and 
expense of importing goods under two different standards, which 
upon arrival may be rejected and he put to the additional expense 
of re-exportation. He certainly should know when placing* his 
orders abroad whether the goods will meet the requirements of 
Customs Regulations. 

The example of two departments of the government conflicting 
in decisions, the Department of Agriculture deciding that an im- 
ported drug comes within the requirements of the law on which the 
Agricultural Department works and is admissible, and the Treasury 
Department deciding that the same importation does not comply with 
the law and the regulations under which it is operating and cannot 
be admitted, is certainly not calculated to inspire confidence on the 
part of the importer that he is receiving proper consideration, and 
under such conditions his business interests must assuredly suffer. 

A careful perusal of the law of June 26, 1848, convinces one that 
it is essentially a revenue law, framed to supply the necessary author- 
ity to the Secretary of the Treasury for the proper examination and 
appraisement of drugs, medicines, medicinal preparations including 
medicinal essential oils and chemical preparations used wholly or in 
part as medicine imported into the United States. This probably still 
remains the authority of the Treasury Department for the appoint- 
ment of special examiners of drugs at the various ports of entry. It is 



32 Draft of a Proposed Importation Act. { A "; n J ^^™ J 

surprising, however, that this law with its citation of obsolete author- 
ities has remained uncorrected to the present time. This citation of 
recognized authorities is, however, worthy of comment in the light of 
present-day information. While the United States Dispensatory 
may be looked upon as an authoritative work, at present we know 
of no authoritative works under the titles of " Edinburgh, London, 
French and German Dispensatories," yet the word dispensatories is 
used in this connection in the Act and likewise in the recent Regu- 
lations of 1908, in Article 900. 

The continuance by the government of the Edinburgh and London 
Pharmacopoeias as legal authorities even to the present time, in place 
of recognizing the more recent revisions of the British Pharmaco- 
poeia as a legal standard, is likewise noticeable. One is at a loss to 
understand why the national Pharmacopoeias of these certain coun- 
tries should be recognized as legal authorities by the United States 
Government, and the Pharmacopoeias of such countries as Austria, 
Russia, Switzerland, Sweden, Italy, and Japan which, from a scien- 
tific standpoint, are entitled to consideration, fail to receive legal 
sanction; and in accordance with the Customs Regulations of 1908, 
Article 900, only the Pharmacopoeias mentioned in the Act receive 
such legal recognition, and drugs grown, manufactured, or prepared 
in other countries must conform to the United States Pharmacopoeia 
and Dispensatory. The distinctions, as made by Customs Regula- 
tions, Article 900, are probably justified by the legal phraseology of 
the Act but nevertheless they serve to emphasize its ridiculousness 
and the necessity for revision. 

The Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, is essentially a police 
law for the protection of the consumer and intended to detect and 
punish adulteration and misbranding. It can hardly be construed as 
a Treasury Regulation, and its administration is imposed almost 
entirely upon the Department of Agriculture. 

The contention that Section 7 w T as intended to cover drugs im- 
ported as w T ell as drugs entering interstate commerce or manufac- 
tured in the District of Columbia and the Territories is well founded. 
This section does not specifically apply to customs regulations and 
imports. While Section 1 1 of this Act does give the Secretary of the 
Treasury the right to deliver samples of imported drugs to the 
Department of Agriculture and have examination made thereof by 
that department, it is this very section which has demonstrated the 
confliction of book authorities as standards accepted by these two 



A jauuTrv,i&o a 9 m 'f Dra f t °f a Proposed Importation Act. 33 

departments. This same section does grant the Secretary of the 
Treasury the right to frame regulations which will permit the refusal 
of importations. I fail to find anywhere in this Act of June 30, 1906, 
the necessary machinery for customs inspection and appraisement 
which forms an essential portion of the Act of 1848, and consequently 
one is compelled to conclude that simply the repeal of the Act of 
1848 is not altogether what is desired and the wisdom of such a step 
without the re-enactment of the important features of the Act must 
be doubted. In addition to these administrative features, the Act of 
1848 contains a plan for appeal which should be very valuable to 
the importer in the event of an erroneous decision by the examiner 
and this plan of appeal should be retained in any revised enactment. 

Believing that the reform desired by the drug trade and needed 
in the Treasury Regulations can be best secured by an Act that will 
repeal the Act of June 26, 1848, and at the same time frame proper 
regulations for the inspection of drugs and the specific application of 
Sections 7 and 8 of the Act of June 30, 1906, to drugs imported, the 
writer has ventured to draft an outline of a proposed act which is 
submitted simply as a layman's idea of what is desired by the drug 
trade and offered as a tentative project for discussion with the idea 
that it will be put into proper legal phraseology and form for sub- 
mission to Congress by the trade associations interested. 

A Draft of a Proposed Act to Prevent the Importation of Adulterated, 
Spurious or Misbranded Drugs. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America, in Congress assembled : 

That from and after the passage of this Act, all drugs, medicines, medici- 
nal preparations including medicinal essential oils, and chemical preparations 
used wholly or in part as medicine imported into the United States from any 
foreign country, shall before passing the Custom House, be examined, to 
determine that they are not adulterated, spurious or misbranded and are fit 
for medicinal purposes and appraised as to their value and identity as speci- 
fied in the invoice. 

Sec 2. That the importation from any foreign country of any article of 
drugs which is adulterated, spurious or misbranded within the meaning of this 
Act is prohibited; Provided, however, that it shall not be construed a viola- 
tion of this section for any school, college, university, teacher or investigator 
to. obtain and import small samples of such adulterated or spurious drugs 
for the purpose of exhibition, teaching, studying, investigation or research 
but the sale or distribution of any portion of such sample for commercial or 
medical use is prohibited. 

Sec 3. That the term " drug " as used in this Act shall include all medi- 
cines and preparations recognized in the United States Pharmacopoeia or 



34 Draft of a Proposed Importation Act. {^J^SS* 

National Formulary for internal or external use, and any substance or mixture 
of substances intended to be used for the cure, mitigation or prevention of 
disease of either man or other animals. 

Sec. 4. For the purposes of this Act a drug shall be deemed to be 
adulterated : 

First If sold under or by a name recognized in the United States Phar- 
macopoeia or National Formulary, it differs from the standard of strength, 
quality or purity, as determined by the test laid down in the United States 
Pharmacopoeia or National Formulary official at the time of investigation; 
Provided, That no drug defined in the United States Pharmacopoeia or 
National Formulary shall be deemed to be adulterated under this provision 
if the standard of strength, quality or purity be plainly stated upon the 
bottle, box or other container thereof although the standard may differ from 
that determined by the test laid down in the United States Pharmacopoeia or 
National Formulary, and Provided, That in lieu of such a label on the con- 
tainer the importer of crude drugs in bulk may file a declaration at the time 
of entry, setting forth the standard of strength, quality or purity of the drug. 

Second. If its strength or purity fall below the professed standard or 
quality under which it is entered. 

Sec. 5. The term " misbranded " as used herein shall apply to all drugs 
the package or label of which shall bear any statement, design or device, 
regarding such article or the ingredients or substances contained therein 
which shall be false or misleading in any particular, and to any drug or 
drug product which is falsely branded as to the country in which it is manu- 
factured ; or if it be an imitation of or offered under the name of another 
article ; or if the contents of the package as originally put up shall have been 
removed, in whole or in part, and other contents shall have been placed in 
such package ; or if the package fail to bear a statement on the label of the 
quantity or proportion of any alcohol, morphine, opium, cocaine, heroin, alpha 
or beta eucaine, chloroform, cannabis indica, chloral hydrate or acetanilid, 
or any derivative or preparation of any such substance contained therein. 

Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That if on examination any drug is 
found, in the opinion of the examiner, to be so far adulterated or in any 
manner deteriorated as to render it improper, unsafe, or dangerous to be 
used for medicinal purposes, a return to that effect shall be made upon the 
invoice, and the article so noted shall not pass the Custom House, unless on a 
re-examination of a strictly analytical character, called for by the owner or 
consignee, the return of the examiner shall be found erroneous, and it shall 
be declared, as the result of such analysis, that the said article may proper!}', 
safely and without danger be used for medicinal purposes. 

Sec. 7. And be it further enacted, That the owner or consignee shall, at 
all times, when dissatisfied with the examiner's return, have the privilege of 
calling at his own expense for a re-examination, and on depositing with the 
Collector such sum as the latter may deem sufficient to defray such expense, 
it shall be the duty of that officer to procure some competent analytical 
chemist or specialist in drugs who shall make a careful examination of the 
article or articles included in said return, and report upon the same under 
oath, and in case this report, which shall be final, shall declare the return of 
the examiner to be erroneous, and the said article or articles to be of the 



A jaBu°ai r y,i5o9 m -} Dr *f* °f a Proposed Importation Act. 35 

requisite strength and purity, the invoice shall be passed without reservation 
on payment of the customary duties ; but in case the examiner's return shall 
be sustained by the analysis and report, the said article or articles shall 
remain in charge of the Collector, and the owner or consignee on payment 
of the charges for storage and other expenses necessarily incurred by the 
United States, and on giving a bond with sureties satisfactory to the Col- 
lector to land such article or articles out of the limits of the United States 
shall have the privilege of re-exporting them at any time within the period 
of three months after the report of the analysis and final decision of the Col- 
lector ; but, if the article or articles shall not be sent out of the United States 
within the time specified, it shall be the duty of the Collector, at the expira- 
tion of the said time, to cause the same to be destroyed, holding the owner 
or consignee responsible to the United States for the payment of all charges 
in the same manner as if the said article or articles had been re-exported. 

Sec. 8. And be it further enacted, That any manufacturer or importer, 
bringing into the United States a crude drug or chemical as a raw material 
for manufacture, that is below the standard of strength, quality or purity 
as specified in Section 4 of this Act, shall be required by the Collector 
to furnish satisfactory evidence, make affidavit and file a penal bond in the 
sum of the entire value of the invoice with the duty added, that such drug or 
chemical so entered will not be sold in this raw state but used solely for 
manufacturing and that no drug product made therefrom will be below the 
standard of strength, quality or purity established by the laws of the United 
States. When the Collector is satisfied with the evidence presented and the 
bond filed, he shall permit the goods to pass the Custom House and the owner 
or consignee shall have the right of transporting them to his factory or place 
of business. 

Sec. 9. And be it further enacted, That in order to carry into effect the 
provisions of this Act, the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized 
to appoint suitably qualified persons possessing satisfactory knowledge of 
materia medica, chemistry and the commerce of drugs, as special examiners 
of drugs in each of the principal ports of entry, and in such other ports, 
where in his judgment the quantity of drug imports does not warrant the 
appointment of such a special drug examiner, he shall direct the Collector 
to transmit samples of such drugs as may - be entered to an examiner or 
analyst selected by the Secretary. The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized 
to fix the annual salary of each special drug examiner and said salaries shall 
be paid each year quarterly, out of any money in the Treasury, not otherwise 
appropriated, and it shall be the duty of the said Secretary of the Treasury 
to prescribe such regulations and instructions as will carry into effect the 
provisions of this Act. 

Sec. 10. And be it further enacted, That each special examiner before 
entering upon the discharge of his duties, shall take and subscribe to such 
oath or affirmation as required by the Treasury Department. 

Sec. 11. And be it further enacted, That the Act, entitled "An Act to 
prevent the importation of adulterated and spurious drugs," approved June 
26, 1848, be arid the same is hereby repealed. 

Sec. 12. And be it further enacted, That this Act shall be in force and 
effect at once. 



36 



Draft of a Proposed Drug Law. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1909. 



DRAFT OF A PROPOSED DRUG LAW FOR THE STATE 
OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

An Act. 

To prevent the manufacture and sale of adulterated or misbranded 
drugs, denning the word " drug," prescribing penalties for vio- 
lation of this Act and the means and method of its enforcement. 

Section i. — Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Represen- 
tatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in General Assembly 
met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same That it 
shall be unlawful for any person, partnership or corporation to 
manufacture or sell, offer for sale, or have in possession with intent 
to sell, any drug which is adulterated or misbranded within the 
meaning of this Act. 

Section 2. — That the term drug as used in this Act shall include 
all medicines and preparations recognized in the United States Phar- 
macopoeia, the National Formulary or the American Homoeopathic 
Pharmacopoeia for the internal or external use, and any substance 
or mixture of substances intended to be used for the cure, mitiga- 
tion or prevention of disease of either man or other animals. 

Section 3. — That for the purpose of this Act an article shall be 
deemed to be adulterated: 

First. — If a drug is sold under or by any name recognized by the 
United States Pharmacopoeia, the National Formulary or the Amer- 
ican Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia it differs from the standard of 
strength, quality or purity as determined by the test or formula laid 
down in the United States Pharmacopoeia, the National Formulary 
or the American Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Provided that no 
drug defined in the United States Pharmacopoeia, the National 
Formulary or the American Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia shall be 
deemed to be adulterated under this provision if the standard of 
strength, quality or purity be plainly stated upon the bottle, box or 
other container thereof, although the standard may differ from that 
determined by the test or formula laid down by the United States 
Pharmacopoeia, the National Formulary or the American Homoeo- 
pathic Pharmacopoeia. 

Second. — If its strength or purity fall below the professed stand- 
ard or quality under which it is sold. 



^a^igoT"} Dra f* °f a Proposed Drug Law. 37 

Section 4. — That for the purpose of this Act an article shall be 
deemed to be misbranded : 

First. — All drugs, the package or label of which shall bear any 
statement, design or device regarding such article or the ingredients 
or substance or substances contained therein, shall be false or mis- 
leading in any particular. 

Second. — If it be an imitation of or offered for sale under the 
name of another article. If the contents of the package as orig- 
inally put up shall have been removed in whole or in part thereof 
and other contents shall have been placed in such package, or if the 
package fail to bear a statement on the label of the presence of any 
alcohol, morphine, opium, heroin, alpha or beta eucaine, chloroform, 
cannabis indica, chloral hydrate, acetanilid, or phenacetin, antipy- 
rin, or any derivative or any preparation of any such substances 
contained therein. Provided that nothing in this paragraph shall be 
construed to apply to the filling of written prescriptions furnished 
by practising physicians, dentists and veterinaries, and kept on file 
by druggists, or to such preparations as are specified and recog- 
nized by the United States Pharmacopoeia, the National Formulary 
and the American Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia, which are made 
in accordance therewith and are sold under titles designated therein. 

Section 5. — That the enforcement of this Act shall be entrusted 
to the State Pharmaceutical Examining Board, who shall receive as 
compensation for their services the same per diem and expenses 
that they receive as members of the State Pharmaceutical Examining 
Board under the Act of May twenty-four, one thousand eight hun- 
dred and eighty-seven. They shall make uniform rules and regula- 
tions for carrying out the provisions of this Act, including the col- 
lection and examination of specimens of drugs manufactured or 
offered for sale in the State and shall have power to employ such 
agents, chemists, attorneys and assistants as may be necessary for 
this purpose. 

Section 6. — That the examination of drugs purchased or pro- 
cured by said Board shall be made under the direction and super- 
vision of said Board for the purpose of determining from such 
examination whether such articles are adulterated or misbranded 
within the meaning of this Act, and if it shall appear from any such 
examination that any of such specimens is adulterated or misbranded 
within the meaning of this Act, the Board shall cause notice thereof 
to be given to the party from whom the same was purchased or 



38 Draft of a Proposed Drug Law. { A ^£^ J SS^ 

procured. Any party so notified shall be given an opportunity to be 
heard under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed as 
aforesaid, and if it appears that any of the provisions of this Act 
have been violated by such party, then the Board shall at once direct 
their agent or representative to lay the facts before the district at- 
torney of the proper county, together with a copy of the results of 
the analysis of such article duly authenticated by the analyst or 
officer making the same, and shall direct their said agent or repre- 
sentative, under the direction of the said district attorney, to make 
information against the party so appearing to have violated the 
provisions of this Act and attend to the prosecution of such pro- 
ceeding until the same is finally terminated. 

Section 7. — That it shall be the duty of each district attorney 
to whom the Board shall report any violation of this Act to cause 
appropriate proceedings to be commenced and prosecuted in the 
proper court without delay for the collection of the penalties in 
such case made and provided. 

Section 8. — That any person who shall violate any of the pro- 
visions of this Act shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and for each 
offense, upon conviction thereof, be fined not to exceed fifty dol- 
lars, and, upon conviction, for any second or subsequent commis- 
sion of the same offense, shall be fined not to exceed one hundred 
dollars, and upon each conviction the person so convicted shall, in 
addition to the fine herein mentioned, pay all the costs of prosecution, 
including the expense incurred in examining and analyzing the arti- 
cle found to have been adulterated or misbranded, and all fines paid 
and collected for violations of this Act shall be paid to the Treasurer 
of the State Pharmaceutical Examining Board, and by him shall be 
forthwith paid to the Treasurer of the State for the use of the 
Commonwealth. 

Section 9. — That in case it shall be made to appear at any hear- 
ing before the said Board, or under the rules and regulations pre- 
scribed thereby, that the dealer from whom any adulterated or mis- 
branded article shall have been purchased or procured the same 
from any manufacturer, wholesale dealer or jobber, who has given 
a guarantee thereof to the dealer that the same is not misbranded 
or adulterated within the meaning of this Act, and if it shall be made 
to appear that the said dealer has kept and preserved the article in 
question in precisely the same condition as to quality and purity 
as when it was so purchased by said dealer, then and in that case the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1909. j 



Correspondence. 



39 



said Board shall direct proceedings to be commenced against the 
manufacturer, wholesale dealer or jobber in the proper county for 
the collection of the penalty provided for violation of this Act, and 
if the penalty shall thus be collected from said manufacturer, 
wholesale dealer or jobber, no further proceedings shall be com- 
menced or continued against the dealer from whom the article in 
question has been purchased or procured, provided the sale of said 
article be discontinued by said dealer.' 

Section to. — That this Act shall not apply to such remedies 
which may be in possession of a dealer at the time this law is 
approved. 

Section ii. — That for the purpose of enforcing the provisions of 
this Act the sum of ten thousand dollars per annum is hereby 
specifically appropriated, and the same shall be paid out by the 
Auditor-General and State Treasurer upon vouchers showing the 
purpose and designating the person to receive each payment approved 
by the President and Secretary of the State Pharmaceutical Exam- 
ining Board. 

Section 12. — That this Act shall be in force and effect from and 
after the first day of March, nineteen hundred and eight. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

New Year's Greetings. 
American Pharmaceutical Association. 

To the Pharmacists of America: 

At this season of " good will among men " and new resolves for 
the immediate future, let me cordially extend to you the greetings 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association, the steadfast friend of 
American pharmacy and the true welfare of pharmacists. 

For more than a half century this Association has labored for 
our best interests and it will always continue to do so. Its consti- 
tution defines its objects to be: 

To advance the art of pharmacy by stimulating investigation and 
improvement and diffusing scientific-technical knowledge pertain- 
ing to it ; 

To foster sound pharmaceutical education; 



40 



Correspondence. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1909. 



To demonstrate the importance and value of the services of prop- 
erly trained pharmacists to civilization, and the necessity of restrict- 
ing the dispensing of medicines to their hands ; 

To uphold the dignity of the pharmacist's calling and extend the 
field of his usefulness to the community; 

To enforce due observance of established standards defining the 
identity, purity, quality and strength of medicines ; 

To aid in the suppression of empiricism, the regulation of the 
sale of dangerous drugs, and the protection of the public health ; 

To maintain respect for right ethical standards in the practice 
of pharmacy; 

To promote relations of comity and mutual respect between physi- 
cians and pharmacists. 

This Association aims to protect in all proper ways the right of the 
pharmacist to a fair chance to make a respectable living in the 
pursuit of his calling, corresponding to his technical training and 
services. 

Every American pharmacist should be a member of this Asso- 
ciation and contribute to its influence for good. 

In no other country is pharmacy so handicapped by intolerably 
discouraging economic conditions as in the United States. The 
absence of legally fixed educational requirements for the license to 
start and conduct drug stores is the chief cause. We already have 
several times as many drug stores as can be maintained in a satis- 
factory state of efficiency, and yet thousands of new licenses are 
issued every year authorizing their holders to further increase the 
number of stores, which they, of course, promptly do. The result 
is disastrous to the material welfare of the pharmacist as well as 
to the public health and morals. 

For this and other evils which beset the drug business the 
usual commercial methods of treatment are costly, futile and even 
hurtful. The only effective remedies are those advocated by the 
American Pharmaceutical Association. Those remedies are clearly 
set forth in the report of the Committee on National and State 
Legislation to be found in the Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meet- 
ing, soon to be issued. They are right and enduring, readily ap- 
plied, just to all concerned, and will receive the hearty approval of 
the public and the medical profession as well as all true phar- 
macists. They will not in the least degree disturb any one already 
licensed to practice pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1909. J 



Book 



Reviews. 



4i 



Our pharmacy laws need amendment, but they should not be 
changed at all except in such a way as to relieve pharmacy of 
the unjust burdens it is laboring under. The American Pharma- 
ceutical Association points the way. 

I am proud to be called a pharmacist, and heartily pray that all 
pharmacists may get together and stand together for real progress 
and the genuine prosperity of our craft. 

Anv officer of this Association will gladly furnish information 
to candidates for membership. 

Fraternally yours, 

Oscar Oldberg, 

President. 

zinc permanganate. 
Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : 

Kindly publish in the next issue of the Journal the following 
correction : 

By mistake the last equation in my article in the December issue of 
this Journal was incorrectly given and should be changed thus : 

3Ba(Mn0 4 ) 2 +3MnS0 4 =3BaS0 4 +5Mn0 2 +2Mn 2 7 

the last formula reading 2M0I. permanganic acid-anhydride instead 
of permanganic acid, or in case the reaction of the former with water 
is taken into account, the equation should be written as follows : 

3Ba(M-n0 4 ) 2 +3MnS0 4 +2H 2 0=3BaS0 4 +5Mn0 2 +4HMn0 4 

GUNNAR HEIKEL. 

Norwich, N. Y. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

A Text-Book of Botany and Pharmacognosy. Intended for 
the use of students of pharmacy, as a reference book for pharma- 
cists, and as a hand-book for food and drug analysts. By Henry 
Kraemer, Ph.B., Ph.D., Professor of Botany and Pharmacognosy, 
and Director of the Microscopical Laboratory, in the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy; member of the Committee of Revision of 
the " United States Pharmacopoeia " ; corresponding member of the 
Societe de Pharmacie de Paris, etc. Illustrated with over 300 plates 
comprising about 2000 figures. Third revised and enlarged edition. 



42 



Book Reviews. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t January, 1909. 



Price $5.00. Philadelphia and London. J. B. Lippincott Company. 

The fact that it has become necessary so soon to print a third 
edition of Professor Henry Kraemer's " Text-book of Botany and 
Pharmacognosy " indicates the degree of approval with which the 
second edition was received. The latter, which made its appearance 
in 1907, was so complete and comprehensive, that little change could 
be made in the text; such additions have been made, however, as 
the results of a year's research made possible and several pages have 
been added to Part III, on " Reagents and Microscopical Technic." 

The most notable changes are to be found in the illustrations. In 
the earlier edition some of the half-tone photographs lacked in detail, 
having something of a silhouette character. These have been 
replaced by excellent line drawings, that show to perfection both the 
external and internal structure of the subjects. Each chapter is 
profusely illustrated, over 300 plates in all, including about 50 new 
ones. All are characterized by beauty and truthfulness to nature. 

Part I is devoted to Botany and is divided into five chapters. In 
Chapter I, plants are studied in their great groups, in sequence, 
from the Thallophytes to the Angiosperms. Chapter II treats of 
the " Outer Morphology of Angiosperms," Chapter III of the 
" Inner Morphology of the Higher Plants," Chapter IV of the 
botanical classification of drugs yielding Angiosperms, and Chapter 
V of the cultivation of medicinal plants. 

Part II is divided into two chapters; the first treats of crude 
drugs, and the second of powdered drugs and foods. Part III con- 
sists of valuable data relating to " Reagents and Microscopical 
Technic." 

It is difficult to point out special excellence in any one part, as each 
chapter is excellent in every way; in detail, clearness and concise- 
ness. The work has a unique distinction in this line of books, in 
being entirely original, and the author's thorough knowledge of his 
subject is shown on every page. C. F. Nixon. 

Incompatibilities in Prescriptions : For Students in Phar- 
macy and Medicine and Practicing Pharmacists and Physicians. 
By Edsel A. Ruddiman; Ph.M., M.D., Professor of Pharmacy and 
Materia Medica, Department of Pharmacy, Vanderbilt University. 
Third Edition. Partly re-written. 8vo, vi -f- 312 pages. Cloth, 
$2.00. 

The usefulness of this book, not only to the student in pharmacy 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 1909. j 



Book Reviews. 



43 



and medicine, but to the professor and the practitioner as well, has 
led the author to publish a third edition, in which certain changes 
have been made. 

The general arrangement of the book, which has become familiar 
in the previous editions, is unchanged. The plan, as followed in 
the second edition, of incorporating a number of additional pre- 
scriptions without comment, for students' practice, is also found, 
and the valuable system of cross referencing the prescriptions them- 
selves is continued. 

An advantage to the busy prescriptionist or physician w r ould have 
been gained if a cross referencing of the first portion of the book 
had been done as thoroughly as that in the last portion. For in- 
stance, agurin is not cross referenced in the index under theo- 
bromine — sodium and sodium acetate ; also phenazone, which is 
mentioned in prescription No. 392, is not indexed at all. It would 
have been an advantage also to have indexed Hexamethylenamina 
under other trade names besides the one given, which is Urotropin. 

It is somewhat surprising, also, to find in a book as carefully pre- 
pared as this, the statement on page 41 regarding Amylum, that 
diastase changes starch to dextrin, without any mention of the 
subsequent change to maltose; also under the digestive ferments 
pancreatin and pepsin on page 98, no mention is made of their 
mutual incompatibility, which has been given such emphatic pub- 
licity by the Council of Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American 
Medical Association. These minor defects, however, serve but to 
emphasize the value of the book as a whole, and the third edition 
will be, as its predecessors have been, a valuable aid to the phar- 
macist, whether he be student, proprietor or professor. 

C.H. La Wall. 

The Chemist-Optician. A Survey of the Theory and Practice 
of Visual Optics, Especially with Reference to Sight Testing and 
Spectacle Fitting. The Chemist and Druggist, London. Price 
$1.75. From McKesson and Robbins, New York City. 

This small volume of 210 pages is written and published expressly 
for retail druggists, who in a great many parts of Great Britain as 
well as in the United States are dealing in spectacles. It aims to do 
away with haphazard processes of selecting eyeglasses and gives 
the dealer the scientific principles, optical theories, and the technic 
on which the proper fitting and adjusting of glasses to those whose 



44 



Book Reviews. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1909. 



sight requires visual aid, depends. It is a concise treatise on the 
spectacle business, and sight testing and spectacle fitting are now 
said to be well-recognized branches of the chemist's business. It 
is predicted that as the chemist's education and training conduce to 
carefulness in sight testing and spectacle fitting, that in the near 
future a greater part of the business and development of ophthalmic 
optics will be in the hands of the chemists and druggists. 

The book is written in a style devoid of unnecessary scientific and 
involved technical methods. Its object is to present in every-day 
language the subject, and to supply the want of a popular and handy 
volume, printed to supply the needs of the pharmacist optician, and 
to make him proficient in this profitable and legitimate side line. 

The optical principles of light refraction, lenses, and prisms are 
concisely treated ; likewise the mechanical features of manufacture. 
The chapter on spectacle and eyeglass frames is characterized by 
simple descriptions of the parts, shapes, styles, structure and compo- 
sition and methods of measuring. It is followed by instructions for 
face measuring and adjusting. 

Outlines for making repairs are given as a matter of information 
for the dealer, even if it is not possible for him to undertake such 
work on his premises. 

The several chapters devoted to the structure of the eye, func- 
tions, refraction, defects and diseases of the eye, are treated with 
characteristic brevity and clearness. A short chapter is devoted 
to the subject of artificial eyes. The chapter treating of drugs which 
act on the eye is an excellent compilation in a most compact form 
of the action and value of the known mydriatics and myotics. 

The several methods and apparatus used for sight testing, arrange- 
ment of the testing room, .practical instructions for testing for 
myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and presbyopia, etc., all receive 
concise treatment. 

The chapter on optical prescriptions is a very excellent exposition 
of this branch of the subject. It is followed by another chapter 
devoted to the subject of ordering glasses from the manufacturer and 
the keeping of proper records. The part devoted to bibliography is 
an excellent index to the literature on this subject. 

This handy volume should prove to be of value and a practical 
hand-book to every dealer in this class of wares. 

G. M. B. 



^anuTry wo9 m ' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 45 

PHARMACEUTICAL MEETINGS OF THE PHILADELPHIA 
COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

OCTOBER 

The opening meeting of the series of Pharmaceutical Meetings of 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy for i9o8-'o9 was held Tues- 
day, October 20, at 3 o'clock, with the president of the College, 
Howard B. French, in the chair. 

A paper on the subject of the " Cultivation of Belladonna in Phila- 
delphia " was read by John A. Borneman, P.D., who has been asso- 
ciated with Mr. Lewis Hellerman in the growing of medicinal plants 
for some years past. (See p. 1.) 

Dr. Borneman presented to the College a series of six photographs 
of growing medicinal plants on his farm, and exhibited living speci- 
mens of the following: Atropa Belladonna, Hyoscyamns niger, 
Conium maculatum, Echinacea angustifolia, Senecio Cineraria {Cine- 
raria maritima), Calendula officinalis, Digitalis purpurea and Nico- 
tiana Tabacum. In reply to a question, he stated that there is no 
difficulty in cultivating belladonna in this locality. At this point 
Professor Kraemer called attention to some beautiful flowers of 
Crocus sativus which had been sent for exhibition by Joseph L. 
Lemberger, of Lebanon, Pa. 

The celebration of the 225th anniversary of the founding of the 
city of Philadelphia by William Penn, which was held during the 
week of October 4, brought to mind many historic events, and 
aroused universal interest in matters historical. All places and 
buildings in the city of historical interest were conspicuously labelled, 
including the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, and in addition to 
the numerous meetings, parades and pageants commemorating the 
occasion, various historical exhibitions were held. An exhibit of a 
portion of the historical collections of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy formed part of a loan exhibition held at City Hall, and 
was pronounced to be one of the most interesting of the series of 
exhibits. The objects in the exhibit which attracted most attention 
were a microscope made about 1780 and presented to the College 
by the late Hans M. Wilder, and the Dispensatory owned by William 
Penn, which was written by Dr. John Schroder and published in 
London in 1669. It is now in the possession of Professor Remington. 

Thus it came about to make the historical collections of the College 



46 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. {^JS^JSSS^ 

a feature of the present program. Those who spoke in reference to 
them were George M. Beringer, chairman of the Historical Com- 
mittee, Joseph W. England, Curator, and Prof. Charles H. LaWall, 
in the absence of Professor Remington. Space does not permit 
the mention of all the various interesting and valuable objects which 
were exhibited. Reference to some of them will be found in the 
catalogue of the Historical Exhibition of the Semi-centennial Anni- 
versary of the American Pharmaceutical Association, held in Phila- 
delphia in 1902, to others in preceding volumes of this Journal, and 
to others in the minutes of the Board of Trustees of the College. 

Clarence M. Kline presented a brief paper on certain features of 
the work of the recent convention of the National Wholesale Drug- 
gists' Association held at Atlantic City, which appeared in the 
November number of the Journal. 

After reading certain extracts from the paper on " Crude and 
Powdered Drugs at the Port of New York During the Year 
1907-08 " by Dr. H. H. Rusby, which was presented at the recent 
meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Joseph W. 
England presented the following preamble and resolutions for adop- 
tion by the members : 

Whereas, The United States Customs Regulations of 1849 and later, 
governing the importation of medicinal substances into the United States, are 
legally based upon " An Act to prevent the importation of adulterated and 
spurious drugs and medicines, approved June 26, 1848" (Act published in full 
in the Transactions of the American Medical Association, 1848, 366, and also 
in the American Journal of Pharmacy for October, 1848), and 

Whereas, This Act (Section 3) provides that the drugs and medicines 
examined at the port of entry shall be regarded as adulterated or deteriorated 
if they are " inferior in strength and purity to the standard established by 
the United States, Edinburgh, London, French and German Pharmacopoeias 
and Dispensatories, and thereby improper, unsafe or dangerous to be used for 
medicinal purposes," and 

Whereas, This diversity of standards (some of which are no longer in 
existence), and possibly other causes, have led to the rejection of drugs at 
certain ports, and the admission of the same drugs at other ports. Therefore, 
be it 

Resolved, That we earnestly urge the United States Customs authorities 
to have steps taken whereby, (1) the law of June 26, 1848, shall be repealed 
and a new law enacted, (2) the U. S. Pharmacopoeia shall be recognized as 
the legal standard for medicinal products imported into the United States, as 
is the same authority by the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, (3) that 
the new law shall be framed in harmony with the Food and Drugs Act of 
June 30, 1906, to the end that intra-state commerce shall be made uniform 



A jau J u"iT 190™'} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 47 

with inter-state commerce, (4) that foreign Pharmacopoeias shall be recog- 
nized only where drugs are not official in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, and (5) 
that new regulations be made by the U. S. Customs Service whereby abso- 
lutely uniform conditions in the entry of drugs into the country shall obtain 
at all the ports, and 

Resolved, That copies of these resolutions be sent to the proper govern- 
mental authorities. 

Mr. Beringer said that this question was brought up at the Atlantic 
City meeting of the A. Ph. A., and that owing to the difficulties 
pertaining to the repealing of a law of this kind, and the enacting of 
a new one, as pointed out at the time by the Inspector at New York, 
he moved that the resolution be made a special topic of discussion at 
the November meeting, which motion was adopted. 

A resume of the work accomplished at the recent meeting of the 
British Pharmaceutical Conference was given by John K. Thum 
(see the November number of this Journal). 

Owing to the length of the program, Professor Kraemer deferred 
the presentation of a paper which he had prepared on " Arthur 
Meyer and the Botanic Gardens at Marburg " until a subsequent 
meeting. 

NOVEMBER. 

The second stated meeting of the current series was held Tuesday 
afternoon, November 17, with Dr. A. W. Miller, Corresponding 
Secretary of the College, in the chair. In accordance with the action 
of the members at the previous meeting (see page 47), the Drug 
Importation Act of 1848 was the topic selected for discussion, and in 
opening the meeting Dr. Miller read the preamble and resolutions 
pertaining to the Act offered by Joseph W. England. 

The discussion was opened by representatives of the U. S. Cus- 
toms Service at the port of Philadelphia, three of whom were 
present, namely, Benjamin P. Ashmead, Examiner of Drugs, W. E. 
Dickeson and Dr. C. C. Roberts. Mr. Ashmead in a brief paper 
(see page 16), outlined the procedure in the examination of imported 
drugs under the Customs Regulations of 1908. 

Mr. Dickeson said that the examinations of drugs at the port of 
Philadelphia were made with due care and impartiality, the samples 
being submitted to those who make the examinations according to 
serial numbers and without their knowing who were the importers. 
He thought that perhaps the standards are too high, but stated that 
as a rule the drugs received at the Philadelphia port are of good 



48 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. {^^ry.isoT' 

quality, and hence not many of them are rejected. Mr. Dickeson 
wondered why, if the Law of 1848 were faulty, objection had not 
been raised to it before, but said that he supposed the dissatisfaction 
had some relation to the Pure Food and Drugs Law. In conclusion, 
Mr. Dickeson pointed out that the Customs Service has no authority 
to frame laws, but said that a new law might be framed by the 
brokers and importers. 

After the reading of the Act of 1848 (American Journal of 
Pharmacy, October, 1848) by the chairman, Dr. Miller, Dr. Roberts 
was called upon, and he stated that there is no conflict between the 
U. S. Pharmacopoeia and U. S. Dispensatory and other standards; 
that the Customs Service examiners have no choice in the matter of 
standards ; that their duty is specifically stated and that the standard 
prescribed is the latest edition of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia. He said 
that he supposed the purpose had in mind by those advocating the 
repeal of the Act of 1848 was to provide for the importation of drugs 
below standard. In this event, he said that provision should be 
made for protecting the Government, and cutting out obsolete author- 
ities. He likewise stated that it is not the province of the U. S. 
Treasury to frame laws, this function resting with the people and the 
Congress, but that the Department would be willing to assist in the 
work. 

A paper by W. J. Gesell, who is connected with Lehn & Fink, on 
(i The Act of 1848 and Regulations on Drugs Imported into the 
United States from the Point of View of the Importer," was read 
on his behalf by George M. Beringer (see page 24). 

Mr. Beringer having been in correspondence with members of 
several New York manufacturing and importing drug firms in 
regard to the Customs Regulations governing the importation of 
drugs and medicinal products, was asked to read letters which he 
had received from them. 

Donald McKesson, of McKesson & Robbins, wrote in part, as 
follows : 

" This matter came up at the convention of the National Whole- 
sale Druggists' Association, and the present status of the regulations 
is briefly as follows : Previous to the passing of the Food and Drugs 
Act, June 30, 1906, importations were governed by the law of 
1848 which required that foods and drugs should be up to the 
standards of the ' U. S. Pharmacopoeia, London Pharmacopoeia, the 
Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia,' and numerous other books cited ' or 
any other standard work.' 



A januTry P i9o5 m ' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 49 

" Most of the books cited as standards have been long obsolete, 
and the rulings under the law of 1848 were often made in favor of 
the importer or Government according as one or the other could 
present the greatest number of books supporting their contention, a 
manner of procedure not always tending to the fulfilment of the 
spirit of the law. 

" When the Food and Drugs Act was passed provision was made 
for the control of importations on the same basis with domestic 
foods and drugs and in the summer subsequent to the passage of 
the Act, the matter was again taken up and adequate regulations 
formed to govern the enforcement of the Food and Drugs Act in 
regard to importations. However, it afterwards transpired when 
the law went into effect that in framing the Food and Drugs Act, 
one fatal mistake had been made. Through some oversight no clause 
had been inserted repealing the law of 1848, therefore importations 
are still being governed by this obsolete law. 

" At the N. W. D. A. convention resolutions were passed, that 
the association take such steps as were in its power towards securing 
the repeal of the law of 1848." 

Thomas F. Main, chairman of the Committee on Standards and 
Tests of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary, of the 
National Wholesale Druggists' Association, sent the following 
communication : 

" Our Committee on Standards and Tests in its report to the last 
meeting of the National Wholesale Druggists' iVssociation expressed 
itself as follows : 

" ' The Treasury Department, which controls imports, is now 
bound by the law of 1848, which in the opinion of your committee 
should be amended so as to allow the importation of drugs that 
differ from the U. S. P. standards, when they are plainly marked to 
show their differences from such standards, and under a suitable 
guarantee that they will be used or sold only for manufacturing pur- 
poses, and we recommend that the incoming Committee on Legisla- 
tion be requested to take this matter into consideration with a view 
of securing a proper amendment of the law.' 

. iC In the discussion that followed the reading of our report it 
appeared to be established that the Pure Food and Drugs Act of 
1906 was intended to govern the importation of the drugs into as 
well as the sale of drugs in the United States, and that the provision 
' no drug defined in the U. S. P. shall be deemed to be adulterated 



50 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm 
X January, 1909. 



if the standard of strength, quality or purity be plainly stated upon 
the container ' was inserted mainly to allow the importation of drugs 
that differ from the U. S. P. standards for manufacturing purposes ; 
and the Board of Control introduced the following recommendation 
which was unanimously adopted, viz., ' in relation to the conflict 
between the provisions of the Food and Drugs Act and 2,935 revised 
statutes governing the importation of drugs, we recommend that 
the incoming Committee on Legislation be instructed to endeavor 
to secure the repeal of the law of 1848, or its amendment, in accord- 
ance with the recommendations contained in the committee's report.' 

" At the October meeting of the drug section of the New York 
Board of Trade and Transportation a resolution was passed direct- 
ing its Legislative Committee to act with the Legislative Committee 
of the National Wholesale Druggists' Association to secure the 
repeal of the law of 1848 and since that time a special committee 
has been appointed, of which Mr. Irving McKesson is chairman, to 
act in this matter instead of the regular legislative committee. 

" I understand that the general opinion of the trade here is that 
no new legislation is necessary, but that if the law of 1848 is repealed 
the provisions of the Pure Food and Drugs Act will be found to 
amply protect the public while allowing manufacturers to import 
drugs differing from the U. S. P. standards for manufacturing 
purposes." 

Wm. J. Schieffelin, president of Schieffelin & Co., expressed his 
view of the matter, as follows : 

" I believe that it should be lawful to import crude drugs below 
Pharmacopceial strength, provided the importer gives an adequate 
guaranty that the goods will be used in manufacturing. 

" I do not think it would be well to permit low grade drugs to 
enter the general market and I further believe that the handling of 
them should be confined to responsible importers and manufacturers 
who might, if necessary, be required to file a bond. 

" Extracts and powdered drugs can be standardized and I think 
the sale of such preparations bearing Pharmacopceial names but 
below standard should not be permitted." 

A. Robinson Mcllvaine, of Mcllvaine Brothers, Philadelphia, sent 
a communication in which he stated his position as follows : 

" I am a firm believer in the necessity for Governmental inspection 
—regulation — and where possible, analysis, and to have these well 
done, the Government should pay good salaries to good men of 



A januai r y i909 m "} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 51 

experience and ability. The chemists should be the best, then the 
article should be branded with Governmental test. As it is now, 
they will not give their analysis, whether above or below the U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia. If their test is worth anything, why not stand back 
of it and say what it is and label the importations accordingly ? 

" I believe that when the Government chemist finds a drug some- 
what below the views of the compiler of the Pharmacopoeia, it should 
not be sent back, at great expense to the importer, but marked as 
above indicated and then the importer should sign a bond that he 
will sell it at such and such a per cent, of strength, U. S. Analysis, 
for the reason that it is not fair for certain chemists, connected with 
the Pharmacopoeia, who most likely made their analysis years ago 
from picked samples, to say that all Belladonna and all Henbane, 
etc., must grow and produce the same alkaloidal strength as the 
samples they tested. 

" Our Heavenly Father does not grow plants, medicinal or other- 
wise, to suit man. 

" I believe that the Government should carry their inspection 
further and say that ' the manufacturing chemist must make his 
extracts, pills, etc., come up to the standard of the U. S. Pharma- 
copoeia. There is where strength can be standardized (and there 
should be a standard) by the manufacturer using more or less crude 
drugs to make up to the standard. 

" If this were done, crude drugs would be sold entirely upon their 
merits — poor goods would bring low prices — high grade goods full 
value, and importers would be free from the annoyances they are 
now subjected to and the sick would obtain standardized medicines." 

Messrs. Hance Brothers and White, also of Philadelphia, sent a 
letter, in which they expressed themselves as being heartily in favor 
of the preamble and resolutions offered by Mr. England. 

After the presentation of the foregoing communications, Mr. 
Beringer read a paper in which he proposed .a draft for a new act 
governing importations (see page 31). 

Mr. Mahlon N. Kline, Chairman of the Committee on Legislation 
of the N. W. D. A., in opening the general discussion said that in 
his opinion the paper by Mr. Gesell covered the question from the 
standpoint of the importer very well. He claimed that the importer 
is the important factor, for the reason that if drugs are properly 
imported their entrance into interstate commerce is protected by 
the Food and Drugs Act. He agreed with Dr. Roberts in the state- 



52 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { A ^JZ r y , ilST' 

ment that if the law of 1848 were repealed some provision should be 
made for protecting this country against the possibility of its becom- 
ing the dumping ground for foreign goods, but inclined to the view 
that this contingency would be provided against by Sections 7 and 8 
of the Food and Drugs Act. 

Mr. Kline also commended the paper of Mr. Beringer, and said 
that while he did not know the sentiment of the country or of the 
meeting in regard to Section 7 of the Food and Drugs Act, he 
thought that an opinion should be given which would serve to guide 
those interested in legislation. 

Dr. Lyman F. Kebler, Chief of the Division of Drugs, Bureau of 
Chemistry, considered the " Relation of the Act of 1848 to the Food 
and Drugs Act of 1906" (see page 17). 

At the close of the discussion the following motion, which v as 
presented by Joseph W. England, was adopted: 

That a committee of five be appointed to consider the subject of 
the Act of 1848 and its regulations together with the draft of a law 
prepared by Mr. George M. Beringer, to the end that a new law may 
be enacted ; and that the committee cooperate with other trade 
organizations working toward the same end. 

As members of this committee, the chairman appointed the fol- 
lowing : George M. Beringer, chairman, Joseph W. England, M. N. 
Kline, Wm. Mclntyre and Charles H. LaWall. 

Florence Yaple, 
Secretary, pro tern. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



FEBRUARY, i 9 o 9 

THE EDUCATIONAL ADVANCEMENT OF THE PHARMA- 
CIST AND HIS RELATION TO THE PHY- 
SICIAN AND PUBLIC^* 

By Harvey W. Wiley, M.D. 

I consider it a great honor to be here to-night at your invitation 
to give one of the addresses in the courses which have been adver- 
tised for evening lectures before this college. 

I first must be allowed to say that I am more than pleased with the 
inspection of the laboratories of this great college of pharmacy, and 
to see what splendid facilities in all branches of laboratory work its 
students have. In this connection I desire to emphasize the fact 
that the old days of the ordinary druggist have passed. When I 
was a boy any man who had the money or credit could start a drug 
store and make and dispense drugs. It was not necessary that he 
should even get a common school education, although, of course, 
it was necessary to his success that he be a good business man, and 
that naturally would imply that he must of necessity soon acquire 
knowledge, and a particular knowledge of his profession. This 
now has been changed in practically all parts of the country. Col- 
leges of pharmacy exisf in almost every state and rigid rules and 
certification for the practice of pharmacy are established in all of 

* Abstract of a lecture delivered by Dr. H. W. Wiley, chief of the U. S. 
Bureau of Chemistry, at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, December 17, 
1908, this being the first of the series of special lectures arranged for the 
Food and Drug Analysis Course for 1908-1909. 

(53) 




54 



Educational Advancement. 



(Am. Jour. Pharni. 

\ February, 1909. 



our principal cities and in most of our states. It is necessary now 
that a man shall have a pharmaceutical education leading at least 
to a degree equivalent to a three years' course, and in some cases a 
four years' course, before he is allowed to practise. 

This leads me to say that the profession of pharmacy is just as 
important and just as honorable as any other learned profession, 
and it is highly advisable, therefore, that the preliminary training 
looking, to the practice of pharmacy be as thorough and as complete 
as that of any other profession. This means that the man who in- 
tends to become a pharmacist should first have the primary and 
secondary instruction, followed by the usual four years'' college 
course. It is too early yet to require in all the pharmaceutical 
colleges that those who enter upon their studies come with a degree 
representing that amount of study for which the degree of A.B. is 
conferred in colleges of average efficiency. Yet I think I may be 
allowed to become prophet long enough to say that it is surely com- 
ing. Some of our great universities, notably Harvard, have intro- 
duced that rule in regard to all their professional schools. At Har- 
vard University at the present time no one can enter a professional 
school to study for a degree who has not pursued a course of study 
entitling him to the ordinary degree of A.B. in a good college or its 
equivalent in study. At first when this plan was proposed it was 
met with the objection that the professional schools of the university 
would diminish in number, in fact, the first effect of the enforcement 
of this rule was to diminish the number of students, but this loss in 
numbers was only temporary and has been followed by a steady gain 
which has placed the professional schools of Harvard University, 
in so far as professions are concerned, on a higher plane than they 
were before the regulations regarding admission were adopted. 

The profession of pharmacy entails a degree of responsibility 
second only to that of medicine, and perhaps equal thereto. I will 
not discuss here whether or not there is any virtue in drugs. \Ye 
may assume for the purpose of this discussion that there is such 
merit. It follows then that the only good which may come from 
drugs must come from the fact that they possess the properties which 
are accredited to them. The skill of preparation, the skill of com- 
pounding and the skill of dispensing entail the responsibility of 
producing in the end a combination having the properties desired 
by the pharmacist and required by the physician for the benefit of his 
patient. It is, of course, often said that the time a young man 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1909. j 



Educational Advancement. 



55 



spends in going to college could better be spent in establishing him- 
self in his profession. That argument had greater force in the 
earlier history of our country where the development of its resources 
was so rapid and the increase of its population so great. It loses its 
value, however, as the country is filled up and the competition for 
existence becomes keener. The man who succeeds to-day in any 
profession is he who combines, with executive ability, aptness for 
the profession he has chosen and skill in carrying it into effect. A 
general education of high grade cannot fail to endow every one who 
has it with an advantage over the one who has not, and this is true 
aside from any practical application of the branches studied to the 
profession which is to be followed. It would be a sad day, indeed, 
for the progress of medicine and pharmacy if it were argued that 
those engaged in these two great professions should confine their 
studies, preliminary and otherwise, to those branches which bear 
directly upon their professional activity. Instead of producing pro- 
fessional men with broad views and progressive ambitions, we would 
end by producing narrow men, bigots without ambition and without 
any adequate conception of the relations which their profession- bears 
to other activities of life. In the interests of success, therefore, 
alone, aside from the other benefits which come from a broad and 
thorough training, we should insist that the preliminary training of 
our pharmacists should be greater and the tests for admission to the 
pharmaceutical colleges should be raised to a higher plane. 

One great point, it seems to me, which ought to be considered 
is the fact that there is no enmity between the profession of pharmacy 
and the profession of medicine. It is true that it is difficult, if not 
impossible, to draw a definite cleavage line between the two profes- 
sions. The pharmacist must in some cases exercise the functions 
of a physician, and the physician to some extent those of the pharma- 
cist. I might say that the pharmacist is a stationary physician and 
the physician an ambulatory pharmacist. There should, however, 
be an understanding between the two professions as to how far each 
should encroach upon the confines of the other. It is needless to 
enter into an argument to show that the physician should carry 
a pharmaceutical armament with him, as it would be needless to say 
that the pharmacist should never be permitted to dispense a remedy 
without a physician's prescription. 

Mutual benefit, however, would come to both professions if the 
great evil of the patent medicine habit or the drug habit could be 



56 



Educational Advancement. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1909. 



eradicated from this country. Above all other countries we are vic- 
tims of the drug habit. Whenever anything is the matter with an 
American the first thing he is expected to do is to " take something." 
Every one of his friends will prescribe a different remedy, every 
remedy so prescribed being an absolute specific remedy against the 
ailments from which he is suffering. The newspapers abound with 
advertisements calling the attention of the people to symptoms of 
diseases which perhaps they never have., or which the imagination 
easily magnifies into veritable dangers. The drug stores are filled 
with preparations or compounds which are regarded as. specifics for 
almost eveiy disease of humanity. These medicines are sold in great 
quantities to the laity by the druggist, thus depriving the druggist 
himself of the legitimate reward for compounding the remedy, and 
the physician from his legitimate reward of recommending it to his 
patient. It will be better, therefore, for both professions, as well 
as for the public, when the days of the deceptive dope are done. 

It seems to me that for the minor diseases, for which the druggist 
may safely prescribe, it would be sufficient for the medical fraternity 
in each locality to agree with the druggist in regard to remedies 
which should be given for simple colds and other minor diseases. 
The medical association of each locality could write the prescriptions 
for these diseases, place them with the druggist and they could be 
filled by the druggist upon the direct application of the layman. 
Thus the layman would receive a greater benefit than ever before, 
and be protected from fraudulent extortion, the druggist would have 
a larger income and the physician would not be deprived of the 
necessary applications to him from those who were really ill. I 
do not think that any pharmacist should ever be allowed to sell a 
medicine to be carried to a person who is too ill to apply for it 
himself, nor for any disease of a character which threatens permanent 
injury or death. 

By some such method of co-operation the bonds which hold the 
two great professions of pharmacy and medicine together would be 
strengthened, the feeling of amity between the two professions 
increased, with corresponding benefits to the public and with cer- 
tainly no financial loss either to the pharmacist or the physician. It 
is w T ell to consider these points especially in relation to the future 
development of the profession and its establishment upon a thor- 
oughly scientific basis. 



^i^SST} Enzymes in Milk. 57 



THE DIFFERENTIATION OF THE ENZYMES IN MILK 
BY HYDROGEN DIOXIDE AND ITS TESTS. 



By Charles H. La Wall. 



In a sample of milk recently examined, which was suspected of 
having been preserved with hydrogen dioxide, tests were made for 
that substance by three different methods. Two of these methods 
were reversals or adaptations of the methods commonly employed 
for the detection of boiled or sterilized milk, or milk in which the 
enzymes had been destroyed by heating. 

In Dupouy's method, paradiamidobenzene is used in aqueous 
solution, a few drops being added to 5 c.c. of the sample, after 
which a few drops of hydrogen dioxide solution are added. In the 
presence of raw milk a strong blue coloration is obtained; milk 
that has been heated to over 79 C. gives no coloration. Check ex- 
periments with this method showed that in the presence of varying 
amounts of hydrogen dioxide solution, down to 0.5 per cent, (corre- 
sponding to 15 parts in 100.000. of absolute H 2 2 ), a strong blue 
coloration appeared as soon as the paradiamidobenzene solution was 
added. 

In the method recently described by Wilkinson and Peters (Chem. 
Abs.j 1908, p. 3375) the test for sterilized or heated milk is carried 
out with benzidine fparadiaminodiphenyl) as follows : To 10 c.c. of 
the milk is added 2 c.c. of a 4 per cent, alcoholic solution of benzi- 
dine, then two or three drops of acetic acid are added to produce 
coagulation, and finally 2 c.c. of a 3 per cent, solution of hydrogen 
dioxide. 

The test as thus applied detects raw milk by the production of a 
blue zone. When employed to detect hydrogen dioxide, raw milk 
is used and the test is applied as described, except that instead of 
adding the solution of hydrogen dioxide, the milk suspected of 
containing the hydrogen dioxide is added. It was found that with 
quantities varying from 3 parts absolute H 2 2 in 1000, down to 
15 parts in 100,000, the reaction was prompt and unmistakable. So 
-far as the detection of the hvdrogen dioxide was concerned, there- 
fore, either of the methods was equally applicable and both were 
found to be superior to the method of adding potassium chromate 
and diluted sulphuric acid, which causes the development of a blue 
color in presence of H 2 2 . 



Enzymes in Milk. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1909. 



In view of the assertion that hydrogen dioxide disappears entirely 
upon standing, some experiments were made with the purpose of 
ascertaining whether this were true. Varying amounts of solution 
of hydrogen dioxide were added to milk, making dilutions from 15 
parts absolute H 2 2 in 100,000 up to 3 parts in. 1000. Upon allow- 
ing these to stand over night it was found that by neither of the 
tests could as much as 3 parts in 10,000 be detected after standing 
twenty-four hours, although the milk thus treated remained sweet 
for three or four days standing at room temperature. The most 
surprising results, however, were obtained when the milk in which 
no reaction could be obtained for H 2 2 was tested by both methods 
for the presence of the enzyme. 

With the Dupouy test positive results were obtained, while with 
the Wilkinson and Peters test negative results were shown. In 
the presence of 15 to 30 parts of hydrogen dioxide per 100,000, this 
differentiation was most marked. In the presence of larger amounts 
up to 3 parts in 1000, the Dupouy test applied for the enzyme 
was also inhibited after several days. In the presence of the larger 
amounts, the Wilkinson-Peters test was inhibited immediately. A 
tabular statement of the experiments may serve to illustrate more 
fully : 

Wilkinson-Peters' Test , Dupouy 's Test 
Strength of H 2 2 in milk Test for enzyme applied immediately 

15 parts to 100,000 positive positive 

30 parts to 100,000 positive positive 

15 parts to 10,000 negative positive 

Test for enzyme applied after 24 hours 

15 parts to 100,000 negative* positive* 

30 parts to 100,000 negative* positive* 

15 parts to 10,000 negative positive 

Test for enzyme applied after 96 hours 
15 parts to 100,000 negative* negative* 

30 parts to 100,000 negative* negative* 

15 parts to 10,000 negative negative 

* Ho0 2 no longer detectable by reversal of test. 

The foregoing results indicate: 

First, that hydrogen dioxide, when added in small amounts to 
milk, can only be detected within a few hours after such addition, 
and that the resulting milk remains sweet for several days at ordi- 
nary temperatures. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1909. j 



The Assay of Drugs. 



59 



Second, that it inhibits or destroys the action of the enzyme react- 
ing with the Wilkinson-Peters test much more rapidly than it affects 
the enzyme reacting with the Dupouy test. 

Third, that eventually it destroys the action of both of these 
enzymes and causes the milk to react the same as boiled or sterilized 
milk. ' 

Further experiments are being undertaken to ascertain the in- 
fluence of other preservatives upon these enzymes. 



THE ASSAY OF DRUGS.* 
By C. E. Parker. 

A spirit of progress, a quickened sense of responsibility is mani- 
fest among practitioners of that branch of medicine dealing with the 
provision of agents for the prevention, alleviation and cure of disease 
which we call pharmacy. The whole prestige and distinction of 
the pharmacist, which differentiates him from the common merchant, 
is contingent upon his fidelity to that obligation to use certain pro- 
fessed attainments for the benefit of others which is the essence of 
professionalism. If he for gain promotes the use of drugs regard- 
less of the discipline of his profession and of the public welfare, 
he becomes a mere drug-seller. The old-time apothecary who per- 
sonally conducted practically all the details from growing drugs to 
dispensing prescriptions could not easily forget his professional 
responsibility. But the commercial development of applied phar- 
macy has now become so complex, and drugs pass through the hands 
of so many people who have no personal or professional relations 
with the sick for whose benefit they are destined, or whose interest 
in pharmacy proper is subordinate to other affairs, that there is a 
strong tendency to divide and dissipate responsibility. 

The professional status of the retail pharmacist depends upon his 
success in arresting and reversing this tendency. Power and 
authority naturally accrue to those who are efficient in the discharge 
of responsibility and depart from those who fail to " make good." 

The pharmacy laws of our country, which have been in a large 
degree shaped by the influence of pharmacists, are theoretically the 

* Read at the meeting of the City of Washington Branch of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, December 14, 1908. 



6o 



The Assay of Drugs. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1909. 



basis of a compact whereby in consideration of his professional 
ability and obligation to conserve the physical welfare of the public, 
and to enable this to be done more effectively, the pharmacist re- 
ceives certain exclusive privileges. Practically the provisions of 
many of these laws, and the activities of boards of pharmacy oper- 
ating under their authority, have been more efficient in restricting 
the practice of pharmacy and thereby limiting competition, than in 
suppressing adulteration and other practices detrimental to the public 
health. Sometimes a disposition has been disclosed to regard 
pharmacy laws as primarily for the benefit of pharmacists rather 
than that of the public. On the other hand the efforts of the ethical 
element in pharmacy have powerfully promoted the pure drug 
legislation of recent years, though as an expression of public senti- 
ment it represents a loss of prestige by the boards of pharmacy. 
The prevalent tendency has been to withdraw from them and entrust 
to other officials the authority and duty of enforcing the new laws. 

These laws generally provide a system of guarantees whereby 
the retailer can transfer to his source of supply the responsibility 
for drugs sold in original packages, the liability otherwise being his 
own, and his willingness or unwillingness to assume the responsibil- 
ity for what he sells may be expected to have a corresponding effect 
upon his professional standing. He may reduce his liability by 
selling a minimum of his own preparations, thus tending to become 
a mere drug distributer; or he" may attack the problem of supplying 
a creditable proportion of legal medicaments on his own responsi- 
bility. A rigid enforcement of the requirements of these laws would 
oblige pharmacists, by the application of Pharmacopceial and other 
tests, to assure themselves of the legality of many preparations for 
which they are necessarily responsible. Some have had no train- 
ing in this branch, and for others it has had, since their college days, 
but an academic interest. If a demand arises, the colleges will no 
doubt provide suitable courses in Pharmacopceial technic, following 
the example of the Pharmaceutical Division of the Zurich Poly- 
technic, Switzerland, which gives ten-day courses of instruction and 
laboratory practice based on the new Swiss Pharmacopoeia. 

The first practical application of drug assaying was probably made 
to afford a rational basis of valuation in the purchase of opium and 
cinchona for the manufacture of alkaloids. Thus when the medical 
profession urged the desirability of more reliable and uniform prod- 
ucts than the existing system of supplying medicaments afforded, 



Am. Jour. Pharin. ) 
February, 1909. J 



The Assay of Drugs. 



61 



the basis for a partial solution of the problem was available. Per- 
ceiving a commercial advantage in the extended application of 
scientific principles, manufacturing pharmacists, who had been con- 
trolling the quality of their crude drugs to some extent by assaying, 
began applying the principle to finished products. The success of 
this experiment helped to create a demand that assay methods be 
officially recognized by the Pharmacopoeia. 

The Revision Convention was very conservative in respect to this 
innovation, hesitating to sanction methods which, however satisfac- 
tory for the use of trained chemists, would be liable to miscarry in 
the hands of the average pharmacist. Restricting the choice to 
methods supposed to be within the capacity of the latter, a few 
simple assays were made official. Though scientific progress and 
the needs of rational medicine were recognized by the introduction 
into the last Pharmacopoeia of a considerable number of assays, the 
technical limitations of pharmacists had a restraining influence in 
the exclusion of microscopic characteristics of drugs and the 
selection of assay methods. In regard to the latter the committee 
was instructed that assay processes should be " reasonably simple 
(both as to methods and apparatus required) and lead to fairly 
uniform results in different hands." 

The methods adopted were the consummation of protracted and 
painstaking labors by a group of the most competent experts in the 
country, and, on the whole, fairly represented the existing status of 
this branch of chemical analysis. Some of the most important 
defects have since been remedied. 

Though the Pharmacopoeia had been recognized to some extent 
in legislation, its authority was chiefly moral until the passage of 
the National Food and Drugs Act of 1906. The probability being 
somewhat vague that its standards and methods would be^made the 
basis for general legal regulation, a fairly high degree of accuracy 
appeared less important than it does under the altered conditions. 
For example, there was no requirement that the assay methods give 
correct or approximately correct results. 

It is necessary now to ascertain how these methods, upon which 
an official status has been conferred, will respond to the requirements 
of the official chemist and prospective witness before the courts. 
Before the passage of the Food and Drugs Act the Association 
of Official Agriculture Chemists had begun a cooperative study of 
analytical methods for crude plant drugs under Dr. L. F. Kebler as 



62 



The Assay of Drugs. 



f Am. Jour. Pkarm. 
1 February, 1909. 



referee, and since the law became operative the scope of the in- 
vestigations has been considerably extended. The method of pro- 
cedure, which has been found quite valuable in increasing the 
accuracy and efficiency of other branches of chemical analysis, is to 
distribute suitable uniform samples of the drugs, with detailed in- 
structions in the methods of analysis to be tried, to a number of 
competent volunteer analysts, who report their results, with observa- 
tions and constructive criticisms on the utility of the methods. A 
compilation of these returns is reported to the Convention of the 
Association, communicated to the collaborators, and made the basis 
of recommendations for the adoption of official methods for the use 
of the Association, or provisional methods for further study. 

In this manner since 1903 methods have been studied for the 
assaying of opium, cinchona, ipecac, mix vomica, aconite leaves and 
root, belladonna leaves and root, coca and eolchicum corm and seed. 
In every case the Pharmacopceial method has been compared with 
one or more other methods selected from the best available, the 
choice being influenced by the desirability of contrasting the aliquot 
and total extraction methods of obtaining the active principle, and 
the gravimetric and volumetric methods of determination. The 
Pharmacopceial method for assaying opium has been adopted as 
official by the Association. In regard to the results obtained by the 
Pharmacopceial methods for other drugs, it may be said that they 
can scarcely be called " fairly uniform," as they sometimes scatter 
widely, differences amounting to 30 or 40 per cent, of the average 
occurring. Other branches of analysis have made a similar show- 
ing when first made the subject of cooperative study. 

Though drug assaying does not involve the application of any 
analytical principles peculiar to itself, it is attended by some special 
difficulties, so that even the competent chemist who is trained in 
other branches of analysis does not usually succeed in this without a 
certain amount of experience, and the amateur surely cannot expect 
to get very accurate results. 

The Pharmacopceial methods are formulated in simple terms, 
and on carrying out the manipulations it will usually be found that 
more or less of the details are left to the judgment of the analyst, 
and there is small probability that any two attempting to follow 
the instructions exactly will perform the assays in an absolutely 
identical manner. If these differences are material it will be neces- 
sary to fill in the gaps with explicit instructions. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

February, 1909. j 



The Assay of Drugs. 



63 



The methods start with the assumption that the analyst has a 
representative sample of the powdered air-dry drug. Air-dry drugs 
vary among themselves, and are affected by atmospheric conditions 
of humidity with respect to the amount of moisture they contain. 
Therefore it would be better to make a separate determination of 
loss of moisture on drying and compute the assay to a basis of dry 
drug. A representative sample of a crude drug is often very diffi- 
cult to obtain. If a bale is ground and the powder mixed it is easy, 
but to make a representative mixture of portions from different 
places in the package of leaves, roots, etc., requires trained judgment. 
There is also difficulty in obtaining proper comminution of small 
samples of tough and refractory drugs, as every particle must be 
powdered and small mills do not readily accomplish this. For 
example, one would not obtain a representative sample of ipecac if 
he rejected any of the woody fibre which the mill refuses to grind. 
It is important that the powder be as fine as the Pharmacopoeia di- 
rects for assay purposes, as extraction may otherwise be imperfect 
and cause variation in results. 

In extracting the drug both by the total extraction and aliquot 
methods, the powder is directed to be digested in a stoppered flask 
with a certain amount of volatile solvent to which ammonia is usually 
added to liberate the alkaloid. The digestion is to be accompanied 
with agitation, the amount of which is somewhat indefinitely stated, 
though in some cases the use of a mechanical agitator is alternatively 
directed. The direction "with frequent shaking" will be inter- 
preted differently by different persons, and for the sake of uniformity 
it would be better to direct " with continuous agitation." A me- 
chanical agitator driven by a small electric or water motor is easily 
arranged. 

The total extraction and aliquot methods are both recognized in 
the Pharmacopoeia, the latter usually being preferred for drugs 
which contain much alkaloid or are difficult to exhaust. Both have 
their advocates and advantages, but the cooperative work has not 
yet disclosed a decided superiority on the whole for either. A few 
modifications are desirable, such as the use of more solvent men- 
struum in the total extraction of certain drugs, and filtering the 
solution through cotton previous to, during, or after the shaking 
out process. 

A number of alkaloids after isolation from the corresponding 
drugs are directed to be determined by titration. They are dissolved 



64 



The Assay of Drugs. 



f Am. Jour. Pharni. 
\ February, 1909. 



in a certain volume of tenth-normal sulphuric acid which is more 
than that necessary to combine with and bring them into solution, 
the excess being then titrated back with fiftieth-normal potassium 
hydroxide to the neutral point as indicated by cochineal or iodeosin 
solution. Owing to the relatively high molecular weight of alkaloids 
and the small amount usually present, small differences in measuring 
the few cubic centimetres of tenth-normal sulphuric acid required 
have a relatively large effect upon the result. It seems desirable 
to substitute, for tenth-normal, twentieth- or fiftieth-normal acid in 
corresponding amount, even though it should prove necessary to 
hasten solution by the use of neutral alcohol. In any case a blank 
titration is advisable for comparison. 

These volumetric solutions are standardized upon purified potas- 
sium bitartrate as a basis. The standard is somewhat unfamiliar 
to analysts and a comparison with the usual standards has been 
instituted, but no conclusion has yet been reached. Experiments on 
checking the purity of the bitartrate by incinerating and cautiously 
igniting one of two equal portions and neutralizing the resulting 
carbonate with the reserved bitartrate resulted in a mixture of acid 
reaction. This may be attributable to loss in ignition. 

The principle of the standardization is faulty in adjusting the 
normal potassium hydroxide (from which the fiftieth-normal is 
prepared by dilution) from the potassium bitartrate by the use of 
phenolphthalein indicator, and then adjusting the normal sulphuric 
acid from the normal alkali with the use of methyl-orange. In the 
absence of carbonates the end points of phenolphthalein and methyl- 
orange do not differ so materially with normal as with weaker 
solutions. The methyl-orange, however, is used backward, so to 
speak, titrations with it being more commonly made to a pink than 
to a yellow color. The Pharmacopoeia takes cognizance of the fact 
that in alkaloidal titrations neither of these indicators, but a third, 
cochineal or iodeosin, is employed, and directs a special experiment 
and adjustment of the solutions for use with this indicator. The 
intention is apparently to have the tenth-normal acid adjusted to the 
fiftieth-normal alkali, whereas the acid, owing to its permanence and 
stability, is much better suited for a secondary standard. Cochineal 
as an indicator seems to give satisfaction to most analysts. As with 
other indicators experience teaches, and a dummy in proximity aids 
in determining the exact end point. 

Lack of time precludes any discussion of special methods such as 



Am. Jour. Pharni . \ 
February, 1909. j 



The Assay of Drugs. 



6S 



the assay of opium, or modifications adapted to particular drugs, 
such as cinchona and nux vomica. The assay methods for galenical 
preparations are likely to be applied by retail pharmacists more than 
those for crude drugs, since the employment of a standard drug does 
not assure a standard product. Their interest as well as that of the 
public is subserved by their exercising due control over such prod- 
ucts, for which, moreover, they cannot usually transfer the re- 
sponsibility. The methods are generally quite similar to those for 
crude drugs, but more expeditious, since the active principle is 
usually already in solution or readily dissolved. 

Assaying the finished product does not secure a complete remedy 
for all the abnormalities in drugs which may be occasioned by natural 
variation, accidental deterioration, or the ignorance, carelessness or 
cupidity of those through whose hands they pass. An assay will 
show, for example, how much alkaloid is present in a certain prepara- 
tion, provided it is the characteristic alkaloid of the drug in question. 
Ordinarily it will not show whether it is that particular alkaloid or a 
mixture of alkaloids ; nor will it usually indicate whether the original 
drug was mixed with other drugs or inert matter, or properly cured 
and in a good state of preservation. The physical examination of 
the original crude drug is a very important factor in controlling the 
quality of drug products. The process of grinding destroys many 
of the characteristics, and it is difficult to determine the quality of 
finely ground drugs even with the microscope. The efficient im 
spection and control of crude drugs at the point of importation into 
the country is therefore a very valuable agency in preventing the 
distribution of objectionable drugs. 



66 



Estimation of Alcohol. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1909. 



THE INFLUENCE OF GLYCERIN, ACETANILID AND 
CERTAIN OTHER AGENTS IN THE ESTIMA- 
TION OF ALCOHOL. 

By L. E. Warren and H. C. Fuller, 

Drug Division, Bureau of Chemistry, — Part of Report on Medicinal Plants 
and Drugs to the Association of Official Agricultural 
Chemists, 1908, by L. F. Kebler, Referee. 

Some time since the question was raised whether or not the 
presence of glycerin, acetanilid and certain other substances in 
pharmaceutical preparations would interfere with the accuracy of 
the estimation of alcohol. It was held by some that sufficient glyc- 
erin, acetanilid, etc. (or of their decomposition products), would 
be carried over in the alcoholic vapors during the distillation to 
raise the specific gravity of the distillate appreciably, thus giving 
results reading below the truth for alcohol. 

An examination of the literature showed that apparently no one 
had investigated this particular phase of the problem, though several 
workers have recorded their observations on the behavior of 
glycerin in boiling aqueous and alcoholic solutions, and others have 
noted that appreciable losses occur when acetanilid is dried at tem- 
peratures above 40°, or when its chloroformic solution is evaporated 
on the water-bath. 

Couttolenc 1 states that if glycerin be heated on a water-bath to 
90 C. for five hours it will lose any water that it may contain, and 
that then the evaporation of glycerin proceeds at the rate of about 
0.00317 gramme per hour per square centimetre of surface exposed. 
This proportion is increased by the admixture of sand and rapidly 
diminished by the lowering of the temperature. 

Nessler and Barth 2 have shown that by evaporating solutions of 
glycerin (aqueous or alcoholic) of different strengths on a water- 
bath, a noticeable loss occurs. They concluded that the loss of 
glycerin depended- upon two conditions: the strength of the solution 
and the volume of water evaporated. 



1 Repert. Pharm., 10, 73 (1882); Abst. Pharm. Jour., Tr. [3], 12, 804 
(1882). 

2 Z. anal. Chem., 21, 44 (1882), and 23, 327, 329 (1884) ; Abst. J. Chem. 
Soc, 46, 1434 (1884). 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1909. J 



Estimation of Alcohol. 



67 



Hehner 2 demonstrates that the conclusion of these last two ob- 
servers is erroneous in that, while glycerin doubtless is volatilized 
somewhat at the temperature of the water-bath when in a state of 
high concentration, it is not appreciably volatilized in aqueous vapor 
during the evaporation of the water. Aqueous solutions containing 
less than 50 per cent, glycerin showed no loss after several hours 
boiling, the volume being kept up by frequent additions of water. 
The loss in 73.8 per cent, solution was insignificant. Hehner did 
not experiment with hydro-alcoholic solutions of glycerin but, since 
the vapor tension of alcohol is greater than that of water, it is justi- 
fiable to assume that no glycerin would escape with the alcoholic 
vapors. 

Gantter 4 reaches the conclusion that glycerin and water mixtures 
do not lose glycerin on evaporation until all of the water has been 
evaporated. This author did not observe any loss of glycerin when 
an alcohol or glycerin mixture was evaporated. 

Struve 5 distilled a mixture of glycerin and water of known 
strength and collected the distillate in fractions. He then evapor- 
ated both the residue in the distilling flask and portions of the 
fractional distillates. From the results of one distillation he found 
a loss of about 0.379 P er cent - calculated as glycerin. His results 
are, however, questionable since he gives no intelligible data con- 
cerning the kind of flask used, or its dimensions, particularly the 
mean distance from surface of the boiling liquid to the delivery. It 
is possible that some glycerin may have been carried over me- 
chanically and not in the state of vapor. 

Yvon 6 states that acetanilid sublimes at 90 in the form of white, 
light crystals. 

Beringer 7 has noted that acetanilid is somewhat volatile at the 
temperature of the water-bath. 

Moerck 8 has demonstrated that dry acetanilid suffers a constant 



3 Analyst, 12, 45, 65-7 (1887); Abst. /. Chem. Soc, 52, 1143 (1887). 
*Z. anal. Chem., 34, 4 2 3~4 (1895); Abst. /. Chem. Soc, 68, II, 537 
(1895). 

6 Z. anal. Chem., 39, 95-9 (1900); Abst. Analyst., 25, 214 (1900); Abst. 
/. Chem. Soc., 78, II, 446 (1900). 

6 /. pharm. chim. [5], 15, 20 (1887) ; Abst. Pharm. Rev., 17, 804 (1899). 

7 Am. J. Pharm., 69, 150 (1897). 

8 Pa. Pharm. Assn. Proc, 21, 111 (1898) ; Am. J. Pharm., 70, 335 (1898) ; 
Abst. Am. Pharm. Assn. Proc, 47, 751 (1899). 



68 



Estimation of Alcohol. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1909. 



and increasing loss when heated above 40 °, the loss being much 
greater at higher temperatures. For example, between 48 and 55 
0.5000 gramme heated for one hour lost 0.00066 gramme, while be- 
tween 85 and 90 the loss was 0.03625 gramme. 

In estimating acetanilid Puckner 9 has observed that there is no 
loss when a chloroform or ether solution is evaporated at room 
temperature and the residue evaporated over sulphuric acid. If the 
evaporation be made from a narrow necked flask at 50°-6o° the loss 
is but slight, while at 95 the loss is appreciable. 

In the case of the United States against Robert N. Harper, 10 the 
chemist for the defense, John G. Hird, testified that in making a 
determination of alcohol by the A.O.A.C. method with a mixture of 
water, alcohol, glycerin and acetanilid, he found that the distillate 
" was not pure and that it contained glycerin and also a small amount 
of acetanilid which had distilled over with the alcohol." 

In order to determine to what extent (if any), glycerin, acetanilid, 
and some other substances influence the determination of alcohol, 
a number of experiments were carried out which are detailed in this 
paper. In these experiments all dilutions and measurements were 
made at 20 . This was accomplished by rilling graduated flasks 
nearly to the mark and placing them in a water-bath kept at con- 
stant temperature. At the end of from thirty to sixty minutes the 
content was made up to the mark. The specific gravity determina- 
tions were made with a pycnometer at ^ for alcohol and 
for glycerin. All alcoholic strengths are given in percentage by 
volume. 

Several methods of procedure were employed. In one a known 
volume of diluted alcohol of known strength was diluted with a 
known volume of diluted glycerin, the resultant mixture assayed, 
and the result compared with that calculated from the dilution. In 
another, a given volume of diluted alcohol of known strength was 
distilled to the same, volume, after adding about 10 per cent, of 
glycerin, or about 3 per cent, of acetanilid, or 1 per cent, of antipyrin, 
and the result compared with the duplicate to which no addition had 
been made. In another 300 c.c. of diluted alcohol of known strength 
were diluted to 500 c.c, after the addition of glycerin, acetanilid, 
etc. The alcohol was then determined and the result compared with 



• Pharm. Rev., 23, 302 (1905). 

10 Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter, 73, 10, column 4 (1908). 



Am. Jour. Pharm. | 
fc February ,^1909., J 



Estimation of Alcohol. 



69 



the calculated value. Alcohol was determined as follows : 100 c.c. 
of the liquid were diluted with 60 to 75 c.c. of water, about 95 c.c. 
distilled into the flask originally used for measuring, and the content 
brought to the mark. The specific gravity was determined and the 
alcohol value obtained from the tables. 11 About one-half of the 
distillations were made from a 250 c.c. distilling flask having a de- 
livery at a mean distance of about 16 cm. from the surface of the 
boiling liquid. The remainder were made from a 250 c.c. flask 
with delivery about 10 cm. from the surface of the liquid. The 
results obtained from the two styles of flask were not very appreci- 
ably different, although the losses in alcohol from the calculated 
values were slightly greater in the flask with the longer neck. 

Some diluted alcohol was prepared by mixing equal volumes of 
distilled water and alcohol. After standing forty-eight hours to 
insure maximum contraction the specific gravity was taken in 
triplicate. The results were 0.936304, 0.936423 and 0.936066, with 
a mean of 0.936264 corresponding respectively to the following per- 
centages of alcohol: 49.028, 48.965 and 49.150; mean, 49.048. The 
greatest difference in specific gravity was 0.000357 corresponding at 
this concentration to a difference of 0.185 per cent, of alcohol. The 
mean value, 49.048 per cent., was assumed to be the correct one and 
all calculations in succeeding dilutions are based upon it. 

The alcohol in the above mixture was determined twice. Sample 
A: specific gravity, 0.936825; alcohol, 48.756 per cent.; loss, 0.292 
per cent. Sample B : specific gravity, 0.93673 1 ; alcohol, 48.82 per 
cent. ; loss, 0.228 per cent. Mean loss, 0.26 per cent. Although 
great precautions were taken to prevent leakage through the joints of 
the apparatus there was an appreciable loss. 

A sample of diluted glycerin was prepared by mixing 100 c.c. of 
U. S. P. glycerin with 400 c.c. of distilled water. The specific 
gravity of this mixture was then determined and the percentage of 
glycerin calculated from Nicol's tables. 12 Specific gravity, 1. 0571 5; 
glycerol, 23.25 per cent, by weight. 

Two samples of this diluted glycerin of 100 c.c. each were then 
distilled as for alcohol by the usual method and the specific gravity 
of the respective distillates taken at 20 . The results were 1.0000003 
and 1.000113; mean 1.000056 corresponding to 0.0241 per cent. 



11 U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Chem., Bull. 107, p. 203. 
12 Pharm. Jour. Tr. [3], 18, 302 (1887). 



Estimation of Alcohol. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( February, 1909. 



glycerol, an entirely negligible quantity. One-half of one of these 
distillates was evaporated on the water-bath to about i c.c. and the 
evaporation continued to constant weight in a desiccator over sulph- 
uric add. The residue weighed 0.0007 gramme, equivalent to 0.0014 
gramme for the entire distillate, or 0.006 per cent, calculated as 
glycerin. Water was then added to the residue from the last dis- 
tillation (in the distilling flask), and about 90 c.c. distilled off. 
After diluting to 100 c.c. the specific gravity was 1.0000096 at ^ ; 
glycerin, 0.004 P er cent - Fifty c.c. of this distillate gave a residue 
of 0.0013 gramme or 0.0026 gramme for the entire sample; equiva- 
lent to 0.0112 per cent, of glycerin. 

Mixed 500 c.c of the diluted alcohol and 250 c.c. of the glycerin 
mixture with sufficient water to make 1000 c.c. after allowing for 
contraction. By calculation this mixture contains 24.524 per cent, 
of alcohol and about 5.9 per cent, of glycerin. The alcohol was 
determined in each of two 100 c.c. samples. A: specific gravity, 
0.971671 ; alcohol, 24.33 P er cent. ; loss, 0.194 per cent. B : specific 
gravity, 0.971 701 ; alcohol, 24.30 per cent. ; loss, 0.224 per cent. 
Mean loss, 0.209 per cent. A mean alcoholic loss of 0.209 per cent, 
in this determination (in which glycerin was present), compares 
favorably with a mean loss of 0.26 per cent, of alcohol in the de- 
terminations in a preparation containing no glycerin. Evaporation 
of 50 c.c. from one of these distillates gave no weighable residue. 

A mixture of alcohol and water was assayed for alcohol by the 
usual method, 50 c.c. being taken for the test; specific gravity, 
0.96889 ; alcohol, 26.95 per cent. Another sample of 50 c.c. of the 
same mixture was taken, 10 per cent, of glycerin added, and the 
alcohol determined as above : specific gravity, 0.96890 ; alcohol, 
26.937 per cent. ; loss, 0.02 per cent. The'se apparent losses could 
have been due to two possible causes : ( 1 ) A portion of the glycerin 
may have been volatilized, thus causing an increase in the specific 
gravity of the distillate, or, (2) a portion of the alcohol may have 
escaped by leakage through the joints of the apparatus. That the 
first theory is untenable is seen by the fact that the alcoholic dis- 
tillates gave no weighable residues on evaporation. 

From the foregoing, it is reasonable to conclude that glycerin does 
not appreciably affect the determination of alcohol. 

In mixtures of glycerin and alcohol only, both may be determined 
from one sample, as follows : Determine the alcohol in the usual 
way, make up the residue in the distilling flask to the original volume, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Febmary, 1909. j 



Estimation of Alcohol. 



7* 



determine the specific gravity and compute the percentage of 
glycerin from the published tables. 13 

To 100 c.c. of a glycerin-alcohol-water mixture (which assayed 
23.89 per cent, alcohol), 3.85 grammes of acetanilid were added, the 
mixture made up to no c.c. and the original volume (100 c.c.) 
distilled by the usual method. Specific gravity of distillate, 0.97212 ; 
alcohol, 23.89 per cent. It is seen that the addition of acetanilid did 
not influence the determination of alcohol. Fifty c.c. of the dis- 
tillate, when evaporated on the water-bath to about 1 c.c. and the 
evaporation continued over sulphuric acid gave 0.0013 gramme 
residue. The residue gave the isonitril reaction, indicating the 
presence of acetanilid. 

A mixture of alcohol and water was assayed for alcohol : specific 
gravity, 0.97236; alcohol, 23.65 per cent. An equal volume of the 
same mixture was treated in the same way after adding about 3 per 
cent, acetanilid : specific gravity, 0.97220 ; alcohol, 23.80 per cent. ; 
gain, 0.15 per cent. One-half of this last distillate was shaken out 
three times with chloroform, filtered and evaporated and the residue 
dried over sulphuric acid : residue, 0.0053 gramme ; proportion dis- 
tilling over, 0.706 per cent. The residue gave the isonitril reaction 
and a precipitate of tribrom acetanilid with bromine water. 

From the results of these experiments with acetanilid it is seen 
that this substance volatilizes somewhat in the vapors of boiling 
water (or in hydro-alcoholic vapors), but that the quantities dis- 
tilling over in carrying out the determination for alcohol are not 
sufficient to appreciably vitiate the alcoholic values. In addition to 
these experiments, another series was conducted in each of which 
300 c.c. of 41.509 per cent, alcohol were taken. Glycerin, acetanilid, 
and antipyrin were respectively added to different samples and each 
diluted to 500 c.c. Duplicate alcohol determinations were then made 
from each sample by each worker and the results compared with the 
calculated values. Aliquots of each distillate were evaporated and 
weighed. A mixture containing alcohol, water, glycerin, acetanilid, 
antipyrin, caffeine and the bromides of potassium and sodium was 
prepared and the alcohol and the solids in the distillate determined. 
Lastly, a similar mixture, but containing sugar in addition, was 
subjected to the same treatment. The results are given in the sub- 



13 Nicol, W. W. J.; Pharm. Jour. Tr. [3], 18, 302 (1887). 



72 



Estimation of Alcohol. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1909. 



joined table. An examination of these results shows that none of 
the substances added exert any marked vitiating influence in the 
determination of alcohol. 



Determination of Alcohol in Various Mixtures (Fuller). 





Alcohol 


Residue 
from 
50 c.c. 

distillate 


Per cent. 

solids 
distilling 
over 


Description of mixture 


Specific 
gravity 


Percent, 
found 


Per cent, 
gain 
or loss 




O.97086 
O.97071 


25.IO 
25-25 
























O.97085 
O.97098 


25.II 
24.99 


—O.065 
-O.I85 






Alcohol, water and acetanilid | 


O.97087 
O.97082 


25.09 
25-14 


—O.085 
-O.035 


0.0163 
O.0287 


0.109 
O.I91 


Alcohol, water and antipyrin j 


O.97077 
O.97085 


25-I9 
25.II 


+0.015 
—O.065 


O.OO06 


O.I20 


Alcohol, glycerin, acetanilid, anti- f 
pyrin, caffeine, sodium bromide -j 
and potassium bromide. y 


O.97082 
O.97071 


25.14 
25-25 


—O.035 
+ O.075 


O.OO33 
0.0066 


O.051 
O.IOI 


Same as above with sugar added. . -| 


O.97082 
O.97080 


25-14 
25.16 


—O.035 
—0.015 


O.OI97 
O.OI94 


0.1492 

0.1515 


Determination of Alcohol 


in Various Mixtures 


(Warren). 




Alcohol 


Residue 
from 
so c.c. 

distillate 


Per cent. 

solids 
distilling 
over 


Desciiption of mixture 


Specific 
gravity 


Percent, 
found 


Per cent, 
gain 
or loss 


f 


O.97093 
O.97102 
O.97090 


25.04 

24-95 

25.07 
















Alcohol, water and glycerin | 


O.971 21 
O.97I23 


24.77 
24.89 


—O.25 
— O.27 


O.OOO3 
O.OO07 


O.OI2 
O.028 


Alcohol, water and acetanilid | 


0-97I33 
O.97I08 


24-65 
24.89 


-0-37 
—O.13 


O.OOI2 
O.O081 


O.08 
o.54 


Alcohol, water and antipyrin | 


O.971 15 
O.971 17 


24-83 

24.81 


— O.19 
— 0.2I 


O.OOII 
O.OOI2 


O.II 
O.I2 


Alcohol, glycerin, acetanilid, anti- ( 
pyrin, caffeine, sodium bromide \ 
and potassium bromide. [ 


O.971 17 
O.97126 


24.81 
24.72 


— O 21 
—O.3O 


O.OOO7 
O.OOII 


O.OO54 
O.O084 


Same as above with sugar added 


O.97I07 


24.90 


— O.I2 


O.OOII* 


O.O084 



*Evaporated to dryness on steam bath. 



Am. Jour. Pharni. \ 
February, 1909. J 



Drug Adulteration. 



73 



DRUG ADULTERATION.* 

By L. F. Kebler, 
Chief, Division of Drugs, Bureau of Chemistry, Washington, D. C. 

The subject of drug adulteration should be of the utmost interest 
to druggists, physicians, and consumers. No physician or patient 
knowingly uses a debased drug and no druggist should so far forget 
his responsibility to the physician, the consumer, and to the public 
at large as to sell such drugs. In the past, and to a certain extent 
at present, many conditions obtained, as will be shown this evening, 
which made it impossible to definitely know when a debased drug 
or preparation made from same was in hand. The propaganda 
waged during the past few years for U.S. P. and N.F. products by 
the pharmaceutical profession makes it eminently desirable to place 
in the hands of druggists, manufacturing or otherwise, uniform 
drugs so that by following the same formulae different operators 
can produce preparations of the same physical appearance and 
therapeutic value from Maine to California. This will remove the 
greatest criticism at present extant, namely, the variation of the 
same remedy sold by different druggists. 

Chemical standards and methods for arriving at same are recog- 
nized for many potent drugs, but often disturbing factors present 
themselves which render standards based upon purely chemical 
methods unreliable. For example, the sample of belladonna leaves 
before you consists of a mixture of belladonna and Phytolacca leaves. 
The usual chemical analysis would not reveal the presence of the 
latter. The same remarks hold for this sample of belladonna root 
adulterated with poke root. Here is another sample consisting of 
a mixture of belladonna and scopola leaves. Chemical analysis 
might show that the per cent, of alkaloidal matter is fully up to 
the requirements, but if the product should be used when a bella- 
donna preparation is called for, or vice versa, undesirable results 
might follow. Here I have a sample of henbane leaves below the 
standard. The leaves themselves are genuine. According to some 
importers this drug of proper quality is scarce and high priced and 
some manufacturers felt the need of some drug which could be used 
in fortifying the inferior leaves. The drug ultimately found which 

* Read at the first meeting of the Washington Branch of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, December 14, 1908. 



74 



Drug Adulteration. 



(Am. Jour. Pharni. 
\ February, 1909. 



would raise the alkaloidal content and thus apparently satisfy certain 
requirements was Hyoscyamus muticus, L. a spurious henbane. 
The alkaloidal content of this plant is frequently from 8 to 12 times 
above the maximum content of henbane leaves, but the alkaloidal 
material is different from that contained in henbane proper. The 
physiological action of the two drugs being dissimilar it is impossible 
to conceive how a manufacturer could expect to produce a henbane 
preparation which would supply the physician's need bv mixing 
these two drugs. Chemically it would be exceedingly difficult, if 
not impossible, to detect such adulterations, far less in preparations 
made therefrom. A trained pharmacognoeist, however, can easily 
find the fraud in the plant material by macroscopical and micro- 
scopical means. In our work both chemical and pharmacognostical 
methods are used. Adulterations of the above character are most 
pernicious. If the physician desires to make such combinations that 
is his privilege, but it should not be done for him surreptitiously 
by some ignoramus whose sole purpose is the few cents he may 
be able to get out of the transaction. 

The higher the price of a commodity the greater is the incentive 
to adulterate. One of the products frequently adulterated in the past 
is saffron. When the work was begun adulterated saffron was 
offered for entry which was refused ; then the adulterants themselves 
were offered which were likewise refused admission. Here are two 
such adulterants consisting of calendula florets, colored to resemble 
saffron. One was offered for entry under the name " feminella," 
the other under the name " calendula tinctura." The former has for 
years been prepared in Germany expressly for this purpose. The 
name "calendula tinctura " was applied by the importer to comply 
with the proviso of Section 7 of the Food and Drugs Act. 

At the present date adulteration by complete substitution is not 
very common, but it is met with now and then. The sample before 
you is spurious arnica flowers with the following history : A promi- 
nent importer forwarded a sample of so-called " arnica flowers " to 
the Bureau of Chemistry with the information that it was imported 
and sold for arnica flowers. The sample was forwarded to Dr. 
Rusby at New York with instructions to detain all importations of 
this material shipped under the name arnica flowers. In due time 
a shipment arrived. The exact source of the product is not known 
excepting that it is botanically a composite. Recently a consignment 
of " dog grass " was offered for importation which was found to be 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1909. J 



Drug Adulteration. 



75 



wholly spurious. The staff of the Division of Drugs was not able 
to identify its origin but knowing that it belonged to the grass family 
it was submitted to an expert of the Bureau of Plant Industry who 
immediately recognized the material as Bermuda grass. A sample 
of kamala was recently found which consists essentially of sand, 
colored. The latter represents a domestic transaction and is sold 
under the name of a prominent firm. No such product was ever 
encountered at the ports during the past eighteen months. Undoubt- 
edly the firm in question did not examine the product carefully 
before attaching its name to the packages containing same. 

A common and very old form of sophistication is the addition of 
inorganic matter to crude drugs. This sample of dandelion root 
contains 34 per cent, of ash which means that about 25 per cent, 
of inorganic material has been deliberately added. The inorganic 
material in this instance consists of small fragments about the same 
color and size as the ground drug. Optical inspection fails to reveal 
its presence, but an ash determination tells the story. A product 
particularly susceptible to " loading " with foreign material is 
cochineal. The form most commonly loaded, however, is the sil- 
vered variety. It is well known, however, that black cochineal is 
also occasionally weighted. The sample before you is weighted 
with black sand. 

It is claimed by certain dealers that if drug products are not 
" stretched " there would not be enough pure material to go around. 
This sample of scammony resin contains at least 50 per cent of rosin. 
When the importer was informed of the presence of the rosin in 
the scammony he admitted the adulteration and stated that the 
practice was an old one, and he saw no reason why this consignment 
should not be released. Some importers are utterly indifferent to 
the medicinal value a drug may possess. This feature appears to 
be of secondary importance. 

There are still a few imitation drugs on the market, for example, 
imitation balsam peru, which has been in the past largely supplied 
when balsam peru was ordered. This sample of Wild Cherry Cough 
Drops is also an imitation. The product is put up in the form of 
cherries and consists of a mixture of sucrose and glucose flavored 
with benzaldehyde and colored with cochineal. It is worthless as a 
medicine. There is not a trace of wild cherry present ; the benzalde- 
hyde is added to deceive the consumer. 

At the Hot Springs meeting of the American Pharmaceutical 



76 



Drug Adulteration. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ Febraary, 1909. 



Association the Department was criticised for not having investi- 
gated certain domestic drugs. In reply to this criticism the writer 
stated that it was thought more expedient to direct investigations to 
imported products first and to deal with domestic shipments later. 
Investigations of the domestic samples were, however, in progress 
some time before the Hot Springs meeting, but at that time no 
information was available which could be utilized. Since then, 
however, a number of interesting findings have been made. Here 

1 have three samples of colocynth, each representing a number of 
different shipments of the same manufacturer to a number of differ- 
ent sections of the United States. One consists entirely of seeds, 
another of pulp and seeds, while the third is virtually in accordance 
with the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia. What the miller does 
with the colocynth pulp must be left to the future to determine. It 
is certain, however, that colocynth preparations made from colocynth 
seeds instead of colocynth pulp are worthless so far as any laxative 
value is concerned. To my mind this is one of the worst frauds 
encountered so far. 

During the past few years much has been said relative to pink 
root being substituted in whole or in part by ruellia. There seems 
to be little excuse for placing an adulterated product of this character 
on the market. This sample, bought for pink root, is ruellia. It is 
claimed that ruellia is as efficient an anthelmintic as pink root, but 
this is an entirely different question. Ruellia should certainly not 
be sold when pink root is called for. 

Numerous difficulties have been encountered by importers during 
the past few years in obtaining ipecac which contains the required 

2 per cent, standard of alkaloidal material. The Pharmacopceial 
committee therefore reduced the standard to 1.75 per cent. The 
sample before you, however, contains approximately one-third of 
the alkaloidal material prescribed by the lowered standard. Whether 
or not the drug has deteriorated in value or is diluted with some 
agent is not known at present. 

The above cases serve to illustrate how the Government is trying 
to protect the interests of consumers, physicians, many retail drug- 
gists and some manufacturers. Most of these parties are grati- 
fied by the results accomplished thus far. Some interests think the 
law is not rigidly enough enforced, others are of a contrary mind. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1909. j 



Inaugural Address. 



77 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS AS PRESIDENT OF THE WASH- 
INGTON BRANCH OF THE AMERICAN PHAR- 
MACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION * 

By H. W. Wiley. 

Members of the Association, Ladies and Gentlemen : 

I desire first of all to thank you most cordially for the great honor 
you have bestowed upon me by choosing me as the first President 
of this new organization. I accept the honor and the office with a 
full sense of the fact that I as a pharmacist would be entirely un- 
qualified for this position. Perhaps my selection may be due to the 
fact that I occupy somewhat of a unique position, being a Doctor 
of Medicine without clients and dealing in drugs without being a 
graduate in pharmacy. Two more contradictory positions could 
hardly be imagined. 

In another sense, however, I am in full sympathy with the pur- 
pose of this organization. The profession of pharmacy is rapidly 
assuming that position among the learned and exact sciences to 
which it is justly entitled. The science of pharmacy, in fact, is much 
more an exact science than that of medicine. Its related branches 
of learning, namely, pharmacognosy and pharmacology, bring it 
into direct and immediate contact with the medical profession. 
In fact pharmacy and medicine may be regarded as twin sisters, 
united as Siamese twins, by the bonds of pharmacognosy, phar- 
macology, and physiology. This emphasizes the idea that physicians 
and pharmacists should act in harmony and sympathy and not in 
an antagonistic way. To a certain extent a pharmacist is also a 
physician, and to a certain extent the physician is also a pharmacist. 
Especially in districts which are thinly settled the physician becomes 
an ambulant pharmacist, and in more densely peopled regions the 
pharmacist becomes a stationary physician. 

One great object which will be secured by the combined efforts of 
pharmacists in an organized manner will be a rapprochement with 
the great medical profession. This bringing together of the twins 
will, however, perhaps never result in a single being, but the 
rapprochement will be of an asymptotic character. I know that 
there has been at times a considerable degree of friction between 



* Read Monday, Dec. 14. 1908. 



78 



I)i augural Address. 



[Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ February, 1909. 



the two professions of medicine and pharmacy. The physicians 
have complained because of the universal and very extensive dispen- 
sation of proprietary remedies by the pharmacists to the laity. On 
the other hand, the pharmacists have complained because of the 
too extensive practice of pharmacy by the physicians. These two 
evils complained of can perhaps never be entirely remedied, but by 
mutual collaboration a very great improvement may be secured. 

I am sure that every member of this Association realizes the 
evils which come from the drug habit, and perhaps there is no 
country where the drug habit is so firmly established as in the 
United States. For instance, if you have the slightest ailment of 
the Schneiderian membrane every friend who calls will know of 
a certain and speedy remedy which can be secured at every drug 
store. It is remarkable how each one of these remedies is advocated 
by the friend as the only one which is efficacious. And so it is with 
every other disease. No wonder then that the pilgrimage to the 
patent medicine counter is so numerous and so constant. There 
are doubtless simple remedies which may be properly dispensed to 
those who have slight colds or slight diseases of other kinds, with 
benefit and propriety, but when the two professions come together 
the pharmacist will be supplied by the corresponding organization 
of physicians with a list of the remedies which should be permitted 
to be dispensed for these simple diseases ; and the pharmacist, if he 
desires, may compound them himself. There will be, at least, no 
necessity of paying ten prices for a simple remedy put up under a 
so-called proprietary formula. Both the pharmacist and the con- 
sumer will be immensely benefited by this arrangement, and the 
physician will not be injured, because the ailment is of such a 
character that it would not in any case be carried to the notice of 
the physician's office. It seems to me that in the future the sale 
of such articles may be very properly arranged in the manner I have 
prescribed, with benefit to all parties. 

The indiscriminate drugging of the community, at their own 
request, is a practice which the pharmacist should frown upon. As 
a rule there is very little occasion for using drugs for slight dis- 
turbances of health. If one is troubled with acidity of the stomach 
it may be remedied by changing the amount or character of his diet. 
If he has a slight cold the simple remedy which the physician 
recommends to the druggist will be quite sufficient without paying" 
a fancy price for remedies offered him, many of which I doubt not 



Am. Jour. Pharni. / 
February, 1909. \ 



Inaugural Address. 

o 



79 



may be helpful, but many are simply remedies which the pharmacist 
has at his disposal and which the consumer ought to get for the 
proper reward to the manufacturer for supplying them. I believe, 
therefore, an organization of this kind, working with such an 
organization as the medical society of the district, may be extremely 
helpful and at the same time confer upon the public a much more 
certain and less expensive benefit. I feel quite sure there is no 
pharmacist here who would desire to sell at the instance of a cus- 
tomer suffering with a serious disease, a remedy of any kind. Such 
a customer should undoubtedly be referred to the physician for 
examination and treatment. The physicians must also do their 
part in this mutual benefit association and must leave to the phar- 
macist the furnishing of the remedies in the general way which 
they prescribe, although in cases of emergency or necessity, such as 
I have already alluded to, they would be perfectly justified in carry- 
ing their own remedies with them and dispensing them without the 
intermediation of the pharmacist. 

Another thought which I would like to impress upon you to-night 
is the idea that drug laws, national, state and municipal, are not 
enacted for the benefit of the pharmacist directly, but that their sole 
purpose should be for the protection of the consumer. It is true 
the pharmacist will reap a great benefit from these laws — that is, 
the legitimate pharmacist — because their tendency in all cases is to 
eliminate unfair competition. I do not believe any more in absent 
dispensing than I do in absent medical treatment, and I do not 
know why a so-called drug distributer in the city of New York 
should supply the city of Washington with drugs. 1 believe in the 
patronage of home industries, and when I want a drug I want to 
get it at home. It is true there may be cases where home drugs 
are not of the character that the patient wants, just as occasionally 
he may go to some other city for some special medical treatment. 
These, of course, are special cases arising from special necessities. 
On the whole, however, I believe that the home stores should be 
patronized, not only for drugs, but for everything. The prosperity 
of the community does not depend upon one spending his money in a 
neighboring state. In fact there would not be a more sure way 
of breaking down the business of the city or village than for one 
having money to spend it abroad. The people would soon be in a 
condition in which they would have no money to spend. The law 
controlling the traffic in drugs is not for your benefit. You need 



8o 



Inaugural Address. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I February, 1909. 



only to read the text of the Food and Drug Acts to understand its 
purpose. It is true that very often in the legislation which results 
in the enactment of these laws special interests receive unwarranted 
and reprehensible consideration. There is scarcely an act which 
relates to the public welfare which is not to some extent moulded 
by this special influence. This is true of drug as well as of food 
acts ; acts regulating interstate commerce, rates and corporations ; 
but such manipulation of the law is not evidently the purpose of 
the legislators. Judge McPherson, of the Western District of 
Missouri, in a recent decision under the Food and Drugs Act, em- 
phasized this idea in a most convincing manner. He says : " This 
statute is to protect consumers, and not producers. It is a most 
beneficent and righteous statute, and within the powers of Con- 
gress to legislate concerning, and should be enforced." The sooner 
the manufacturer realizes this fundamental principle of this legisla- 
tion the better. The main purpose of a drug law is, first, to see that 
the consumer gets the drug which the prescription calls for ; second, 
that he is not subject to extortion through any secret manipulation 
falsely enhancing the prices at which the drug was sold ; third, that 
the citizen be protected properly against the formation of the drug 
habit; and fourth, that the citizen who has already formed this 
unfortunate habit may be so restrained in his access to the " dope " 
that he may be cured of his disease. 

The incidental protection to the pharmacist comes in those pro- 
visions of the act which require that he be a qualified man, that he 
be licensed to practise his profession, and that he be protected from 
unfair competition in the exercise of his profession. These features 
of the law, which mean to protect the pharmacist, are mere inci- 
dentals in that the real protection of the consumer may be more 
perfect. 

In the third place I may say that the existing drug laws through- 
out the United States, while admirable in conception and useful in 
practice, still lack many features, which, if added, would greatly 
increase their efficiency. I have no time here, nor would it be an 
appropriate moment, to make a digest of the various state laws and 
regulations relating to traffic in drugs. I may refer for just one 
moment, however, to the national law as an illustration of the state- 
ment above made. 

The provisions of the national laws relating to drugs are most 
salutary and admirable in so far as they extend, but they are not 



Am. Jour. Pharm. J 
February, 1909. J 



/ n augur a I A d dress . 



8 1 



sufficiently far reaching, and they are to some extent weakened by 
provisos, which, while intended to be of a proper character, are 
really used as vehicles of abuses. For instance, the provision of 
the law that drugs bearing a given name should correspond in 
purity and strength to the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia is 
certainly a requirement which every honest pharmacist and every 
observing consumer approves, but the proviso that follows, which 
says that a drug may bear the same name as that in the Phar- 
macopoeia and yet differ in strength and purity if the character of 
that difference be stated upon the label, is a means of confusion, 
and even of deception and danger. It is true that when a physician 
writes a prescription it is presumed to be filled by Pharmacopceial 
remedies, but the national law cannot go into a state and see to it 
that this is done. It permits a translation from one state to another 
of drugs bearing the name of Pharmacopceial remedies and yet 
differing very greatly in purity and strength therefrom. Unless 
the state law requires the druggist to fill his prescriptions from 
Pharmacopceial medicines the greatest frauds endangering life and 
health may be practised. What use is there, I may ask, of drugs 
bearing Pharmacopceial names differing from the Pharmacopceial 
standard? They certainly are not to be used for medicinal pur- 
poses, because a physician in prescribing a remedy, if he wants it 
weak in a certain ingredient would prescribe less of it. He would 
not prescribe a remedy bearing the same name, but differing from 
the standard. He would not know whether such a variable drug 
were present in the store. My own opinion is that the national law 
would be very much strengthened if drugs not of Pharmacopceial 
strength were entirely excluded from interstate commerce except 
when they be used for other purposes than medicines. 

Again, the provision of the national act that certain habit-forming 
drugs should have their names and quantities stated upon the label 
is a most excellent provision in so far as warning the consumer is 
concerned. The consumer picking up a package of this drug and 
seeing that it contains a habit-forming constituent would avoid its 
use. On the other hand, this very element of safety to the normal 
consumer becomes an element of injury to the consumer who is 
already a victim of the habit. It guides him in selecting the very 
" dope " that he wishes to get. 

This leads me to the fourth and last problem which I wish to 
present to you to-night, namely, what should be the future attitude 



82 



Inaugural Address. 



( Am. Jour. Tharm. 
\ February, 1909. 



of this country respecting the drug habit. I believe there is no one 
who doubts the enormous injury which is done to the people of 
this country by the indiscriminate consumption of alcohol, opium, 
cocaine, etc. The question then arises, how is this evil to be pre- 
vented or mitigated ? Just at present nearly all that is said in regard 
to this matter relates to one of the drugs alone, namely, alcohol, and 
the people of this country are rapidly adopting the conviction that 
prohibition is the only efficacious remedy. No one will doubt for a 
moment that if absolute prohibition is established the evil must dis- 
appear, but it is one thing to declare a blockade and another thing 
to maintain it. The laws of war provide that no nation may by 
simple proclamation establish a blockade. If it does not have the 
necessary ships to enforce the blockade it is null and void. So it 
is with prohibition. If a blockade is declared against alcohol in a 
given state or a given section of a state, it is only effective provided 
the police powers of the state make it effectual. The universal his- 
tory, however, of prohibition so far, of the fragmental kind which 
has existed in this country, is that the blockade is not effective. 
When the saloon is abolished the " speak-easy " appears, and of the 
two evils the latter is regarded as the greater. If we had a world- 
wide prohibition in which the whole country took a part it would 
be different. Such an attempt is already proposed in reference to 
opium and an international congress is to meet in Shanghai for the 
purpose of having illegitimate traffic in opium universally prohibited. 
Already in this country under the Food and Drugs Act we have 
excluded smoking opium from entry and therefore from interstate 
commerce, but of course our laws do not exclude opium of Phar- 
macopceial strength. It is a fact known to you all that smoking 
opium is always of a lower grade. There are alkaloidal bodies and 
resins in opium which have a very marked effect upon the smoker, 
yet if the low grade opiums, that is, those containing low content 
of morphia, are excluded there is no reason why the high grades 
may not find their way into the smoking dens. They may not be so 
efficacious nor so desirable to the victims, but they evidently will 
produce something of the same effects. 

Another important factor in this consideration must not be lost 
sight of, namely, that if we have universal, international prohibition 
in habit-forming drugs, we shall eliminate some of the most useful 
vehicles of the physician necessarily handled by the pharmacist. 
Hence a prohibition of a universal nature must result in the elimina- 



*fc££, I 5Sr} Inaugural Address. 83 

tion of vehicles of the utmost importance to the physician and which 
must be handled by the pharmacist. Such international regulations, 
therefore, must be coupled with a means of providing- for the 
legitimate use of these articles. 

I think it will not be doubted by any that the use of a fermented 
or alcoholic beverage in the family, upon the family table, in domestic 
sociability, is not the worst feature of intemperance. The use 
of alcohol, opium, morphia, cocaine, etc., as official drugs should not 
be, and could not be, prohibited. The great question of the future 
therefore, it seems to me, in the elimination of these evils which now 
so seriously affect the human race, will be answered by a wise 
choice of means whereby alcoholic beverages, habit-forming drugs, 
and the like, may be entirely placed beyond the reach of the consum- 
ing public, except in a legitimate way, in the home consumption of 
beverages and the controlled use of other habit-forming drugs. 

What method may prove to be most effective is of course an open 
question. At the present time a number of bills are pending in 
Congress looking to the suppression of at least a portion of the 
illegitimate trade in opium and a few other drugs. Doubtless many 
attempts will be made before the really workable and effective law 
comes into existence. One of the plans which promises the greatest 
hopes of success is that of a government monopoly. I know this is 
paternalism, but paternalism is a matter of politics and necessity 
which has come to stay. People pay to be governed and they want 
to be protected so their money may bring them some reward. If the 
principle of paternalism is wrong then all laws rest on a false basis, 
because every single law that I know of is a form of paternalism. 
When paternalism really existed in the person of the patriarch he 
made his own laws, and the patriarch is now the President, the 
King, the Emperor, working through an established constitution 
to establish effective methods for protecting his people. In many 
countries the government monopoly has already been established in 
tobacco and in alcohol, and there is no reason why it should not be 
extended to opium, to morphia, to cocaine, to caffeine, and to other 
habit-forming drugs. The legislation of the future, I predict, will 
be along these lines in so far as the drug trade is concerned. If it 
be urged that a government monopoly will divert legitimate trade 
from pharmacists, I may say that a government monopoly will render 
necessary the employment of an army of pharmacists. The pro- 
fession will not lose, although the method of reward will be by 



8 4 



Fluid gly cerates. 



{ 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
February, 1909. 



salary instead of by profit on the business. It seems to me the 
conscientious pharmacist at the present time, knowing that he is 
selling drugs that endanger the health and happiness of his cus- 
tomers, would be more than gratified to be relieved of this responsi- 
bility. I, of course, do not know how a man feels when he sells 
morphia to a ie doper." I should have to do it a great many times 
before I could go to sleep without thinking about it, and I would 
welcome that change in business which would place this responsibility 
upon the government itself. 

In the working out of these problems generally this Association, 
daughter of a vigorous parent, will do much. You live here in the 
Capital where national laws are made. You, more than other 
pharmacists, come in direct contact with the members of the Legisla- 
ture. You, more than other pharmacists, will exert a controlling 
influence over such legislation. Therefore, in the interests of the 
profession and in the interests of humanity, let us study well these 
great problems which are now before us and choose wisely in our 
work for the future. 



THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF FLUIDGLYCERATES 



In the paper entitled " Fluidglycerates " presented by Mr. Geo. M. 
Beringer at the 1908 meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation and published in the November issue of the American 
Journal of Pharmacy, formulas are given for fluidglycerates of 
digitalis and ergot. Mr. Beringer, in presenting formulas for these 
two drugs, admits that the finished preparations should be tested 
physiologically to determine their value. 

Having an occasion recently to test samples of digitalis and ergot 
physiologically, advantage was taken of the opportunity to compare 
the action of liquid preparations of these drugs made bv using 
glycerin and water as menstruum, with that of preparations made 
by using alcohol and water as menstruum. 

The preparations for the tests were made as follows : 



OF DIGITALIS AND ERGOT. 



By Johx R. Rippetoe. 




.100 c.c. 



10 Gm. 



Adi. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1909. >" 



Fluidgly cerates. 



85 



Digitalis, -fluidgly cerate. 

Digitalis 10 Gm. 

Glycerin and water, equal amounts, sufficient to make.. 100 c.c. 

The drug was moistened with the menstruum, packed in a small 
percolator, macerated forty-eight hours, and then 100 c.c. of perco- 



late collected. 

Ergot, alcoholic. 

Ergot 20 Gm. 

Acetic acid 0.4 c.c. 

Alcohol, dilute, sufficient to make ..40 c.c. 

Ergot, fluidgly cerate. 

Ergot 20 Gm. 

Acetic acid 0.4 c.c. 

Glycerin and water, equal amounts, sufficient to make... 40 c.c. 



Sufficient menstruum, containing the acetic acid, was used to 
moisten the drug, which was packed in a small percolator, macerated 
forty-eight hours, and then 40 c.c. of percolate collected, the percola- 
tion being allowed to proceed very slowly. 

The digitalis preparations were tested on frogs. The alcoholic 
preparation required 0.005 c - c - P er gramme-weight of frog as the 
minimum lethal dose, while the glycerate required 0.025 c.c. per 
gramme-weight to produce the same results. The alcoholic prep- 
aration was administered in the presence of the alcohol. 

In testing the action of the ergot equal amounts of the two pre- 
pared liquids were administered to roosters by injecting them into 
the thigh muscle. Although the sample was apparently of rather 
poor quality a typical darkening of the comb was produced by the 
hydro-alcoholic extract, while the hydroglycerin extract produced 
only a slight paling of the comb and wattles, which soon passed off. 
This test was carried out in duplicate, four roosters being used for 
this purpose. 

The physiological testing of digitalis on frogs affords results that 
are approximately quantitative, hence the results obtained would 
indicate that the hydro-alcoholic preparation is five times more 
potent than hydroglycerin preparation. 

The testing of ergot on roosters does not afford quantitative re- 
sults, and sometimes the results are not very satisfactory considered 
qualitatively. But, having made duplicate physiological tests of 
each preparation, the writer feels convinced that the hydro-alcoholic 



86 



Book Reviews. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1909. 



menstruum is superior to the hydroglycerin menstruum for making 
liquid preparations of ergot. 

It is very readily seen that the preparations made with glycerin and 
water as menstruum do not produce the marked physiological actions 
that are produced by similar preparations using alcohol and water 
as menstruum, hence the fluidglycerates of these two drugs could 
hardly be considered as taking the place of their fluidextracts. 
Nevertheless their fluidglycerates may possess a therapeutic value 
which can be better proven by clinical tests. 

570 East 133d St., New York City. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Handbuch der Pharmakognosie von A. Tschirch. Mit 
meheren hundert Abbildungen im Text und auf Tafeln. sowie ver- 
schiedenen Karten. In circa 30 Lieferungen a Mark 2. — oder in 4 
Abteilungen zum Preise von je ca., Mark 15. Leipzig: Chr. Herm. 
Tauchnitz, 1908. 

To those of us who have been using for years Fliickiger's Pharma- 
kognosie des Pflanzenreiches and regarding it as a vade mecum and 
work of reference that we could not be without, this work of 
Tschirch's seems like the realization of a dream. Tschirch has for 
years been laying' the foundation for not only the execution of this 
work but for its reception by the pharmaceutical and medical pro- 
fessions. Pharmacognosy is a distinct branch of science. While 
the methods used in this science are similar to those employed in 
pure botany and chemistry, the point of view is different. Not 
only are the latest results in the development of botanical science 
and certain divisions of chemical science necessary to the pharma- 
cognocist, but he must also consider the geographical distribution 
of plants and their history as well as the latest development in their 
cultivation, and finally follow the drugs derived from them after they 
are collected, cured, sorted, stored, and enter commerce, and study 
their constituents, structure, and other characters. In short the 
problem is to know drugs and to develop the most intimate knowl- 
edge concerning them so that they and their preparations may be 
used by the pharmacologist and physician with perfect confidence 
and assurance as to their identity and therapeutic quality. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1909. J 



Book Reviews. 



87 



Pharmacognosy has developed until eleven subdepartments are to 
be recognized, viz. : 

1. Pharmakocrgasie, or the cultivation, collection and harvesting 
of drugs. 1 

2. Pharmakoemporia, or the commerce, exportation and importa- 
tion of drugs and handling them in warehouses. 

3. Pharmakodiakosmie, the sorting, garbling and packing of drugs. 

4. Pharmakobotanik , or the study from the view-point of syst:- 
matic, morphological, anatomical, physiological and pathological 
botany. 

5. Pharmakozoology, or study of animal drugs. 

6. Pharmakochemie, or plant chemistry. 

7. Phdrmakophysik. 

8. Pharmakogeo graph ie. 

9. Pharmakohistoria, 

10. Pharm a koeth n o I ogie . 

11. Pharmakoetymolo gie . 

The book is profusely illustrated with half-tones and line drawings 
and under each drug is given all of the information which is avail- 
able, and in accordance with this broad consideration of the sub- 
divisions of pharmacognosy. 

The conception and execution of this work are those of a master, 
and it will always stand as a masterpiece in its line and a monument 
to the genius and attainments of Professor Tschirch. It may prob- 
ably be looked upon from the point of view of humanity as one of 
the most important books ever written, as it is likely that not only- 
will pharmacologists but pharmacists come to recognize that pharma- 
cognosy is fundamentally of equal importance with the other divis- 
ions of pharmaceutical science, and as Schleiden has well said, " die 
mutter aller naturwissenschaftlichen Disziplinen." 

The Newer Remedies, including their Synonyms, Sources, 
Tests, Solubilities, Incompatibilities, Medicinal Properties and Doses 
as far as known, together with such Proprietaries as have Similar 
Titles. By Virgil Coblentz. Fourth Edition, revised and enlarged. 
Boston: The Apothecary Publishing Co., 145 High St., 1908. 

This work has become an indispensable reference manual for 
physicians, pharmacists and students. Nearly ten years have elapsed 
since the publication of the last edition of the book, and in that 
time changes and additions have rendered the old text practically 



88 



Book Reviews. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1909. 



useless and obsolete. Every pharmacist and physician needs this 
new text for information about the synonyms, sources, tests, solubili- 
ties, incompatibilities, medicinal properties, and doses of all the new 
remedies. Great pains have been made to cover the entire field of 
this class of preparations including proprietaries of similar sounding 
titles. The number of new remedies appearing in the world's 
markets is increasing with amazing rapidity, which, with the influx 
of foreign emigration and the growing commercial intercourse with 
other nationalities, compels the modern apothecary to* be very alert 
as to the developments along this line. Probably no one by training, 
education, and practical experience is capable of writing so authori- 
tative a work on the newer remedies as Professor Coblentz, and 
this book will be highly appreciated by the professions interested 
as well as by analysts. 

Pharmacology. The Action and Uses of Drugs. By Maurice 
V. Tyrode. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1012 Walnut 
St., 1908. Pages 255. Price, $1.50. 

The medical student needs as good training in pharmacology or 
pharmacodynamics as in the study of the therapeutical action of 
drugs. This book was prepared, as stated by the author, in order to 
furnish the students in the Medical School of Plarvard University 
with " a small and concise text-book which would give the facts 
essential to an ordinary medical student without profound scientific 
discussions of opposite opinions." 

The author has prepared a very creditable book, based, it is true, 
largely on the results of the leaders in pharmacology like Schmiede- 
berg, Cushny, Sollman and others. The treatment is in a scientific 
manner and this must be helpful to the medical student as well as 
practitioner. 

In this work the drugs are brought into groups, in connection with 
which is given a brief summary of the general action, following 
the latter is a short statement concerning the uses and applications, 
and lastly there is a concise description of the different preparations 
used in medicine, including the doses of each. 

The Art of Dispensing. Eighth Edition. By Peter MacEwan, 
F.C.S., Pharmaceutical Chemist, Editor of The Chemist and 
Druggist, London, England. 542 pages. Price $2.00. From 
McKesson & Robbins, New York City. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1909. J 



Book Reviews. 



s 9 



This volume, as the title implies, is a treatise upon the compound- 
ing of medical prescriptions and includes a list of the more com- 
monly used synthetic remedies, together with a chapter on foreign 
prescriptions. A general treatment of methods and manipulation 
at the prescription counter, together with the use of various appa- 
ratus, is followed by chapters on the different forms of medication, 
as pills, solutions, ointments, suppositories, emulsions, etc. Incom- 
patibilities are then discussed and numerous examples given, illus- 
trating different types. The chapter on foreign prescriptions will 
be of especial value to English and Continental pharmacists and a 
rather uncommon addition to a treatise on dispensing is the chapter 
on homoeopathic prescriptions. This volume would be a valuable 
addition to the prescription department of any pharmacy, although 
it has been written to fill the needs, especially, of English 
pharmacists. E. F. C. 

Pharmaceutical Formulas. The Chemists' and Druggists' 
Book of Useful Recipes for the Drug Trade. Collated chiefly from 
The Chemist and Druggist and the Chemists' and Druggists' Diaries. 
By Peter MacEwan, Phar. Chem., F.C.S. Seventh Edition. Pub- 
lished by The Chemist and Druggist, London. Price $3.50. New 
York, McKesson and Robbins. 

The seventh edition of this compilation of recipes is a volume of 
1043 P a g es > closely printed and by the use of small but clear type, 
in double columns on many pages and many abbreviations, many 
thousand formulas, representing most that is both good and bad 
in the drug trade, are introduced. The intent of the author is to 
preserve in this work many of the recipes that have been omitted 
from the more recent pharmaceutical books as obsolete, and at the 
same time maintain the primary purpose of presenting an up-to- 
date formulary. His editorial experience has beerf a valuable aid 
in selecting those formulas that have been requested or commended 
by correspondents. The wide range of subjects covered indicates 
the miscellaneous commodities that druggists are called upon to 
supply as well as the numerous topics on which the public look to 
us for information. 

The Formulary is arranged into sixteen chapters and under 
appropriate headings the formulas are classified and grouped, but 
as might be expected the classifications, in some, instances, are not 
rigidly adhered to. Each chapter and classification is usually pre- 



90 



Book 



Reviews. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1909. 



ceded by a short, pithy preface full of historical data and advice 
as to manipulations and suggestions as to packages. Numerous 
types of labels, as to wording, are offered as suggesting to apoth- 
ecaries how to practically apply and profit by the formulas and this 
is a valuable and commendable feature of the book. 

Chapter I is devoted to toilet preparations and specialties, which 
the author states, afford the retailer splendid opportunity for exhibi- 
tion of skill in compounding and taste in packing. Every dealer in 
this class of preparations should carefully peruse the editorial notes 
and comments in this chapter, as they lay down certain important 
rules for the use of such preparations as well as their proper com- 
pounding. The following simple rule regarding the use of glycerin 
and of fats in skin lotions is too often neglected by the heedless as 
well as the ignorant : " Glycerin well diluted prevents the skin dry- 
ing to the peeling off point. Fatty matters should not be used as a 
preventive, for even in a thin layer on the skin they provoke blister- 
ing under a hot sun. The rule should be glycerin before exposure, 
fats, after exposure." 

Some of the numerous subjects treated in this chapter are, skin 
creams and lotions, cucumber and glycerin jellies, lip salve, camphor 
ice, freckle and tan washes, face powders, manicure preparations, 
wart, corn and chilblain cures, foot powders, face paints, cold 
cream, shaving cream, aromatic vinegar, smelling salts, bath powders 
and tablets, treatment of black eyes 'and of blackheads, bosom 
developers, etc., etc. 

The spicy comments are always interesting and contain much of 
historical and educational value. An American chemist is quoted 
as an authority on face powders and as declaring " that face powders 
have a legitimate use in the toilet of every woman, and a use which, 
carefully made, need not, any more than the judicious use of a 
perfume, displease anyone." The author states and we hope that 
it is not sarcasm : " ' Manicure ' we owe to Americans, the most 
.cultured of whom devote a large share of their toilet to trimming 
the nails, polishing them, removing skin callosities, and otherwise 
endeavoring to give the hands a refined appearance." On page 44 
the history of " cold cream " is traced back to the " Ceratum 
Galeni " of the second century of the Christian era, when the origi- 
nator, Claudius Galenus Pergamenus Galenos, was an imperial phy- 
sician at Rome. 

A formula for " Buttermilk Lotion " contains lactic acid in place 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1909. j 



Book Reviews. 



91 



of the milk and the accompanying comment is,-" Our grandmothers 
had great faith in buttermilk or sour milk, and some of the fine 
complexions of days gone by have been attributed to its liberal use 
as a wash. They seem to have been right, for in these more exact 
and refined days it has been ascertained that dilute lactic acid has 
the same effect ; ergo the lactic acid in the buttermilk was the thing 
that made the fine complexions." These are examples of the com- 
ments throughout the volume and they add much to its readability. 

Chapter II treats of preparations for the hair, and the subject is 
introduced with an excellent terse description of the structure of the 
hair and the common diseases of the scalp and beard. The chapter 
is replete with formulas for all sorts of hair dressings, restoratives, 
dyes, depilatories, applications for diseases and parasitic troubles. 
Some of these are published as examples of bad formulas worthy of 
burial and the following is the comment to two such : " We print 
both formulas as a warning. They are chestnuts which have 
travelled the rounds of the press in all parts of the world, but since 
it was suggested here that they deserved decent burial, they have 
disappeared from periodicals." 

Chapter III is devoted to dental preparations and has an intro- 
ductory on the teeth. The numerous recipes for powder and liquid 
dentifrices, tooth pastes, tooth soaps and tablets, mouth washes, 
dental plasters, waxes, amalgams and fillings, local anaesthetics, 
toothache remedies, etc., should meet all the requirements for for- 
mulas in this part of the druggist's field of work. 

Chapter IV considers perfumes and the introduction is a concise 
outline of the preliminary processes of preparation of the odorous 
products and the methods and apparatus adopted to the manufacture 
of perfumes. The dissertation on synthetic perfumes gives in a 
condensed form most that is essential for the druggist-perfumer to 
know regarding the composition, characteristic properties and uses 
of these adjuncts to modern perfumery. The numerous formulas 
for essences, handkerchief extracts, toilet waters, colognes, sachets 
and solid perfumes, and fumigating perfumes of all kinds may con- 
fuse the novice, but to the more experienced they will serve as 
valuable aids and suggestions for either old or new combinations 
and the connoisseur may select from the several recipes given the 
" original " Farina cologne, that in his critical judgment is worthy 
the name. 

Chapter V takes up beverages arid numerous recipes are given 



92 



Book Reviews. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1909 



for homemade ales, beers and pops as well as for aerated waters, 
effervescent salines, syrups, etc. The author doffs his hat to the 
superiority of American soda water syrups and admits that " Ameri- 
can drinks are as far ahead of English as a glass of a good vintage 
of champagne is above a glass of the gooseberry article, and it 
might be profitable to take a lesson or two from transatlantic expe- 
rience.'' This judgment is fully explained and confirmed by the 
unsatisfactory formulas for fruit syrups that follow. Many of 
these are composed of artificial essences, artificial colorings, and 
artificial acids instead of the American standards for pure fruit 
juices and pure fruit syrups. 

Chapter VI is entitled " Culinary and Household Requisites." and 
the variety of formulas classified under this heading is surprising. 
It includes such subjects as " ketchups," sausage colorings and fla- 
vorings, baking powders, artificial fruit essences, potted meats, 
sauces, pickles, furniture, stove and metal polishes, pest extermina- 
tors, etc. That these are offered as " pharmaceutical " would indi- 
cate that British pharmacists in the rural districts are probably 
quite as much general storekeepers as are the country druggists in 
America. Among food preservatives, benzoic acid and sodium 
benzoate are not mentioned, although their use for this purpose, at 
least in America, has been very extensive. 

Horticultural and agricultural preparations are covered in a 
chapter. Fungoid diseases of fruits and crops and insect enemies 
are liberally dealt with in the formulas. Likewise grafting waxes, 
weed killers, cattle powders, sheep dips, veterinary remedies, poultry 
y and bird foods and medicines are some of the topics considered. 

Chapter VIII treats in an interesting way of the history of writ- 
ing materials with numerous recipes for all kinds. of inks. The next 
chapter is given to varnishes, polishes and stains and should be of 
special value to dealers in such products and also to wood and metal 
workers. It is noticeable that all the formulas for lacquers are for 
shellac combinations and that the pyroxylin lacquer now extensively 
used by metal-ware manufacturers is not mentioned. 

Photographic chemicals and materials are treated in a separate 
chapter and the various methods for preparing gelatin plates are 
outlined and numerous formulas for developing, fixing, mounting, 
etc., are given. 

Products that from their character and use are not readilv clas- 
sified are grouped in a " miscellaneous " chapter and here we find 



Am. Jour. Pliarm. ) 
February, 1909. t 



Book Remems. 



93 



formulas for such preparations as anti-incrustating boiler fluids, 
taxidermists' soap, cements, mucilages, freezing mixtures, matches, 
etc. 

Bacteriological and microscopic materials are considered in a 
short chapter, which brings together in a convenient way a number 
of formulas from scattered sources that the druggist is frequently 
called upon to prepare. 

To the pharmacist, of course, the most interesting portion of the 
book is the part devoted to galenical and medicinal preparations. 
In this chapter the formulas are arranged in the alphabetical se- 
quence of pharmaceutical classes. Formulas from national phar- 
macopoeias, British Pharmaceutical Codex, or any of the recog- 
nized formularies, like the N. F., may thus appear along with others 
that are quite ancient. The formulas proposed as substitutes for 
such proprietaries as chlorodyne and bromidia when thus placed 
alongside of each other, show very wide and unexplained variation. 
This assembling of formulas is very helpful to the busy pharmacist 
who frequently has - to spend valuable time in hunting up unofficial 
preparations that are rarely prescribed. The editor appears at his 
best in the comments which bring out the history of such formulas 
as Haarlem Oil, Theriaca Edinensis or the ancient confections and 
even the quotation from the " Carols of Cockayne " serve the pur- 
pose of illustrating the evolution of the modern emulsions of cod- 
liver oil in place of the older nauseating method of administration. 

" In the course of my lifetime I 've swallowed enough 
To have floated a ship of the line, 
And it 's purely the fault of the horrible stuff 
That I 've ceased to enjoy ginger-wine. 
For how can you wonder to see me recoil 
From a liquor I mixed with my cod-liver oil." 

A valuable portion of the book is the " Synoptical Reference List " 
to the British Pharmaceutical Codex and another commendable 
feature appears in this supplementary chapter, namely, the intro- 
duction of the formulas of the second edition of the " Canadian 
Formulary " recently issued. 

An abstract of the laws of Great Britain relating to the stamp 
duty on proprietary medicines and the use of methylated spirit 
appears in the appendix and here also are given abstracts of the 
Food and Drug Laws of Australia and of the United States. 

The volume is an excellent compilation that should be a companion 
to the busy pharmacist and frequently consulted. G. M. B. 



94 



Book Reviews. 



[Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1909. 



The Design and Equipment of Small Chemical Labora- 
tories. By Richard K. Meade, B.S., Editor of the Chemical 
Engineer, etc. The Chemical Engineering Publishing Co., Chicago, 
1908. 

During 1905, a series of articles upon this subject appeared in 
the Chemical Engineer and were widely read. This matter with 
much additional has now been gathered and appears in book form. 
It is a book which is certain to be welcome, because it will be helpful 
to a great many chemists who have to equip or rearrange labora- 
tories, and will be glad to benefit by the experience of one who has 
had the same problems to face and has found solutions for them. 
Until a chemist has worked for several years as a practical analyst 
with the constant demand for rapid as well as accurate work he 
cannot appreciate what it is to have a properly arranged 
laboratory with all the conveniences possible. Mr. Meade has had 
the opportunity of organizing several laboratories for special lines 
of work in the course of his career and, therefore, is well qualified 
to take up his subject with personal knowledge and experience. The 
book takes up the general features- that must be considered in every 
case, such as ventilation and heating, finish of walls and ceilings, and 
general arrangement of the interior space, and gives many excellent 
suggestions fitting varied locations according as the laboratory is to 
be a separate building or is to< occupy space in a factory or office 
building. The construction of hoods, sinks, tables for filtration, 
volumetric work, distillation and ignition, the placing of the 
analytical balance and proper supports for the same are all covered 
with much valuable suggestion based upon experience. 

One chapter deals with apparatus for electrochemical analysis and 
another with assay furnaces and accessories so that the book is of 
value for a wide range of readers. The book is quite fully illustrated 
and the author gives the sources of supply where special forms of 
apparatus can be purchased, believing that this will make the book 
more helpful to the beginner who is starting out to supply himself 
with an outfit. We can commend the book as quite up-to-date and 
thoroughly helpful to a chemist who has before him the problem of 
arranging and equipping a laboratory. 

S. P. Sadtler. 



A Feb™aiy P i909 U '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 95 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

The quarterly meeting of the members of the college was held 
December 28, 1908, at 4 p.m., in the library. President French pre- 
sided. Fourteen members were present. The minutes of the semi- 
annual meeting held September 28, were read and approved. The 
minutes of the Board of Trustees for September. October, and 
November were read by the Registrar, and approved. 

The President reappointed the Committee on Legislation, adding 
one to the number, viz. : M. N. Kline, Chairman, Joseph P. Reming- 
ton, M. I. Wilbert, William Mclntyre, Warren H. Poley, Theodore 
Campbell. 

Professor C. H. LaWall presented the following preamble and 
resolution, which was, on motion, adopted : " Whereas, the Surgeon- 
General of the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service has 
agreed to comply with the request of the Board of Trustees of the 
United States Pharmacopceial Convention to have compiled and pub- 
lished a digest of the comments on the LTnited States Pharmacopoeia, 
8th Revision, and 

" Whereas, The American Pharmaceutical Association has re- 
quested that comments on the National Formulary be included, and 
that the Surgeon-General of the P. H. and M. H. Service endeavor 
to make provision for laboratory work in connection with the U. S. P. 
and N. F. Revision, now, therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That we, as members of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy extend to the Surgeon-General of the P. H. and M. H. 
Service our thanks for the work he has undertaken and express 
the hope that he will endeavor to comply with the request of the 
A. Ph. A." 

[The action of the college was forwarded to Washington and a reply 
has been received from the Acting Surgeon-General of the P. H. and M. H. 
Service expressing appreciation for the sentiments embodied in the resolu- 
tion and stating that the question of compiling digests of comments on the 
National Formulary was receiving careful consideration.] 

Professor Lowe offered an amendment to the by-laws proposing 
an abolishment of the cost for certificate of membership. A long 
discussion ensued, participated in by many of the members, some 
of whom favored abolishing- also the initiation fee, while others 
favored retention of both fees. A motion prevailed to refer the 



96 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { A FebSa^ P i909 m ' 

subject to the Committee on By-laws to report at the meeting in 
June, 1909. 

ABSTRACT FROM THE MINUTES OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

October 2: The Committee on Property reported on the subject 
of placing a sign at entrance to main building. They also reported 
that efforts were being made to get along without further increasing 
the cost of lighting. 

The Committee on Announcement made a report, stating that 
several lecturers had been secured for special lectures, the subjects 
to be announced in the next Bulletin. 

The Committee on Scholarships reported the names of eight stu- 
dents to whom the various scholarships should be awarded. 

November 4: Committee on Property stated that at the sugges- 
tion of a member of the Board a large portion of an unexpended bal- 
ance of the Entertainment Fund of the National Association of 
Wholesale Druggists had been contributed to the college to be used 
in building a hot-house on the roof of the new' laboratory. 

The Committee on Instruction reported that the Committee on 
Special Lectures had prepared an announcement covering a course of 
special lectures. 

The Committee on Scholarships reported that a competitive ex- 
amination would be held for the award of the E. T. Dobbins 
scholarship. 

The Committee on Examinations reported the names of Louis 
W. Walz and Martin Luther Hartwig as entitled to the Certificate 
of Proficiency in Chemistry, and the name of Maxwell Montifiore 
Becker as entitled to the Certificate of Proficiency in the Food and 
Drug Course. A ballot was had and they were duly elected to 
receive the certificates. 

Joseph Jacobs, of Atlanta, Georgia, was elected to active 
membership. 

Mr. French asked for some action of the Board regarding the 
proposed new hot-house. On motion, the matter was referred to 
the Committee on Property, with power to act. 

December 1 : The Committee on Property submitted a design, and 
price, for a bronze sign on the front of the college building. The 
committee was authorized to have a hot-house built. Mr. French 
called attention to the invitations for commencement issued by the 
students in recent years, and suggested a uniform one, the plate to 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
February, 1909. f 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



97 



be gotten up by and be the property of the college. After explana- 
tion by the Dean the matter was referred to a committee, consisting 
of the President and the Dean, with power to act. 

A letter was read from Messrs. Lange & Co., Tokio, Japan, ex- 
pressing appreciation of the honor conferred upon one of their 
countrymen, Professor Nagai, in electing him to honorary 
membership. 

William L. Swartz was elected to active membership and Felecio 
Paterno to associate membership. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

DECEMBER. 

The third of the series of Pharmaceutical meetings of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy was held on Tuesday afternoon, De- 
cember 15, at three o'clock, with William L. Cliff e, a member of the 
Board of Trustees, in the chair. 

Communications were read by the Secretary from John C. Wallace, 
Chairman of the Legislative Committee of the Pennsylvania Pharma- 
ceutical Association ; State Senator Ernest L. Tustin ; Mahlon N. 
Kline, Chairman of the Committee on Legislation of the National 
Wholesale Druggists' Association ; Louis Emanuel, President of 
the Pennsylvania Board of Pharmacy ; B. E. Pritchard, of the 
Western Pennsylvania Retail Druggists' Association, Inc. 

The first paper on the program was on " The Proposed New 
Medicine Bill for Pennsylvania " by Dr. Plenry W. Cattell, who 
first spoke of the desirability of active co-operation between the medi- 
cal and the pharmaceutical professions in the way of mutual support 
for their proposed bills at the coming session of the Legislature. 
Attention was called to the fact that under Frederick II, in 124.1, 
there existed in the Two Sicilies a medical and pharmacy Act which 
was framed on such broad lines that it might serve as a model for 
even the present time. For the medical profession a preliminary 
education of three years in logic, or what would now correspond to a 
collegiate course, five years in the actual study of medicine and 
surgery, and one full year devoted to medical practice with advice 



9 8 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ February, 1909. 



and under the direction of an experienced physician, was what was 
demanded of the one desiring to practise medicine in Italy and Sicily 
in the thirteenth century. If it came to the knowledge of a physician 
that any apothecary had for sale drugs of less than normal strength, 
he was bound under oath to report such a one to the court. The 
relations of the two professions to each other were clearly defined. 
The physician must not enter into any business relations with the 
apothecary nor must he take any of them under his protection nor 
incur any money obligation on their regard. Nor must any licensed 
physician keep an apothecary's shop himself. Pharmacists were not 
permitted to sell their products without having taken an oath that 
all their drugs have been prepared in the prescribed form, without 
any fraud. Then there was also a special section of the law which 
decreed that the growers of plants meant for medicinal purposes 
should be bound by a solemn oath to prepare their medicines con- 
scientiously according to the rules of their art, and so far as it is 
humanly possible to prepare them in the presence of the inspectors. 
Violations of this law were punished by the confiscation of their 
movable goods. If the inspectors, however, to whose fidelity to duty 
the keeping of the regulations was committed, should allow any 
fraud in the matters that were entrusted to them, they were to be 
condemned to punishment by death. 

Dr. Cattell then described the proposed one board medical bill for 
Pennsylvania in which the definition of medicine is as follows : 
" The practice of medicine within the meaning of this Act is the 
exercise or performance of an act. by or through the use of any 
thing or matter, or by things done, given or applied, whether with 
or without the use of drugs or medicine, and whether with or without 
fee therefor, by a person holding himself or herself out as able 
to treat disease, with a view to relieve, heal or cure, and having for 
its object the prevention, healing, remedying, cure, or alleviation 
of disease." Such a one board bill is now in force in all but nine 
of the states and territories composing the United States and it is 
important for the sake of uniformity and for the protection of the 
public at large that the class legislation of the three board bill be 
done away with. In this bill the greatest stress is laid upon the 
moral character, a good general education, and proper training in 
the fundamentals of medicine, it being recognized that, as the treat- 
ment of disease is dependent upon its diagnosis, special attention 
must be paid to anatomy, physiology, pathology, and kindred sub- 



Am. Jour. Pharru. ^ 
February, 1909. j 



P harm acetitical Mee ting . 



99 



jects. As such divergence exists in therapeutics, practically none 
of the examination to determine the fitness of the candidate should 
be taken up with this subject ; and the mode of getting- a patient well 
should be left to the individual ability of each physician. Then 
there is a special section which calls for the refusing, revoking, 
or suspending a license. One of the reasons for revoking a license 
is the presentation to the medical council of a court record showing 
the conviction in due course of law of said person for procuring or 
aiding or abetting in producing a criminal abortion or miscarriage 
by any means whatsoever. 

Dr. Clayton M. Thrush read a paper entitled " What Percentage 
of Pharmaceutical Graduates Should Fail before our Pharmaceutical 
Examining Boards ? " in which he pointed out that a larger propor- 
tion of the applicants for registration failed since the adoption of the 
prerequisite law than formerly, and inclined to the view that the 
examinations of the State Board were not a fair test of the appli- 
cant's knowledge or ability. In order to correct this condition he 
suggested that the time for holding the examinations be extended 
so as to cover four or five days. 

The chairman then called attention to the proposed Pharmacy 
Act for Pennsylvania which was to be presented at the meeting 
of the Legislature next spring and which represented the concerted 
action of various pharmaceutical and medical bodies which were dele- 
gated to outline such an Act (see American Journal of Phar- 
macy, February, 1907, p. 96). 

The draft of the Act was read by the Secretary (American Jour- 
nal of Pharmacy, January, 1909, p. 36), after which it was dis- 
cussed by various members present : Representative Theodore 
Campbell, Charles Rehfuss, Prof. Charles H. LaWall, C. P. Gabell, 
Dr. Clement B. Lowe, Ambrose Hunsberger, Edwin M. Boring, and 
the Secretary. 

A resolution was passed endorsing the proposed Act in the form 
in which it was read. A motion was also passed recommending that 
if practicable a statement should be added to Section 3, requiring, that 
in case any drug or preparation varies from the Pharmacopceial 
or other standards, the degree of variation from the standard be 
given on the label. 

The following papers were. also read: "The Canadian National 
Formulary," by Prof. Charles H. LaWall (see the January issue of 
this Journal, p. 11), and on (t Liquor Sodii Phosphatis Composi- 



IOO 



Pha rmac eutical Mee ting . 



jAm. Jour. Pharm. 
| February, 1909. 



his," by John K. Thum (see the January number of this 'Journal, 
p. 10). 

In regard to sodium phosphate solution, Prof. I. V. Stanley 
Stanislaus said, that the United States Pharmacopoeia directs in the 
compound solution of sodium phosphate the employment of un- 
effloresced crystals of the salt. The manufacturers supply the salt 
in barrels, boxes or paper cartons, whereby the sodium phosphate 
loses about 25 per cent, of its water of crystallization, becoming so 
strengthened in the normal salt content, that upon the solution of 
such an effloresced salt, the excess of the normal dried salt crystal- 
lizes out. 

Now, whereas the crystallized official sodium phosphate contains 
603 grammes of water of crystallization in each kilo, the difference 
between this and 603 (1000 — 603 = 397) or 397 grammes of the 
exsiccated sodium phosphate U.S. P. should be employed to make 
1000 c.c. of the compound solution, the quantities of sodium nitrate, 
and citric acid and water remaining the same. 

The solution prepared as just stated will not deposit crystals of 
sodium phosphate, and if hot water is employed it can .be made 
with the greatest saving of time, and is of the U. S. P. strength. 

President Howard B. French presented to the college specimens 
of . the following coniferous Japanese plants: Golden Shinoro, 20 
years old ; pot, Shigaragi ware. Avalagi, 25 years old ; pot, Shiga- 
ragi ware. A Japanese table garden, worked by Mr. Harada. An 
excellent specimen of Xanthoriza was presented by Prof. Charles 
H. LaWall. A vote of thanks was tendered the donors of these 
specimens. 

JANUARY. 

The fourth of the present series of pharmaceutical meetings 
was held on Tuesday afternoon, January 19, at 3 o'clock, with 
Dr. C. A. Weideman, Recording Secretary of the college, in the 
chair. 

Prof. Charles H. LaWall read a paper on " The Differentiation of 
the Enzymes in Milk by the Use of Hydrogen Peroxide and Its 
Tests." (See this Journal, p. 57.) The paper was discussed 
by Dr. Lowe, Mr. England, Professor Kjaemer and the author. 
Prof. LaWall called attention to the fact that in the employment of 
Hehner's test in detecting formaldehyde in milk, negative results 
were not indicative that formaldehyde was not present. The test 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
February, 1909. / 



Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



IOI 



is only employed in detecting small quantities of formaldehyde, so in 
case negative results are obtained with the samples of milk another 
test is made after diluting the milk. Mr. England called attention 
to the fact that not only preservatives but the use of heat at even 
temperatures of pasteurization destroyed in a large measure the 
nutritive value of milk. 

Mr. George M. Beringer presented in a general way the results 
of further studies on " Fluidglycerates " (see American Jourxal of 
Pharmacy, 1908. p. 525 ). He stated that some eight or ten years 
ago he had conducted some experiments in the preparation of fluid- 
glycerates of chirata. gentian and some other drugs. These he tem- 
porarily discontinued until a physician, who was a specialist in rectal 
diseases, desired him to prepare a non-alcoholic preparation of 
Krameria. The results of his experiments were shown in the prep- 
aration of fluidglycerate of Krameria which proved very satisfactory. 
Since that time he had experimented with a large number of drugs. 
He stated that he had found that while some alkaloids, as caffeine, 
could be extracted with a menstruum of glycerin and water, in a 
number of instances the addition of an acid was necessary. He 
called attention that in the preparation of syrups^ and infusions the 
fluidglycerates were especially valuable, forming clear and efficient 
preparations. Air. Beringer presented to the college a large collec- 
tion of samples of the fluidglycerates which he had made and in 
some instances also the marc left in the manufacture of the prep- 
aration. An examination of the marc showed that the drugs were 
completely exhausted. Mr. William Mclntyre moved that a vote 
of thanks be tendered Air. Beringer for the valuable specimens 
which he had donated the college and that they be carefully pre- 
served in the museum of the college, which motion was unani- 
mously adopted. The paper was discussed by Messrs. Boring. Eng- 
land, Thum. and the chairman. Air. Beringer called attention 
to some experiments made by Professor Asher, of New Orleans, 
in which he had employed repercolation very satisfactorily in making 
fluidglycerate of wild cherry. 

A paper on " The Physiological Action of Fluidglycerates of 
Digitalis and Ergot " by John Rippetoe was read in the absence 
of the author by Air. E. M. Boring (see this Jourxal. p. 84). 

Air. John K. Thum. apothecary in the German Hospital, read an 
abstract of Air. Caswell A. Mayo's paper on " The Dispensing of 
Sterile Solutions in Ampullas " which was published in the American 



102 American Pharinacciitical Association. J Am Jour. Pkarm. 

\ February, 1909. 

Druggist (1909, p. 379). Mr. Thum also showed ampullae with 
sterile solutions which he had prepared. 

The Secretary called attention to a number of specimens which had 
been presented to the college. A specimen of spruce and spruce 
gum from Maine by Mr. M. I. Wilbert; a candy from a cactus of 
Mexico by A. L. Guerra : cassia chips from Prof. Charles H. La 
Wall. 

Henry Kraemer. Secretary. 



THE PHILADELPHIA BRANCH OF THE AMERICAN 
PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

. A PROMISING INNOVATION. 

The many members and friends of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association who took part in the first, or initial demonstration in the 
post-graduate course for local pharmacists will long remember the 
treat that was given them, by Professor Kraemer and his assistants, 
in connection with the possibilities of the compound microscope, 
for study, for diversion and for practical application to the many 
problems that arise in connection with the everyday business of the 
retail druggist. 

This first demonstration, in the course of the Philadelphia Branch 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association, was given in the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy on the evening of Tuesday, No- 
vember 17, 1908, and was attended by upwards of 75 members and 
friends of the local branch. 

The demonstration was both didactic and practical. The first 
portion, somewhat in the nature of a " Conversatione " was held 
in the Lecture Hall and was profusely illustrated by means of 
apparatus, specimens and projections on the screen by means of a 
microscope attachment to the projecting lantern. 

This portion of the demonstration included an outline of the 
methods necessary for the " Preparation of crude drugs for examina- 
tion," the " Micro-measurement of characteristic elements," the 
" Study of a few drugs and spices," the " Examination and detection 
of some common adulterants," the practical demonstration of struc- 
tural characteristics of a number of drugs, such as belladonna, 
hyoscyamus, apocynum, ginger, nux vomica and others, the micro- 



Am jour. Pharm. ) American Pharmaceutical Association. 103 

lebruary, 1909. j 

scopical study of crystals, by means of the polarizing device, the 
detection of deteriorated drugs and a consideration of the practical 
application of these several subjects. 

Before adjourning to the laboratory, where the practical work 
was to be undertaken, Mr. William Mclntyre, as President of the 
Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
expressed the thanks of the members present, to Prof. Kraemer 
for the interesting and really enjoyable evening that he had pro- 
vided, and also expressed the hope that this was but the first of a 
long series of such meetings in which the members who* knew but 
little of any one subject could come and listen to, and see demon- 
strations by men who were expert and learned in their particular 
branches. He expressed the belief that if the pharmacist of to-day 
would enlarge on his field of knowledge in the sciences relating to 
his calling he would be not alone a better but also a more successful 
pharmacist. 

Following the adjournment of the more formal meeting the mem- 
bers proceeded to the laboratory where the embryo microscopists 
examined drug specimens and prepared microscopic slides until 
a late hour, and many of them, near midnight, appeared to be loath 
to leave the glimpse of the, to them, new world of the infinitely small 
that had been revealed, to at least some of them, for the first time 
on this memorable evening. 

The second of the post-graduate demonstrations given under 
the auspices of the Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association will be held in the hall of the Medico- 
Chirurgical College of Pharmacy and will be devoted to a con- 
sideration of " Clinical Laboratory Work as a Possibility for Future , 
Pharmacists." 

The other lectures are as follows : 

January 19, 1909 : Pharmacodynamics, Practical Tests for the 
Efficiency of Drugs. At the H. K. Mulford Co.'s Laboratory, 428 
S. 13th St. 

February 16, 1909 : The Transformation of Elements and Modern 
Theories of Matter. At the Central High School. 

March 16, 1909: Assay Processes, Their Uses and Practical Value. 
At the Temple College of Pharmacy. 

April 20, 1909: Botany as a Hobby and a Useful Science for 
Pharmacists. At the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

M. I. WlLBERT. 



104 American Pharmaceutical Association. { 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
February, 1909. 



THE CITY OF WASHINGTON BRANCH OF THE AMERI- 
CAN PHARMACEUTICAL ASSOCIATION. 

The first regular meeting of the City of Washington Branch of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association was held in the hall of 
the National College of Pharmacy, which, contrary to the predic- 
tions of the more sceptical was filled to overflowing, " standing room 
only " being available even before the meeting was called to order 
by Dr. H. W. Wiley. 

After calling the meeting to order, Dr. Wiley presented an appro- 
priate and timely address in the course of which he outlined the work 
that the local branch might well essay to do, and also pointed out 
some of the needs of the hour and the imperative necessity that 
pharmacists all over this country recognize, that the abuse of habit- 
forming drugs presents one of the most serious problems of the day, 
and one that well merits the careful thought and the co-operation 
of every right-thinking pharmacist in the country. 

Dr. W. O. Emery outlined and reported on the efficiency of a 
method, that has been shown to be both simple and satisfactory, for 
separating the several constituents of headache mixtures. 

Dr. C. E. Parker read a paper on " The Assaying of Drugs," 
in the course of which he pointed out the need for pharmacists apply- 
ing themselves to the development of the official assay methods and 
thus demonstrating both their willingness as well as their ability 
to live up to the professional demands of their calling. 

The concluding communication consisted of a demonstration of 
"Adulterated Drugs," by Dr. L. F. Kebler, the Chief of the 
Drug Laboratory. This demonstration only served to emphasize 
what the other speakers had endeavored to make clear, namely, the 
constant need for watchfulness on the part of the pharmacist who is 
anxious to protect his customers. 

The members also unanimously adopted a resolution recommend- 
ing that the Council of the A. Ph. A. arrange for a consecutive 
meeting with the N.A.R.D. in 1909, at some readilv accessible cen- 
tral point, preferably Niagara Falls. 

M. I. Wilbert, Secretary. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



MARCH, igog 




SCAMMONY RESIN. 
By Frank O. Taylor. 

The literature to be found upon scammony resin is not very 
extensive, especially as regards analytical data, though during the 
past year several articles have appeared giving an account of 
analyses made and methods used both on genuine scammony resin 
and the false, or so called " Mexican " scammony. Such examina- 
tions as have been published have dealt largely with gross adultera- 
tions of the resin and have included chiefly determinations of 
moisture, ash, ether solubility and any particularly crude adulterants 
present. In the past year Cowie (Pharm. Jour. (4), 27, 365) has 
gone somewhat more into detail in the analytical characters of 
scammony resin. 

During the last few years attention has been called to the presence 
on the market of a false scammony, passing under the name of 
" Mexican " scammony. E. M. Holmes (Pharm. Jour. (4), 18, 
326) has commented upon the botanical character of this root and 
states that it is nothing more than Ipomcea Orizabensis, which has 
been known for years and is described in a number of reference 
works. At the same time H. Deane published a note upon the 
resin content of the root and some brief examination of its ash and 
solubility. It was found to be almost perfectly soluble in ether and 
had an ash of only 1.35 per cent. The yield of resin from this drug 
was, however, very much higher than that obtainable from the true 
scammony. This same false scammony has previously appeared 
under this and other names, but hardly to the extent that it has 
recently. 

(105) 



lo6 Scammony Resin. {^fch'S™' 

William Duncan has published (Pharm. Jour. (4) 26, 378) some 
tests made on Mexican scammony showing the yield to be from 
16.5 per cent, to 20. per cent, and paying special attention to the 
melting point. More recently Cowie and .Brander (Pharm. Jour. 
(4), 27, 366) have given results obtained in the examination of 
several samples of Mexican scammony. 

In view of the above statements it 'was thought that a more 
comprehensive examination of a number of specimens of scammony 
resin would afford data of interest and value. For this purpose nine 
samples of resin were taken which had been carefully made from 
the crude drug. Number 9 was known to be a sample of the 
Mexican scammony ; numbers 2 and 3 were expected to contain 
greater or less amounts of Mexican scammony intermingled with 
the true drug, while 1 and 8 were of uncertain origin though pre- 
sumably from true scammony. The remaining samples were from 
genuine specimens of Convolvulus Scammonia. These were ex- 
amined for moisture, ash, ether-soluble resin, acid value, saponifica- 
tion value, ester value and iodine value. Such data were available 
that it was also possible to determine the yield of resin from the 
drug used. The results obtained follow in tabular arrangement 
with such comments appended regarding the methods used and the 
conclusions to be formed as seem necessary. 



No. 


Yield 


Per cent, 
moisture 


Per cent, 
ash 


Per cent, 
ether sol. 


Acid 
value 


Sapon- 
ification 
value 


Ester 
value 


Iodine 
value 


I 


8.1 


2.18 


0. 12 


99.O 


21 . I 


232.4 


211. 3 


13-3 


2 


12.2 


I.94 


0.08 


99-5 


I4.6 


198.4 


183.8 


8.7 


3 


i6.75 


1.77 


0.09 


99.6 


15-5 


186.6 


171 .1 


8-7 


4 


7-93 


1. 71 


O.05 


99-7 


15-6 


238.I 


222.5 


IO.S 


5 


8.06 


1.74 


O.09 


99-3 


18.2 


238.0 


219.8 


13.O 


6 


7.7i 


1.86 


O.09 


99-3 


18.8 


240.5 


221.7 


14-3 


7 


8.52 


1.65 


0.20 


99.0 


21.3 


239-4 


218. I 


14.6 


8 




2.09 


O.I5 


98.8 


14-5 


232.8 


218.3 


10.5 


9 


16.83 


2.03 


0.22 


96-5 


21.5 


187. 1 


165.6 


II-5 



Yield. — It will be seen that the Mexican scammony gives practi- 
cally double the yield of the true drug. Deane obtained a yield of 
18^ per cent, and thinks that 17 or 18 per cent, is higher than the 
usual yield, while the quantity obtained by Duncan has been referred 
to above. From samples 3 and 9 it would appear that 17 per cent, 
would scarcely be too high. Sample 2 cannot be considered as 
representing a lot which is entirely a Mexican scammony. Fliickiger 
and Hanbury (Pharmacographia, 447) do not find so large an 



Am. Jour. Pharin.) 
March, 1909. j 



Scammony Resin. 



107 



amount of resin in this root, but it is quite possible that this is due 
to the quality on the market at the different times. The yield of 
the five samples of true scammony is very similar, ranging from 7.7 
to 8.5 per cent., so that the drug which yields a very high percentage 
of resin may be looked upon as one containing false scammony. 
Regarding the physiological action of the resin from these two 
varieties of drug it is not in my province to speak, in view of the 
fact that this work was wholly upon the chemical characteristics of 
the resin. 

Moisture. — This was determined by carefully weighing off 2 
grammes of the powdered resin into a tared crucible and heating 
at ioo° C. for six hours. Incidentally it may be remarked that it 
is preferable not to have the resin too finely powdered; otherwise, 
as it electrifies with much ease, it is difficult to properly weigh and 
effect its transfer from the watch-glass of the balance to the various 
containers used. The idea in weighing it into a crucible is that the 
same sample may subsequently be used for the determination of the 
ash. The amount of moisture found was somewhat less than has 
been found by a number of observers, but was nevertheless about 
what might have been expected in a carefully prepared resin of this 
or other description. 

Ash. — The ash was. determined by simple ignition of the resin 
previously used for determination of moisture. A very great dis- 
crepancy is to be noted between the amount of ash found in these 
samples and the amount of ash as recorded by some other experi- 
menters. In " Notes on Ash Yield of Crude Drugs " by Chattaway 
and Moor (Analyst, 1903, 202) about 6 per cent, is given as the 
amount of ash found in scammony resin. In the same article quota- 
tions on the amount of resin-ash are made from Moor and Priest, 
they finding 7.9, 4.9 and 6.1 per cent, in three samples. J. Barclay 
is also quoted as finding 3.4 per cent, ash in a sample. The amounts 
of ash here found, none of which exceed 0.22 per cent., are therefore 
indicative of excellent samples of resin, and these agree well with 
the results obtained by Cowie and by Cowie and Brander. An ash 
so low as that of number 4 (0.05 per cent.) can be considered as 
negligible as regards its effects upon the purity of the resin. 

Ether Solubility. — This was determined by treating 5 grammes 
of the powdered resin with 100 c.c. of ether (using the U. S. P. 
quality), letting stand in a tightly stoppered flask with occasional 
shaking until the resin was wholly dissolved, or preferably over 



108 Scanimony Resin. { Ai ^mSS^n^' 

night, then filtering through a tared filter, washing filter and residue 
carefully with ether, drying at ioo° . C, and weighing filter and 
residue. In this connection we may mention the process for the 
rapid determination of resin in scammony as published by E. 
Dowzard {Pharm. Jour. (4), 18, 469), in which he digests a weighed 
amount of drug or gum-resin scammony with ether, filters the 
ethereal solution through a dried filter and determines the resin by 
evaporating to dryness in a tared vessel an aliquot portion of this 
ethereal solution. This method differs from the one used by Cowie 
in the use of an aliquot part of the ethereal solution instead of the 
entire solution, thus being much more rapid. A correction is given 
for the increase in volume of the ether by reason of the dissolved 
resin. The chief objection to this method is that the solvent is so 
extremely volatile that in filtering and measuring off the aliquot 
part, however rapidly this may be done, some loss must occur by 
reason of evaporation, rendering the solution therefore more con- 
centrated. The method will undoubtedly work rapidly and for 
ordinary purposes will probably be sufficiently accurate. Whenever 
possible, it is therefore by all means preferable to use the method 
which we have suggested or the usual one of extraction by means 
of a Sohxlet apparatus. As was to be expected in a resin yielding 
so little ash, the ether solubility was correspondingly high. The 
conclusion is not to be drawn from this that low ash and high ether 
solubility are always to be found together in proportional percent- 
ages, but merely that from a resin containing but a trace of inorganic 
matter there has been removed a large portion of the matter which 
is ordinarily insoluble in ether. The sample of scammony resin 
(number 9) is the least soluble but still attains the high percentage 
of 96.5 ether-soluble resin. This is at variance with the results of 
Cowie and Brander, but agrees with those of some other observers. 

Acid Value. — In the determination of the acid value the usual 
process for oils was followed, and, as was expected, considerable 
difficulty was experienced in determining the end point of the titra- 
tion because of the dark colored solution. This difficulty was still 
further enhanced by the fact that the resin solution darkened very 
considerably on addition of alkali until it was with great difficulty 
that the final change in color of the indicator was observed. For 
the determination 2 grammes of resin were dissolved in a mixture 
of 50 c.c. each of alcohol and acetone. This was titrated at first 
with N/5 alcoholic soda, but it was found that the solution became 



Am MaTCh;wo9 nn '}' Scammony Resin. 109 

so dark that it was impossible to see the end point with much accu- 
racy when so dilute a solution was used for titration. The quantity 
of indicator (which was the customarily employed phenolphthalein) 
had to be larger than ordinary, not being less than 10 drops. Find- 
ing that the N/5 solution used did not work so well as could be 
desired, recourse was had to N/2 alcoholic potash. With this the 
determinations were finally carried out with a greater degree of 
accuracy, at least in the observation of the quantity of solution used 
for titration. There was, of course, a consequent loss in accuracy 
through the use of the more concentrated solution, but this was more 
than compensated by the facts just mentioned; so that for all 
practical purposes the use of the N/2 alcoholic potash will be found 
preferable to a more dilute solution for use with this resin. 

From the results obtained it appears that the acid value de- 
termination is of no importance in the distinguishing between true 
and false scammony resin. The lowest values found concord with 
the acid value of resin scammony recorded by Kremel as quoted by 
Dieterich (Analysis of Resins, 218), which was 14.6. The acid 
values as a whole show no wider variation than might be expected 
in samples of resin obtained entirely from true scammony root. The 
results obtained by Cowie are somewhat higher for genuine scam- 
mony and lower for Mexican scammony. 

Saponification Value. — For the determination of the saponifica- 
tion value 1.5 grammes of the resin were treated with 25 c.c. of N/2 
alcoholic potash and boiled gently for half an hour under a reflux 
condenser. In attempting then to determine the excess of the alkali 
by titration with N/2 hydrochloric acid it was found that with any 
reasonable amount of phenolphthalein it was in many cases absolutely 
impossible to see the end reaction. Furthermore, an additional diffi- 
culty arose in that in some cases the resin-soap produced was de- 
posited in the bottom of the flask as a sticky mass which was 
insoluble in alcohol and all the other usual organic solvents and 
which occluded a considerable quantity of alkali. This rendered the . 
end point indecisive as, after titrating to the disappearance of the 
red color of the phenolphthalein, when such disappearance could be 
observed, on standing, the solution again became alkaline from the 
dissolving of some of the occluded alkali. This is not a case of 
alkalinity produced by the hydrolysis of the resin-soap through the 
presence of the water introduced as N/2 hydrochloric acid, but is 
truly a case of occlusion. The difficulty of seeing the end point 



110 



Scammony Resin. 



( Am. Jour. Phami 
\ March, 1909. 



could be overcome by dilution with alcohol, but this still leaves the 
second and greater difficulty as it was originally, hence it became 
necessary to use water as a diluent. This both decreased the dark- 
ness of the solution so that the end reaction might be fairly well 
observed and dissolved the resin-soap, bringing into solution for easy 
titration the occluded alkali. Some hydrolysis of the soap will 
undoubtedly occur, but this change proceeds slowly as is evidenced 
by the facts : ( I ) that the solution after neutralization does not 
again become alkaline in any reasonable length of time, and (2) that 
variation in the quantity of water used does not cause perceptible 
difference in the quantity of hydrochloric acid required for titration. 
In view of the above facts and to have uniformity in determinations, 
so that such errors as may be caused by the hydrolysis of the resin- 
soap will be as nearly uniform as possible, 100 c.c. of water were 
added to each saponification before titration. 

The saponification values, as will be seen, are quite uniform 
and indicate that a sharp distinction may be drawn between resin 
from Convolvulus Scammonia and from the false or Mexican scam- 
mony, the former ranging around 238 and the latter a little below 
190. Samples 4, 5, 6 and 7 were known to be true scammony 
resin as before stated; samples 3 and 9 are with equal certainty 
from Mexican scammony ; sample number 2 is almost entirely 
Mexican scammony ; while samples 1 and 8 appear to contain traces 
of Mexican scammony. 

Kremel found a saponification value of 185.6 for a sample of 
resin scammony and 180.2 for one of Aleppo scammony (see 
Dieterich, Anal, of Resins, 218) , but the purity of the resin as regards 
ash and ether solubility is not given with the results, so we can 
form no exact estimate of how these saponification numbers may 
compare with those here given. 

Cowie obtained results quite similar to those I have obtained 
when working on genuine scammony, but there is a wide difference 
between the saponification values given by Cowie and Brander for 
Mexican scammony and those above recorded, and for which no 
reasonable explanation is apparent at this time. 

Ester Value. — Little need be said regarding the ester value since 
it is nothing more than the difference between the saponification and 
the acid values, and as the acid values of the two varieties of 
resin are about the same, the ester value will van 7 " as does the 
saponification value. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
• March, 1909. .( 



Medicinal Earths. 



in 



Iodine Value. — This determination was carried out by the method 
usually applied to oils, using 0.2 gramme of resin, dissolving in 15 
c.c. of chloroform, adding 25 c.c. of Hubl's iodine solution and 
letting stand for four hours in a dark place. After this 300 c.c. of 
water were added and titration of excess iodine effected by N/10 
thiosulphate. The iodine values found show that they form no 
means of distinguishing between the true and Mexican scammony 
resin, but are about the same for both varieties. 

As a whole the work shows that a resin of very low ash and very 
high ether solubility may be obtained, whose chemical constants can 
be determined with a considerable degree of accuracy; further, that 
by the saponification value alone we may distinguish between the 
resin from Convolvulus Scammonia and that from Ipomoea Oriza- 
bensis. When it is necessary, it appears. that we have in the saponifi- 
cation value a characteristic constant of both resins, which will enable 
us to distinguish them or detect any marked adulteration of the true 
resin with that of the false root. 
From the Laboratories of 
Parke, Davis & Co. 



HISTORY OF THE MEDICINAL EARTHS AND OF 
CATAPLASMA KAOLINL* 

By Dr. Hermann Schelenz, 
Cassel. 

The history of remedies, especially such as nature gives us, those 
of animal, vegetable and mineral origin, teaches us that in olden 
times altogether, and later on very often they were discovered by 
the public through accident or through an unknown inward impulse 
— so-called instinct. Reflections of this kind gave us the teachings 
of " Signa Naturae/' " Contraria Contrariis " and " Similia 
Similibus." 

Thus discovered by the people these medicines were tried and 
used and came in public favor, and if found to be of value thev were 
then adopted by the medical school, used during a shorter or longer 
period, with more or less enthusiasm. These medicaments gradually 
were used less and less and at last were put aside and became obso- 
lete. But after a while these forgotten remedies were again brought 

* Translated by Otto Raubenheimer, Brooklyn. 



112 



Medicinal Earths. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1909. 



to life by the public and also again came in honor and use by the 
medical school. This story of the origin of a remedy, its death and 
its resurrection, repeats itself time and time again. And for this 
reason the following motto taken from Horace : 

Malta Renascentur, quae jam Cecidere; Cadentque, quae nunc 
sunt in Honor el 

(Many things shall be brought to life which have fallen 
and many things which now are in honor shall fall.) 

was placed on the front page of that first and most important and 
legal dispensatory of Valerius Cordus. 

I might explain here that the young German scholar Valerius 
Cordus in 1543, on his way to Italy to quench his thirst for more 
knowledge, stopped in the old historical city of Nuremberg. When 
the Senate learned that Valerius Cordus, then only 26 years old, had 
carefully compiled a book containing all old and new medicinal 
preparations together with many improvements of his own, then the 
book was ordered printed and was published in September, 1564. 
This dispensatory was so complete that it created quite a sensation 
and besides the several Nuremberg editions there were those of 
Paris, Lyons, Venice and Antwerp. It was the first work which 
corresponded to the modern idea of a pharmacopoeia and which 
received legal sanction in Europe, and it was a lasting monument to 
the learned and brilliant youth Valerius Cordus. 

In the following historical sketch I shall endeavor to prove the 
truth of Horace's words in regards to the old Terrse or the argilla- 
ceous earths. 

The medicinal properties of these earths (the technical proper- 
ties are not considered in this paper) are entirely or at least prin- 
cipally due to their alumina or aluminum silicate content. 

Dioscorides, that most important author, whose works on modern 
materia medica and pharmacology were authoritative down to the 
16th century, in V. 122, teaches that alum, the " stypteria," possesses 
healing and astringent properties, that it cures boils and carbuncles, 
leprosy, itching, frost-bites, and, when mixed together with peameal 
and tar, it cures scurf and scabs. 

He also describes the different Terrse from Eretria, Samos, 
Chios, Kimolos, Melos and Selinus as being used for the same pur- 
pose. He states that the Earth of Samos gives an excellent powder 
for the absorption of perspiration, as for instance in the armpits, 
and is also used against snake-bites. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. "> 
March, 1909. | 



Medicinal Earths. 



"3 



The Earth of Samos, according to Dioscoricles, rubbed together 
with rose water and rose ointment (just notice how old our Ung. 
Aq. Rosse is) helps against inflamed breasts and also against inflamed 
testicles. The Earth of Chios smoothens the face and the entire 
skin, the Earth of Kirnolos helps against erysipelas, etc. 

By accident it was discovered that the above natural products 
possess cooling, astringent, absorbent and preserving properties. 
The reputation of the works of Dioscorides, which contain all, even 
the principal remedies of to-day, also helped to popularize the differ- 
ent earths as remedies and effective remedies against all skin diseases. 

In ancient times the following two forms of medicines were used 
extensively. 

1. The Sphragis Pastilles (sphragis — seal), originated by the 
Greek physician Polyiadas, composed of Alum, Myrrh, Iron Vitriol, 
Ox-gall and the blood of goats, and on account of the latter ingredi- 
ent they were stamped with the emblem or image of a goat. This 
incident, by the way, may be considered as the origin of the trade- 
mark. 

2. The Terra Lemma, from the island Lemnos, the preparation 
of which was studied by the great Roman physician-pharmacist, 
Claudius Galenus, who travelled purposely to that island. This 
earth contained besides aluminum and iron silicates also more or 
less magnesium silicate. Prospero Alpino in his work " De plantis 
TEgypti," Venice, 1592, states that at that time a substitute was sold 
in place of Terra Lemnia, the so-called Boabab Pulpa prepared from 
the fruit of Adansonia digitata. 

Aulus Cornelius Celsus, the learned Roman physician, the Cicero 
of Medicine (Medicinse Cicero) uses and describes different earths 
in his works. In fact every nation and even every place praises their 
earth as the very best. 

In my " History of Pharmacy " I pointed out that the great North 
Persian physician, Abu Mansur Mmvaffak, in his Liber funda- 
mentorum pharmacologic " (Book of the Principles of Pharma- 
cology), the oldest Persian book of pharmaceutics, among the 584 
remedies describes several earths, Terra Cimolise, etc. (Terra or 
Pulvis Cimolise is even to-day used as a synonym for our Fuller's 
Earth). 

But not only externally were these earths used in olden times, but 
also locally and even internally. They were said to help against 
snake-bites inasmuch as when pressed upon, or in powder form 
sprinkled upon the fresh bite, they absorb the blood and possibly 



114 



Medicinal Earths. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X March, 1909. 



also absorb and destroy the poison. Alum used locally was, and 
even to-day is, said to prevent conception. Thus these earths got 
the general reputation of being remedies against poisons and also 
against plague or contagious diseases. The ancients even went so 
far that the dishes and vessels burned from these clays and earths — 
the ceramic art has been known from the oldest times, the Chinese 
being noted for their porcelain and the Egyptians and Greeks for 
their pottery — were said to possess also medicinal properties, inas- 
much as they transferred the magic power to the liquid kept therein. 

Red clays also were very popular. Bolus Rubra, red bole, Bolus 
Armena, Armenian Bole, natural aluminum silicate containing iron 
oxide, was especially renowned as a remedy against plague. Bol 
d'Armenie has even been official in the Pharmacopee Francaise up to 
1908 and was one of the ingredients of Emplatre Ceroene (Emplas- 
trum Ceroneum). The red earths were also marketed in the form 
of disks or lozenges imprinted with a seal, as Terra Sigillata rubra. 

In place of the foreign and oftentimes adulterated earths, domes- 
tic clays were found to be equally as effective. 

In Laubach, Hessia, for instance, Andreas Berthold von Oschatz 
discovered a pipe clay which was found to be valuable, and he wrote 
with silver on blue parchment paper an essay to the Hessian Court. 
The earth according to the fantastic custom of that time was called 
" Axungia Solis " (more correctly would be "Soli") or "Earth 
Fat " on account of its fatty nature. Similar earths were found near 
Striegau, Silesia, others in Saxony called Steinmark, Medulla 
Saxorum, or Saxon Wonderearth, Terra Miraculosa, used for sym- 
pathetic cures. The white earths were also marketed in the shape 
of balls, disks or troches and imprinted with a seal under the name 
of Terra Sigillata alba. 

In the museum of Olaus Wormius, Leyden, 1606, were about 25 
different kinds of Terrse, among them also Kaolin or China Clay, 
the purest natural aluminum silicate. The name Kaolin is derived 
from the peninsula Kaoli in Korea, or according to such an authority 
as Witt stein Etymolo gisch-Chemisch Handworterbuch from the 
Chinese Ka-olin, which, according to Muspratt's Technisch Chemie 
is the name of a mountain, situated east of King-te-chin, where 
porcelain clay, the product of decomposed feldspar, is found 
abundantly. 

The more the composition of the different earths became known, 
and the more medicine wanted to use the pure active principle, the 



Am. Jour. Pharni. | 
March, 1909. j 



Medicinal Earths. 



US 



quintessence of the various drugs, the more the variable and some- 
times adulterated clays, earths and boles became obsolete and purer 
aluminum preparations came into use and became official. 

Argilla alba or Bolus alba of the Pharmacopoeias was chiefly 
used as a pill excipient, especially for deliquescent or easily decom- 
posed salts. However, through the many family receipts, handed 
down for centuries, the laity kept on using the different earths for 
inward troubles, such as diarrhoea and dysentery, as well as external 
applications in the form of clay poultices or of dry powder, as for 
instance, against bee stings, ulcers and sores, salt rheum and 
eczema, and all kinds of inflammations. 

Therefore the apothecary had to keep in touch with the different 
earths. Meanwhile the medical profession has found out that the 
quintessence, the active principle of drugs, as, for instance, quinine 
and morphine, does not act exactly the same as cinchona and opium, 
the drug itself ; the medical profession has found out that the arti- 
ficial mineral waters are not quite as valuable as the natural waters 
direct at the spring, and has also found out that alumina or aluminum 
hydroxide cannot replace the old " Terrse." 

Let me give you another example which confirms the motto of 
Horace cited in the beginning : 

The well known virtue of vegetable drugs, well known and tried 
for centuries, was in the course of time ridiculed and forgotten. 
Medical science enthusiastically used mineral poisons, coal-tar and 
aniline derivatives and synthetic chemicals for a while, until to their 
sorrow they discovered bad effects resulting from their use. Then 
again they took hold of the remedies of old, the herbs, roots, etc., 
and preparations therefrom. 

And the Cataplasma Kaolini of the U. S. P. VIII indicates such a 
return to the old materia medica. In this cataplasm we find the old 
kaolin in combination with Glycerin. Boric Acid, Thymol, diethyl- 
salicylate and Oil of Peppermint, essential principles or quintessences 
of such old time remedies as Borax, the ancient Chrysocolla (from 
chrysos — gold — and kolla — glue) used for soldering by the ancients, 
and the quintessences of Thyme, of Spirea ulmaria and of Mentha. 
Glycerin, the old " Oelsuess " accidentally discovered in 1783 by 
the zealous Swedish pharmacist Karl Wilhelm Scheele as a by- 
product in the preparation of Emplastrum Plumbi. evidently is added 
to this cataplasm in order to keep it soft, and also by its hygroscopic 
power to act as a mild counterirritant and exosmotic. 



n6 



M edicinal Earths. 



[Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1909. 



This is not the first instance in which a preparation has been 
forced to enter a Pharmacopoeia to be recognized as an official 
remedy. The admission of Extractum Malti into the German Phar- 
macopoeia came about through Hoff's Malt Extract ; and the differ- 
ent specialties, which have sprung up of late years and were adver- 
tised and pushed with truly American ingenuity very likely made 
a way for the introduction of Cataplasma Kaolini into the U. S. P., 
which book is without doubt the aristocrat among all the Pharma- 
copoeias. 

This U. S. P. formula has since been adopted by the Ontario 
College of Pharmacy in their Canadian Formulary, 1908, and the 
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain in their British Pharma- 
ceutical Codex, 1907, which must indeed be very flattering to the 
U. S. P. Revision Committee. 

But the claim of the manufacturers of the various specialties 
with the fantastic trade-mark names that their preparations are 
original is a mistaken idea, or, plainly spoken, is false, as I have 
proven in the foregoing that clay poultices have been used from 
the oldest times. 

Their fantastic names, but not their preparations, are original! 

In Germany preparations of this kind have been known and used 
for a long time. The great pharmacist Hager in his " Pharma- 
zeutische Praxis " gives a formula for Pasta Boli albse, and the 
manufacturing pharmacist Dieterich in his " Manuale " gives for- 
mulae for " Pasta Kaolini glycerinata " and " Pasta Kaolini oleosa." 

Thus you can see that by the resurrection of this old earth and 
paste, by the admission of Kaolin and Cataplasm of Kaolin in the 
U. S. P. VIII, the words of Horace again become true. Let us 
hope that the old clay poultice in its new, somewhat mysterious 
form, will have a long and blissful life in our materia medica ! 

It is a proven fact, which does not correspond with the old 
saying that " humanity changes in time," a fact which is deplorable 
for modern civilization "and educated mankind, that earth or still 
better ordinary clay, which has been used from times immemorial 
against inflammations, is to-day regarded and used as a remedy for 
almost every known disease by a newly formed school, originated 
not by a physician but by Pastor Kneipp ! 

Multa Renascentur quae jam Cecidere! 
(Many things shall be brought to life which have fallen.) 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
March, 1909. J 



U. S. P. Assay Methods. 



117 



PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT 
OF U. S. P. ASSAY METHODS * 

By John G. Roberts. 

The subject which has been selected for this article has perhaps 
been pretty thoroughly discussed, but in practical every-day work we 
find that there are some points in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia which could 
be improved upon. Of the excellence of the Pharmacopoeia there is 
no doubt, as it stands at the front of all works of its kind. In its 
growth, from decade to decade, it has steadily increased in value, 
particularly to the pharmacist, as a reference book, as a guide to the 
manufacture of the most important pharmaceutical preparations, for 
the identification of crude drugs and for the detection of adultera- 
tions in chemicals, and fixed and volatile oils. It has set standards 
for vegetable drugs and their preparations, chemicals and oils, 
presents methods for the determination of their strength, and tests 
for their purity. 

In fact, it is of great importance to the pharmacist, as it is a 
source of protection ; for when he orders a preparation specified in 
the Pharmacopoeia, he is assured of obtaining a preparation of known 
strength and purity. This is especially true since the passage of the 
Food and Drugs Act, by which act the Government recognized it 
as an authority. The Pharmacopoeia may be somewhat stringent on 
some points, but in the large majority of cases it is perfectly fair 
and exerts an uplifting influence upon the pharmaceutical profession. 

As the Pharmacopoeia is final on all questions concerning the 
preparations which it specifies, it should be perfectly clear and 
intelligible on all points to those who must use it. While it is gen- 
erally satisfactory, there are some points which need revision, some 
which should be made more comprehensive, and still some others 
which should be inserted. A few points which have been omitted are 
of sufficient importance to command attention. 

Probably the most important subject treated by the Pharma- 
copoeia is the determination of the alkaloidal strength of drugs, 
fluidextracts, extracts and tinctures. It is entirely proper that thev 
should receive considerable attention, as the alkaloidal content is 
extremely important. 



* Read at the meeting of the Philadelphia Branch of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association, January 5, 1909. 



n8 



U. S. P. Assay Methods. 



( Am. Jour. Pbarn'i. 
| March, 1909. 



On pages 578 and 579, Chapter IV of the Appendix, the Phar- 
macopoeia gives instructions concerning alkaloidal assay by immis- 
cible solvents, but it is not complete, as some of the most essential 
points in alkaloidal assay have been omitted. This chapter explains 
the process and what takes place at certain stages of the assay ; for 
instance, it states what is formed upon shaking out with a dilute 
acid solution, describes a separator, tells how to break up emulsions, 
and states that the ethereal layer is above the aqueous layer in the 
separator. This is necessary, as no effort should be spared that 
would be of value to those who must, of necessity, use the U. S. P. 
methods for the determination of alkaloidal strength. In the treat- 
ment of this subject probably the most important part of an alka- 
loidal assay, and one which may cause an error in the result, has 
not been touched upon, and that is the necessity of washing the tip 
of the separator stem with some of the solvent. This must be done 
because when the ether or chloroform containing the alkaloid is 
drawn off, some is drawn up around the outside of the stem, from 
which it is evaporated, leaving the alkaloid, and if this is not washed 
off it will be a cause of error in the result. It is more likely to occur 
with ethereal than with chloroformic solutions. 

Another factor in alkaloidal assay, and one which is of sufficient 
importance to 'deserve mention in the chapter under discussion, is 
the absolute necessity of excluding any acid or ammonia fumes from 
the room. It is not necessary to do this during the whole of the 
operation, but only after the time the ethereal or chloroformic solu- 
tion is drawn off into the vessel in which the alkaloid is to be titrated. 
There are no reasons why these suggestions should not be incor- 
porated in this chapter. It would be establishing no precedent, and 
they are of vastly more importance to the operator and are more 
conducive to accurate work than the knowledge that a salt is formed 
when the alkaloid is shaken out with dilute acids, or even how to 
break up an emulsion. 

For the titration of alkaloids the Pharmacopoeia instructs (with 
the exception where iodo-eosin is used as an indicator) that the 
solution be drawn into and the evaporation be performed in a 
beaker, but we have found that white, glazed porcelain dishes are 
superior for this purpose. In these dishes the evaporation of the 
solvent is more readily accomplished on account of the larger surface 
exposed. The end reaction is also more easily detected because of 
the white background. This is particularly true when cochineal is 
used as an indicator. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
March, 1909. j 



U. S. P. Assay Methods. 



119 



While discussing the assay methods of the Pharmacopoeia, it 
would not be out of place to mention two methods which we have 
found very effective in breaking up emulsions. These are not 
offered for insertion in the Pharmacopoeia, as the methods given 
there are satisfactory, but are recommended as being superior to 
the U. S. P. methods. 

The first of these, which has been used to break up the most 
stubborn emulsions in a very short time, consists in treating the 
emulsified solution, if acid, with an alkali (preferably ammonia), 
or if the emulsified solution is alkaline, by treating it with dilute 
sulphuric acid. The reason for the disintegration of the emulsion 
is that the acid and alkali combine, or vice versa, thus forming a 
salt and liberating the solvent. When this is accomplished, it is 
brought to its original condition and again shaken out. 

The other method is merely a mechanical one, and is not quite 
so effective, but may be used in less compact emulsions. It is per- 
formed by placing a dozen or so of small pieces of glass rod, about 
one-quarter inch in length, in the separator containing the emulsion, 
then holding - the separator in a horizontal position and rotating 
slowly. By this means the emulsion is broken by coming in contact 
with the glass rods. The clear solution may then be drawn off and 
the operation repeated until the emulsion is completely broken up. 

A decided improvement could be made in the assay methods of 
drugs like belladonna, hyoscyamus and stramonium, which require 
maceration and percolation, if both operations were conducted in 
one vessel. This would eliminate loss in transferring and would save 
time. A suitable apparatus should be described and recommended. 

The question of economy in the assay of tinctures, fluidextracts, 
etc., must be considered. While this is not of much importance to 
the large manufacturer, it is to the small manufacturer, who would, 
perhaps, make only a pint of fluidextract and two or three pints of 
tincture. In practically all cases in the assay of tinctures, the 
U. S. P. instructions are to use 100 c.c. This is done regardless 
of the alkaloidal content. There is no necessity, in most cases, for 
using such a large quantity, as half the amount would be ample. 
Besides the waste of 50 c.c. of tincture, there is a loss of time in the 
evaporation which most of them require. If a duplicate assay is 
made (which should be made, in order to be reasonably sure of 
results), the loss would amount to 100 c.c. The reason for using 
such a large quantity is not because a smaller quantity would not 



120 



U.S. P. Assay Methods. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
] March, 1909. 



give accurate results, on account of the small amount of alkaloid 
present, as the same quantity (100 c.c.) is required to be used, 
whether the standard for the alkaloid in 100 c.c. is 0.014 Gm. or 
0.1 Gm. 

For an illustration, we will take the assay methods for tincture . 
of nux vomica and for tincture of physostigma. The standard for 
alkaloid in 100 c.c. of tincture of nux vomica is over seven times as 
high as that for tincture of physostigma, but the same amount of 
tincture is required in both cases. When it is taken into account 
that the alkaloid which is titrated from the nux vomica represents 
the full 100 c.c, and the alkaloid from the physostigma only 50 c.c, 
the difference is even greater. 

A more forcible illustration of this difference is found between 
tincture of hyoscyamus, which has a standard for 100 c.c. of 0.007 
Gm. and tincture of hydrastis, which has a standard of 0.4 Gm. in 
100 c.c. There is no reason why it would not be as well to use 
25 c.c. in the case of both tincture of nux vomica and tincture of 
hydrastis, as it would be a saving of both time and material. There 
are several other cases which might be mentioned. 

In a work of the standing of the Pharmacopoeia, it should be 
the aim to eliminate all waste and to make all methods as short as 
possible. A sample of needless waste is found in the assays for 
colchicum corm and colchicum seed, in which we are instructed to 
take 100 c.c. of a mixture of ether 77 c.c, chloroform 25 c.c, and 
alcohol 8 c.c, amounting to a little over 109 c.c, allowing for con- 
traction. Here we have an excess of 9 c.c, and if a duplicate is 
made, an excess of 18 c.c, which is wasted. It should be calculated 
so that it would only be necessary to make 100 c.c, as is done in most 
other instances. 

The present methods for the assay of alkaloidal drugs and their 
preparations are, on the whole, very satisfactory, but we come across 
details, here and there, which require slight changes and which 
would give more accurate results. The first of these, which might 
be mentioned, is in the assay of opium. After drying the crystals 
of morphine obtained, we are told to weigh them on a tared watch- 
glass, after which they are transferred to an Erlenmeyer flask. 
It is not an easy matter to- transfer a powder to a flask, as there is 
danger of loss by a portion dropping on the outside. A better 
method is to weigh the crystals on tared oiled paper which is con- 
siderably easier to handle. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1909. } 



U. S. P. Assay Methods. 



121 



In the assay of nux vomica the most difficult part of the opera- 
tion is the oxidation of the brucine. We find, when making dupli- 
cate assays, that both solutions often do not act uniformly, as one is 
usually completed before the other ; at times the oxidation is incom- 
plete at the expiration of the ten minutes allowed for it. The 
trouble seems to be in the temperature of the solution, as it has been 
shown that if it is slightly warm an immediate oxidation occurs, 
producing a bright red solution. In view of this fact it would be 
of great benefit if the temperature, at which the oxidation is to be 
conducted, should be stated. 

No matter at what temperature it is conducted, decrepitation 
usually occurs in evaporating off the solvent, which is likely to cause 
some of the alkaloid to be ejected from the flask. If the flask is 
rotated while evaporating the last portion of the solvent, this danger 
is minimized. 

A condition similar to the one in the assay of colchicum corm and 
colchicum seed is found in the assay of conium, in which an excess 
of about 6 c.c. of menstruum is required to be prepared. While 
there is not as much waste in this case, nevertheless it must be con- 
sidered as such, because there is more menstruum than is necessary 
for the -operation. 

The assay of pepsin is facilitated if the egg albumin be passed 
while hot through the sieve. This part of the method should contain 
the instructions to sieve the albumin as soon as it has been boiled. 

A source of error is introduced into the method for the assay 
of physostigma, when it neglects to require the cylinder, in which 
the ethereal solution containing the alkaloid has been measured, to 
be rinsed with some of the solvent. It is true that the error would 
be slight, but an accumulation of errors, such as this, would cause a 
serious discrepancy in the final result. 

If these suggestions were adopted, they would increase the 
volume of the Pharmacopoeia to but a very small extent, but they 
would contribute much to greater accuracy in work, which is the 
main factor in alkaloidal assaying. 

Analytical Laboratory, 

Smith,. Kline & French Co. 



122 Laboratory Notes on Assay Work. { Km i£^^ rm- 

SOME LABORATORY NOTES ON ASSAY WORK.* 
By L. Henry Bernegau. 

It is not my purpose this evening to give any new processes for 
the assay of drugs or preparations made from them. What I wish to 
give is only a few points in carrying out some assay methods, which 
would perhaps be of benefit to those in the pharmaceutical profession 
who wish to or have to assay their own drugs or preparations, that 
should be assayed. 

In the assay of aconite root and preparations made therefrom we 
find it preferable to use for extracting the alkaloid an ether-chloro- 
form mixture (100 c.c. ether, 21 c.c. chloroform) to which has been 
added about 15 c.c. of saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, instead 
of a proper amount of ammonia water. In carrying out the titration 
we find iodeosin to be of no value as an indicator, and now use only 
cochineal T. S. as indicator, as directed by the U. S. P., which gives 
very good results. Aconitine seems to be most stable, or to remain 
as such in those preparations having the form of a tincture or fluid- 
extract, that is to say, in presence of a high percentage of alcohol. 
Our records during 1908 show plainly that the powdered and solid 
extracts deteriorate much more quickly than preparations containing 
alcohol. On shaking out aconite and its preparations, very often a 
thick emulsion results. As quick work in my opinion is a great 
factor in getting good results, I carry out the assay as follows : 
After shaking the drug (say 12 Gm.) with 100 c.c. ether, 21 c.c. 
chloroform and 12 to 15 c.c. saturated sodium bicarbonate solution 
for about four hours, I filter off an aliquot part of the ethereal 
liquid, say 60 c.c. equivalent to 6 Gm. of drug. 

The clear filtrate, removed to a separatory funnel, is shaken out 
at least three to four times with 1 per cent, sulphuric acid, 50, 40 
and 30 c.c. respectively. On shaking vigorously an emulsion results 
in most cases, which is very difficult to separate. Now, I personally 
do not wait until a complete separation takes place, but let the partly 
separated lower layer run into a second separator. I repeat this 
same manipulation three or four times, which procedure does away 
with the emulsion in the upper part of the separator. Now shake 
the combined acid solutions (containing also froth, some ether and 



* Read before the Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, January 5, 1909. 



A ^w U h r ;i P 909 rm '} Laboratory Notes on Assay Work. 123 

chloroform) very vigorously and it will be found that an almost 
complete separation results in a few seconds ; allow the liquid to 
stand for one minute or so, as necessary, and collect the acid solu- 
tion in another separator. Shake the froth and ethereal layer with 
30-40 c.c. more of 1 per cent. H 2 S0 4 , let the liquids separate, which 
now takes only one-half minute or so, and add the acid layer to the 
other combined acid solutions and finish the assay according to the 
U. S. P. method. 

It is not my intention to criticize any U. S. P. methods, but I 
would say, that the amounts of solvents for alkaloidal assays given 
in this valuable book are in most cases far too small to exhaust the 
drugs thoroughly; furthermore, in using small amounts of solvents 
or diluents the danger of getting emulsions increases. Conium fruit 
and its preparations are especially liable to form emulsions and on 
account of their high volatility, it requires skilful and quick work 
to avoid any loss. If treated as outlined under aconite there will 
be no trouble in effecting separation of the liquids, and the quick 
work will not allow an appreciable loss of coniine. 

To make a reliable assay of any drug is not so very easy, as most 
or all of us know. We need not only practice and skilful hands, but 
also brains, and by no means least of all common sense. Every little 
detail requires different treatment. I find some drug analysts who 
are satisfied if the results obtained with duplicate assays fall within 
fair limits. As they mostly make these duplicates at the same time 
we must expect that they get the same results under the same 
conditions. 

It is certainly and undoubtedly a good check to have duplicates 
made, but the results of these duplicates if identical or nearly so do in 
no way give a guaranty that they are right. I had to make up some 
vears ago a solution of a mydriatic alkaloid of known strength in an 
alcoholic indifferent fluidextract and gave portions of this entirely 
uniform preparation to eight different analysts at eight different 
places for assay with the request to hurry these assays, to avoid 
any possible deterioration. In about five or eight days I received 
all their results, most of them written on nicely filled out blanks. 

From three men whom I knew to be reliable, I expected close 
results and I got them ; the five others were all too low, ranging from 
80 per cent, down to 22 per cent, of alkaloids present, except one 
sample which ran 160 per cent. As every one of these analysts said 
duplicates were made by them, these duplicates did certainly not 
prove the correctness of their assays. 



124 Laboratory Notes on Assay Work. ("'Sj™ 1, 

During the last year we found some lots of sanguinarine nitrate 
to contain a considerable amount of aniline colors, and at the same 
time to assay extremely low ; one sample assayed only 52 per cent, 
pure sanguinarine nitrate. With the exception of a small amount 
of moisture, the remainder consisted mainly of some potassium 
nitrate and sugar of milk. As the U. S. P. requires no assay of 
sanguinarine and its preparations it would be of no great interest 
to the pharmacist at present to go into further details. 

Gelsemium is another drug for which no assay is required by 
the U. S. P., but as this drug is employed now quite extensively it 
seems to be worth while to say a few words in regard to its assay. 
In our laboratories we assay this drug and preparations derived 
therefrom chemically as well as physiologically. Shaken out by the 
old-style method, the gelsemine mostly contains a large amount of 
highly colored foreign matter, which makes a gravimetric deter- 
mination nearly impossible, while the coloring matter interferes with 
the volumetric end reaction. We did not have any difficulty in 
getting rid of the coloring matter by precipitation with solution of 
lead subacetate followed by dried and powdered sodium phosphate 
or sulphate, and were satisfied with the results in comparison with 
those obtained by other reliable methods. Only lately, we also tried 
Webster's method (tartaric acid) modified by Sayre and got good 
results on comparison. 

The assays made by the latter method came out a trifle higher 
than those made by our own method. The main advantage of the 
new method lies in the fact that the recovered alkaloid has a much 
lighter color than that recovered by the old methods, and therefore 
the alkaloidal residue is easily titrated, using either iodeosin or 
cochineal as indicator. We are now using the Webster-Sayre 
method exclusively. 

On assaying physostigma preparations, we employ both the 
gravimetric and volumetric methods as a check. If the assays are 
carried out lege artis both will compare favorably. If the alkaloidal 
residue is brown or dark colored the gravimetric method will give 
in most cases results which are 'much too high ; on the other hand, 
it is very difficult to get a sharp end reaction with iodeosin, etc., as 
indicators, if the acid solution of the alkaloid is highly colored. If 
both assays compare well we are certainly satisfied ; if not, we make 
these assays over until good results are obtained. As physostigma 
deteriorates very rapidly, even more so on exposure to light, air and 



A %Sch,'i P 9^ rm '} Developments in Alkaloidal Assaying. 125 

heat, its preparations should be assayed at least every three or four 
months before using them. 

The U. S. P. directs to use for hyoscyamus assays 25 Gm. of 
the drug : 50 c.c. of the fluidextract ; 10 Gm. of solid extract, but only 
100 c.c. for tincture — why. I do not understand. 

To make plain what I have in mind I hereby give the following 
comparisons : 

25 Gm. of drug of 0.08 U. S. P. standard would represent 

0.020 Gm. alkaloid. 
50 c.c. of Fluidextract of 0.075 P er cent. U. S. P. standard would 

represent about 0.0375 Gm. alkaloid. 
10 Gm. of solid extract of 0.3 per cent. U. S. P. standard would 

represent 0.030 Gm. alkaloid. 
100 c.c. of tincture of 0.007 P er cent. U. S. P. standard would 

represent only 0.007 Gm. alkaloid. 

Therefore the amount used for tincture is only about one-third 
of that used for the drug, about one-fifth of that for fluidextract, 
and about one-fourth of that for solid extract. 

I think it advisable to use at least 200 c.c. of tincture for assay 
to get nearly accurate results, the amount of 100 c.c. being too small 
for practical laboratory work. 

Personally I would say that I prefer iodeosin to cochineal in 
titrating all mydriatic alkaloids. 

Analytical Laboratory, 
H. K. Mulford Co. 



RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ALKALOIDAL ASSAYING * 

By Joseph L Turner. 

If we cast a retrospective view upon investigations of vegetable 
drugs, two distinct purposes of these investigations can be noticed : 
firstly, the purely chemical investigations of drugs in order to learn 
the innermost of their composition and constitution, and, secondly, 
investigation of their practical application. While the first purpose 
is not yet entirely achieved and very much has yet to be done, how- 



* Read before the Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, January 5, 1909. 



126 Developments in Alkaloidal Assaying. { Am ^ch 2o9 rm ' 

ever, enough has been done to enable us to say that we have arrived 
at a certain point in the investigation of practical application of 
drugs where we can see that the things have cleared themselves in 
so far that we can ask ourselves whether it is not the proper time to 
combine the purely chemical and scientific investigation with the 
practical application and draw some conclusion as to the line of 
work to be carried on in the future. 

Boulanger-Dausse in Bulletin des Sciences Pharm., No. i, 1908, 
pays particular attention to this question and comes to the following 
conclusions : 

The endeavor to isolate the " alkaloid " to which scentific phar- 
macy paid such vivid attention for nearly one hundred years begins 
to lose its practical significance. The chemistry of colloids partly 
takes its place and the chemist and pharmacologist pay more and 
more attention to certain complex ingredients of drugs, or, as they 
are usually called, " extractives " of drugs. 

A diligent and successful investigation of certain drugs showed 
conclusively that the active principles isolated from them in the 
course of one hundred years and studied both chemically and phar- 
macologically did not satisfy the requirements which the physician 
had right to put to them. Cinchona, digitalis, erg'ot, rhubarb, buck- 
thorn, cascara sagrada, kola, opium, and mix vomica are the .best 
examples illustrating what was said before. 

Many prominent pharmaceutic chemists and, lately, especially 
Kunz-Krause, recognized this in proper time and showed that in 
many cases the production of chemically pure active principles of 
drugs can no longer be the ultimate purpose of pharmacy. It is 
more proper to expect that in the future pharmaceutical science will 
direct its work toward production of chemically unchanged colloidal 
drug preparations which will have the total action of the respective 
drug. Pharmacy will no longer endeavor to produce extracts under 
conditions favoring the furthest decomposition of the pharmacolog- 
ically important constituents of the drug, but it will pay strictest 
attention to the results of the latest investigations on active ferments 
of the drug in order to prepare extracts and tinctures in the course 
of production of which chemical agents and active menstrua (for 
instance, alcohol) are avoided. 

As soon as we agree which tissues of the drug contain the respec- 
tive active principles and whether these active principles occur in 
the crystalline state or suspended in colloidal state, it will not be 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1909. 



J Developments in Alkaloidal Assaying. 127 



difficult to find the means for their extraction. No doubt among 
these means dialysis will play an important part. In most of the 
cases attention will be paid to proper selection of the menstruum. 
In any case, as Boulanger-Dausse points out, the time has arrived 
to return from the purely chemical treatment of the drug- to the 
pharmaceutic technical treatment on scientific bases ; thus a way for 
a co-operation between the physician and druggist opens itself and 
it is impossible to foresee the benefit to the science of such co- 
operation. 

Returning to the proper scope of my paper ci Development in 
Alkaloidal Assay," I must say that the year 1908 was not particularly 
rich in progress along this line. While in the year 1907 a new precip- 
itant for alkaloids was offered (Picrolonic Acid) and there was quite 
a discussion on certain U. S. P. alkaloidal processes, in the course 
of which a good many important improvements were suggested, 
during the last year no new methods for isolation of alkaloids were 
suggested, neither important improvements in alkaloidal processes 
were published, although some minor points were brought out. 

Fluidextracts of Belladonna and Hyoscyamus. — Shortly after the 
appearance of the Fourth Edition of the German Pharmacopoeia, 
E. Merck drew attention to the fact that the method of the Phar- 
macopoeia for these extracts gave results which were 20 to 50 per 
cent, too high. It could be proven experimentally that the reason 
for these high results were certain volatile bases which were not 
driven off in evaporating the chloroform extract to half volume. 
As it was not advisable to evaporate the chloroform solution of 
alkaloids to dryness on account of decomposition of chloroform 
with formation of hydrochloric acid, Merck suggested the use of 
ether instead of chloroform and evaporating this to dryness. E. Rupp 
had occasion to verify Merck's work and found, in accordance with 
the latter, that the method of the German Pharmacopoeia did not 
give concordant results, the alkaloidal content of the drug estimated 
by this method being sometimes twice as high as that found by 
Merck's modified process. The new Swiss Pharmacopoeia does not 
consider the evaporation of the ethereal extract to dryness sufficient 
and requires that the residue of the ethereal extraction should be 
dissolved in 5 c.c. of ether and evaporated again, and this solution 
and evaporation should be repeated twice. Rupp assayed a certain 
extract by the three different methods and obtained the following 
results : 



Developments in Alkaloidal Assaying. {^mS'^™' 



German Pharmacopoeia process 0.9 per cent. 

E. Merck's modified process 0.62-0.7 per cent. 

Swiss Pharmacopoeia process 0.57-0.61 per cent. 

Therefore, it is evident that the repeated solution in ether and 
re-evaporation of the alkaloidal residue will free this residue from 
a certain amount of volatile basic substances, and Rupp considers that 
a true amount of alkaloids can be estimated only by the Swiss Phar- 
macopoeia method. 

The United States Pharmacopoeia evidently recognized the im- 
portance of driving off. these volatile bases, as it requires in the case 
of belladonna leaves and extract of belladonna the dissolving of the 
residue of the chloroform extract of the alkaloids in 3 c.c. of ether 
and subsequent evaporation of this solution. However, this method 
is not followed all the way through, as in case of fluidextract of 
belladonna and fluidextract of hyoscyamus no such requirements 
exist. It would be interesting to compare results obtained by the 
Pharmacopoeia method with those obtained by an ethereal extraction 
of alkaloids and also by redissolving the alkaloids obtained by the 
U. S. P. process in ether and evaporating this solution, repeating 
this dissolving and evaporation twice as required by the Swiss 
Pharmacopoeia. 

Ribaut {Bulletin des Science Pharmacolog., 1908, No. 9) inves- 
tigated the decomposition of alkaloids in four-year old extracts of 
solanacese. The loss of alkaloids expressed in percentage of the 
original alkaloidal contents of the extracts is as follows: 

Extract belladonna leaves 3 

" 45 

22 

" 3 

Extract hyoscyamus leaves 69 

Extract stramonium leaves ..31 

" 8 

Extract belladonna root 4 

" 3 

i( <i u j 

" 12 

Extract hyoscyamus seeds 19 

it « tc 2c 
" 24 

The author ascribes the change in alkaloidal contents to biolog- 
ical processes (possibly action of certain bacteria), but does not think 
that it is in any way due to a chemical process. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1909. j 



Determination of Alcohol 



129 



Fluidextract Hydrastis. — Kollo recommends the following 
methods for the estimation of the hydrastine contents by means of 
titration with Meyer's reagent. A standard Meyer's reagent is pre- 
pared as follows : 

13.546 Gm. HgCl 2 and 49.8 Gm. potassium iodide (after drying 
for twelve hours in desiccator) are dissolved in a little hot distilled 
water and after cooling to 15 C. are diluted to one litre; 1 c.c. of 
this solution precipitates according to Kollo 0.0223 Gm. hydrastine. 
The estimation is made in the following way : 20 c.c. of fluidextract 
are diluted to 100 c.c. with distilled water. Five test-tubes are filled 
each with 10 c.c. of this solution. To the first tube 1.5 c.c. of Meyer's 
reagent are added. The second received 1.6, third 1.7 and so on of 
this reagent. The test-tubes are shaken and the contents filtered. 
To one drop of each of the filtrates, one drop of a solution obtained 
by dilution of 20 drops of fluidextract hydrastis with 5 c.c. of water 
are added. The filtrate which first shows a cloudiness indicates that 
precipitation was complete in the respective solution. The amount 
in cubic centimetres of Meyer's reagent used is multiplied by 0.0223 
and the product is multiplied by 50. The result gives the percentage 
of hydrastine, which is sufficiently exact for practical purposes. 

Research Laboratory of the 
H. K. Mulford Co., Philadelphia. 



THE DETERMINATION OF ALCOHOL IN GALENICAL 
PREPARATIONS.* 

By Charles E. Vanderkleed. 

Aside from the economic and the occasional scientific interest 
in the subject of alcohol determination, the legal aspect of this 
subject since the passage of the Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 
1906, has brought it into prominence, and the section of that Act 
which requires the accurate labelling of all medicinal substances 
entering into interstate commerce with their percentage of absolute 
alcohol by volume has rendered necessary the improvement of 
methods for the determination of the latter. 



* Read before the Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, January 5, 1909. 



130 



Determination of Alcohol. 



/Am. JouP. rbarm. 
\ March, 1909. 



Text-books on analytic methods are replete with directions for 
the determination of the alcoholic strength of fermented and dis- 
tilled liquors. Here the problem is a comparatively simple one, 
inasmuch as alcohol is generally the only easily volatile substance 
present in amounts sufficient to merit consideration. Since alcohol 
does not readily lend itself directly to either gravimetric or volu- 
metric methods of assay, nearly all determinations in the cases of 
wines, liquors, etc., have been based upon the influence of the alcohol 
present upon the specific gravity of the liquid. In some cases, where 
little else than alcohol and water is present, sufficiently accurate 
deductions as to alcoholic strength may be made by taking the 
specific gravity of the original liquid and referring to approved 
alcohol tables. In other cases, the difference in gravity before and 
after ' replacing all the contained alcohol with an equal volume of 
Water is taken as the basis for calculation. Again, a given volume 
of 'the liquid may be distilled under proper conditions and the 
specific gravity of the distillate taken as the basis for the calcula- 
tion. 1 The problem before us, therefore, is to see how these methods 
may be applied to galenical preparations, and what precautions and 
modifications it may be necessary to adopt in specific cases. 2 

In the first place, practically all galenical preparations contain 
appreciable amounts of dissolved substances, other than alcohol, 
which naturally affect their specific gravities. It follows, therefore, 
that the specific gravity of the original preparation will not directly 
indicate the alcoholic strength. 

The second method mentioned, namely, that of taking the specific 
gravity before and after evaporation of the alcohol and restoring the 
original volume by adding water, is of limited application for the 
following reasons: 

1 The method based upon the determination of the temperature of the 
vapors produced on boiling, involving the use of the ebullioscope, presents 
difficulties that render it inapplicable to practical every-day determinations, 
and will, not be discussed in this paper. See Wiley's " Principles and Prac- 
tice of Agricultural Analysis." The method involving the use of the immer- 
sion refractometer will be mentioned later on in the paper. 

2 Attention is here called to the fact that specific methods for the deter- 
mination of alcohol in certain preparations have from time to time been 
worked out. Such, for example, is the method of Pearson for the estima- 
tion of alcohol in concentrated nitrous ether, published in the American 
Journal of Pharmacy, Vol 80 (1908), page 101. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1909. j 



Determination of Alcohol. 



1. The method is not applicable where volatile substances other 
than alcohol are present. 

2. The method is not applicable when the solution or residue 
left after evaporation of the alcohol is not perfectly soluble in an 
aqueous liquid, for the reason that the precipitation of dissolved 
matter caused by the change from alcoholic to aqueous menstruum 
produces an additional change in the specific gravity of the liquid. 
Alcohol being used largely in galenicals because its solvent action 
differs from that of water, it follows that a very large proportion of 
pharmaceutical preparations will precipitate when their alcohol is 
removed and will not yield a clear solution again on dilution with 
water. A method eliminating this difficulty is now being worked 
out in our laboratory, whereby it is hoped to increase greatly the 
availability of this method. This modification will be discussed 
later on in this paper. 

We have left, therefore, only the third method, that of distilla- 
tion, which must be adapted to use in pharmaceutic preparations. 

Primarily, we have only two difficulties to surmount in applying 
the method by distillation to pharmaceutic preparations. The first 
and principal difficulty lies in the possible presence of volatile sub- 
stances other than alcohol which would distil over with the latter 
and vitiate the specific gravity of the distillate. The second diffi- 
culty, which is a mechanical or physical one, consists in the liability 
of the solution to froth over, or to carry non-volatile matter mechan- 
ically over into the distillate. 

Taking up first the greater difficulty, that caused by volatile 
substances other than alcohol, we can divide such substances into 
four classes as follows : 

1. Volatile Acids. 

2. Volatile Alkalies. 

3. Volatile oils and aromatics. 

4. Ethereal Solvents. 

It is apparent, therefore, that a knowledge of the composition of 
the preparation is essential before a suitable method can be selected 
for determining its alcoholic content. Volatile oils, aromatics, ether 
and chloroform, can generally be detected at once by their odor, if 
present in amounts sufficient to vitiate an alcohol determination. 
The presence of volatile acids and alkalies must, however, be quali- 
tatively determined, if the preparation is of unknown composition, 



132 



Determination of Alcohol. 



f Am. Jour. Pharai. 
\ March, 1909, 



and not only must free volatile acids and free volatile alkali be 
guarded against,, but their presence in form of neutral salts must 
be known. Thus ammonium chloride may readily vitiate a deter- 
mination, since (as will be seen later ) it is generally necessary to 
distil from an alkaline or an acid solution; and in the presence of 
ammonium chloride, the gravity of the distillate from alkaline solu- 
tion would be vitiated by ammonia (NH 3 ), while that from acid 
solutions would be vitiated by hydrochloric acid (HC1). 

Preparations of vegetable drugs generally contain larger or 
smaller amounts of volatile acids. The general rule, therefore, in 
the cases of all fluidextracts, tinctures, etc., is to distil from a solu- 
tion made alkaline with caustic soda or potash. This serves to 
" fix " and retain volatile acids, and for the greater number of 
galenical preparations is the only precaution necessary to overcome 
difficulty Xo. I. 

On the other hand, preparations containing ammonia must be 
distilled only after the addition of an excess of sulphuric acid which 
serves to " fix " the ammonia in the form of ammonium sulphate. 
But, on the other hand, if the sulphuric acid serves also to liberate 
and thus render volatile any combined volatile acid, either directly 
from the drug extractive present or from a salt of ammonia such as 
ammonium chloride, then the first distillate must be rendered alkaline 
with caustic soda or potash and be redistilled. 

When volatile oils and aromatics are present in galenical prepa- 
rations in amounts only sufficient to flavor them, the vitiation of 
specific gravity in the distillate is so slight, that for the practical 
purpose of obtaining a figure which will comply with the require- 
ments of the law as to declaration of alcoholic strength, it may be 
considered negligible. On the other hand, distillates from alcohol 
solutions of volatile oils, and from fluidextracts and tinctures of the 
volatile-oil-containing and oleoresin-containing drugs, often hold 
in solution or cloudy suspension such an amount of volatile oil as to 
decidedlv vitiate the result. Spirit of anise, cinnamon, etc., and 
fluidextract of sandalwood, cubeb, capsicum, peppermint, etc.. afford 
good examples of this class of preparations. 

Here, obviation of the difficulty is aided by the fact that the 
alcoholic strength of such preparations is always high — thus enabling 
us to dilute the preparation with water, which throws out of solution 
a large percentage of the dissolved oil. One method of preparation 
for the distillation of such solutions consists in taking 25 c.c, diluting 



Am. Jour. Pharm. j 
March, 1909. f 



Determination of Alcohol. 



133 



with distilled water to 100 or 200 c.c, shaking with 1 to 5 Gm. of 
magnesium carbonate, kieselguhr, or purified talc, and filtering the 
solution into the distilling flask, washing the residue with enough 
distilled water to make the total volume of filtrate measure 150 or 
250 c.c. All this must be done under conditions of care and low 
temperature to avoid loss of alcohol by evaporation. If the dis- 
tillate after such treatment should still be cloudy from suspended oil, 
after dilution to the mark, it may be shaken with magnesium car- 
bonate, filtered, and the specific gravity of the filtrate be taken as a 
basis for calculation of the alcoholic strength. A better method, 
however, and one which will also serve to eliminate the presence of 
the fourth class of interfering substances, namely ethereal solvents, 
will now be given. 

The presence of ethereal solvents, such as ether and chloroform, 
offers by far the greatest difficulty to be overcome in determining 
the alcoholic strength of galenical preparations. To such an extent 
is this true, that in our laboratory we have surmounted the difficulty, 
so far as our own preparations are concerned, by going around it, 
as an Irishman might say. The declared alcoholic strengths of 
such preparations as contain ether, chloroform, and the like, are 
calculated from the formulae, or, where this is not possible, from 
the determined alcoholic strength of the preparation or mixture at 
the stage just prior to the introduction of the ethereal solvent. 
Thus the necessity for an actual determination of the alcoholic 
strength of the finished preparation can often be obviated, but it 
still remains necessary to have a satisfactory method for the exami- 
nation of such preparations from unknown sources. Especially is 
this necessary for the proper enforcement of the Food and Drugs 
Act by the Government authorities. 

The following method, which has the endorsement of Dr. L. F. 
Kebler, Chief of the Division of Drugs of the Bureau of Chemistry 
at Washington is that of Thorpe and Holmes, and has been copied 
from the Journal of the Chemical Society, Vol. 83 (1903), page 314. 
It is the method employed in the British Government Laboratory. 

Twenty-five cubic centimetres of the sample, measured at 60 F. (15. 5 C), 
are mixed with water in a separator to a bulk of from 100 to 150 c.c. and 
common salt is added in sufficient quantity to saturate the liquid. The 
mixture is now shaken vigorously for five minutes with from 50 to 80 c.c. 
of light petroleum, boiling below 6o° C, and after standing for about half 
an hour the lower layer is drawn off into another separator, extracted if 



134 



Determination of Alcohol. 



(Am. Jour. Pharixl. 
\ March, 1909. 



necessary a second time with petroleum and then drawn off into a distillation 
flask. Meanwhile the petroleum layers are washed successively with 25 c.c. 
of saturated common salt solution, and the washings added to the main bulk, 
which is neutralized if necessary, and then distilled and the distillate made 
up to 100 c.c. 

In the foregoing method it will be noted that the objectionable 
ether, chloroform, oils, etc., are removed before the sample is sub- 
jected to distillation. In the following method taken from the 
" Bericht der technischen Priifungstelle des Reichsschatzamtes iiber 
technische Arbeiten auf dem Gebiete der Branntweinsteuer-Befrei- 
ungsordnung," for October I, 1905, to September 30, 1907, the 
interfering substances are removed from the distillate. An outline 
of this method follows : 

One hundred grammes of the preparation are mixed with 100 Gm. of 
water and distilled until about 150 Gm. of distillate have been obtained. The 
distillate is collected in a special " burette," the condenser rinsed with 
10 c.c. of water which is added to the contents of the burette, and the united 
liquids shaken in the burette for three minutes with 50 c.c. of petroleum 
benzine of a boiling-point of from 160 to 180 and a gravity of from 0.785 
to 0.790. After separation of the layers, the lower aqueous layer which con- 
tains the alcohol is run out into a 300 c.c. flask. The benzine layer in the 
burette is shaken out three times with 40 c.c. water and the aqueous wash- 
ings added to the liquid in the flask. 

The burette is next emptied and cleaned, and the united liquids in the 
flask returned to the burette, rinsing the flask out once with water into the 
burette. The contents are again shaken for three minutes with 30 c.c. of 
the petroleum benzine. Should the layers separate with more difficulty, the 
separation may be assisted by the introduction of some more water. After 
separation again, the lower aqueous layer is run off into a tared dry 300 c.c. 
flask, the residual liquid washed out twice more with 20 c.c, water, the wash- 
ings returned to the flask, and the weight of the united liquids determined. 
By the addition of water, this weight is brought up to a round number. 
After shaking, and filtering through a dry filter, the alcoholic content of 
100 Gm. is determined by means of an alcoholometer, and the amount cal- 
culated for the entire liquid, and hence for the 100 Gm. of original prepara- 
tion taken. 

Example: After distillation and treatment twice with petroleum benzine, 
the liquid weighs 236 Gm. It is brought up to 240 Gm. with water, shaken, 
filtered, and 30 Gm. of alcohol found in 100 Gm. by means of the alcohol- 
ometer. 

24° X30 _ y 2 ^ t j_, e p er cen t ] 3 y weight of alcohol in the preparation. 
100 

We now come to the second great difficulty, namely, the mechan- 
ical or physical one, consisting in the tendency of the solution to 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
March, 1909. / 



Determination of Alcohol. 



froth over or to carry non-volatile matter mechanically over into 
the distillate. Four things may be mentioned as means of over- 
coming this difficulty : 

1. By careful regulation of the heat employed and the rate of 
distillation. For most galenical preparations, the heat should be 
so applied as to obtain a required 100 c.c. of distillate in from three- 
fourths to one and one-fourth hours. 

2. By avoiding " bumping.''' This may be accomplished by the 
employment of broken glass., a few small pieces of platinum foil, a 
few pieces of " Siedesteinchen " (lumps of broken porous plates), 
or by suspending a string in such a manner as to have it dip slightly 
below the surface of the liquid. 

3. By precipitating or coagulating by means of tannin or by 
means of lead subacetate, certain substances which tend to froth. 

4. When all precautions fail to prevent frothing over, the redis- 
tillation of the distillate. 

The following directions for making the alcohol determination 
of a pharmaceutical preparation by distillation will serve to describe 
the general method employed in our laboratory. Modifications of 
the described procedure must, of course, be made in accordance with 
the difficulties already mentioned. 

Transfer exactly 50 c.c. 3 of the preparation (measured at any 
definite temperature, that of the room being most convenient) to a 
500 c.c. distilling bulb of the round-bottomed variety, and 1 drachm 
of tannin in such a manner that none sticks to the neck of the flask at 
or above the delivery tube. Xext add 5 to 10 c.c. of sodium hydroxide 
T. S., and 100 c.c. of distilled water. Rotate the flask until the con- 
tents are thoroughly mixed, and connect the flask with an upright 
Liebig's condenser, fitted with a spiral or worm condensing tube. 
The flask should be supported by means of a burette-clamp on a 
ring-stand, to which is also attached by means of an adjustable clamp 
a gas burner of the Argand type. This arrangement permits of a 
ready adjustment of the heat applied. Allow the lower end of the 
condenser tube to enter the neck of a 100 c.c. graduated flask, and 
around the mouth of the flask place a wad of cotton. 



3 It is better to take, of preparations containing 

Up to 30 per cent, alcohol 100 c.c. 

From 30 per cent, to 60 per cent, alcohol 75 c.c. 

From 60 per cent, to 80 per cent, alcohol 50 c.c. 

And above 80 per cent, alcohol 25 c.c. 



136 



Determination of Alcohol. 



[Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1909. 



Start the distillation, and so regulate the heat, keeping up a con- 
stant flow of cold water through the condenser, as to obtain nearly 
100 c.c. of distillate in three-fourths to one and one-fourth hours. 

Remove the receiving flask from the condenser, stopper it, cool 
or warm its contents to exactly the same temperature at which the 
original preparation was measured, and at that temperature dilute it 
to exactly 100 c.c. with distilled water. It may now be cooled, if it 
is desired to avoid calculations, to 15. 6° C. or 25 C, according to 
convenience, and its specific gravity taken by means of a Westphal 
balance. Consult the U. S. P. alcohol tables, making any necessary 
corrections for temperature variations, and calculate the percentage 
of absolute alcohol by volume in the distillate. This figure multi- 
plied by two gives the percentage of alcohol by volume in the 
original preparation. 

Especial attention is called to the importance of obtaining exactly 
100 c.c. of distillate at exactly the same temperature as that at which 
the original 50 c.c. of preparation was measured. A considerable 
error would be introduced, for example, by measuring the original 
preparation at 25 C, and adjusting the distillate at 100 c.c. at 
15 C. On the other hand, the variation is negligible as between 
measuring both original preparation and distillate at 15 C. or 
measuring both at 25 C. Moreover, even if the 50 c.c. of original 
preparation were measured at 25 C. it matters not that the specific 
gravity of the distillate be taken at 15 C, provided that it was 
adjusted to 100 c.c. at 25 C. and was not again diluted to 100 c.c. 
after cooling to 15 C. 

Having progressed more rapidly with the experiments looking 
to the elimination of the difficulty in the way of applying the wine 
method of alcohol determination, mentioned in the early part of this 
paper, in which the difference in gravity before and after evapora- 
tion of the alcohol and dilution to original volume with water is 
taken as the basis for calculation, I shall now briefly outline the 
experiments undertaken and tabulate the results, although so far few 
in number, that we have obtained. 

It is scarcely necessary to repeat that the presence of easily vola- 
tile substances, such as ethereal solvents, absolutely precludes the 
use of this method. There remains, however, such a number of 
preparations, the alcoholic determinations of which are rendered 
difficult by frothing and bumping (example, fluidextract of sarsa- 
parilla), together with an equally large number, the distillation 



Am. Jour. Pharni. "I 
tfarch, 1909. J 



Determination of Alcohol. 



137 



alcoholic determinations of which are vitiated by mechanically 
carried-over oils, etc. (examples, flnidextracts of cubeb, buchu, 
sandalwood, etc. ), that it was deemed worth while to undertake to 
modify this " wine " method so as to make it applicable in these 
cases. Although by no means has a sufficient amount of work yet 
been done upon it to justify our concluding either to condemn or to 
laud the modified method, the results so far obtained are, to say the 
least, encouraging. 

Theoretically, in the absence of substances other than alcohol, 
volatile at water-bath temperature, the method would work as well 
with a fluidextract or a tincture as with a wine, provided only that 
on dilution to original volume with water a clear solution results, 
the production of a clear solution, free from residue or precipitate, 
being essential to correctness of results. To insure such a final 
clear solution, therefore, I proposed to make the dilution with water, 
as in the regular method, wherever water would answer, but when 
it would not, to use instead a definite volume of an alcohol of suit- 
able definite specific gravity. 

In order to try out the proposed method approximately I selected 
as my experimental material a 25 per cent, aqueous solution of 
extract of taraxacum, for the reason that such a solution can be, 
theoretically at least, diluted with either water or alcohol without 
precipitation. From this was prepared, by mixture with definite 
volumes of U. S. P. alcohol (specific gravity 0.8106 at 22 C.) 
solutions A, B and C, containing respectively 25, 50 and 75 per cent, 
by volume of the above alcohol — these solutions being made up to 
the required volume in each case with the aqueous extract taraxa- 
cum solution, at the same temperature (22° C). These solutions 
A, B and C respectively contained, therefore, theoretically (approxi- 
mately) 23.75, 47.5 and 71.25 per cent, of absolute alcohol by 
volume. 

The following directions were then carried out in the laboratory : 

1. Determine alcohol (duplicates) by regular method by distillation. 

2. Determine alcohol by regular "wine" method as follows (duplicates) : 
Take specific gravity (Westphal) at definite temperature (Gr. No. 1). 
Measure 50 c.c. in a pipette (at same temperature) which will discharge 

the exact amount of liquid necessary to fill a 50 c.c. cylinder to 50 c.c. mark, 
and transfer to a shallow capsule. Evaporate on water-bath until all alcohol 
has been dissipated. Transfer residue to the 50 c.c. cylinder and wash capsule 
and stirring rod with distilled water, into cylinder. Finally dilute to the 
mark with water with the solution- at exactly same temperature, and take 
specific gravity (Westphal) (Gr. Xo. 2). 



138 



Determination of Alcohol. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1909. 



Calculation : Subtract specific gravity No. I from specific gravity No. 2 
and subtract difference from i.ooo. Consult tables for alcoholic strength of 
liquid of resulting specific gravity. 

3. Repeat Experiment No. 2 with following modification : 

Instead of diluting to 50 c.c. with water, transfer residue from capsule 
to cylinder with small amount of water and when at same temperature dilute 
to 25 c.c. with water at same temperature. Then add from a 25 c.c. pipette, 
exactly 25 c.c, exactly 95 per cent, alcohol at same temperature. Mix, adjust 
to exactly 50 c.c. with water and take specific gravity at same temperature 
(Gr. No. 2) (Westphal). 

Calculation : Algebraically subtract specific gravity No. 1 from specific 
gravity No. 2 and subtract the algebraic difference from the specific gravity 
of 47.50 per cent, alcohol at same temperature (0.9392 at 15.6 C). Consult 
tables. 

4. Compare results of method 3 with those of methods 1 and 2. 

The results obtained with the taraxacum solutions are now- 
appended. They do not at all reflect the degree of care taken in 
obtaining them, and might be criticized as indicating a lack of care 
in making the determinations. At the risk, nevertheless, of their 
being thus criticized, they are given because they serve to bring out 
certain points of value. 



Solution 


Theoretical 
percentage 
(approximate) 


Experiment 

No. 1 
(distillation) 


Experiment No. 2 
" wine " method 
(dilution with 
water) 


Experiment No. 3 
modified method 

(Dilu. to dil. 

ale. strength) 


A 


23-75 - 


21.23 
2I.IO 


24.IO 
24.IO 


21.40 
2I.8o 




Aver. 21.19 
-2.56 


Aver. 24.10 
+ 0.35 


Aver. 2r.6o 
-2.15 


B 


47-5o | 

I 


46.00 
46.20 


46.73 


48.42 
47-42 






Aver. 46.10 
— 1.40 


Aver. 46.73 
-0.77 


Aver. 47.92 
+ 0.42 


C 


[ 

71.25 j 

I 


71.00 
70.86 


72.23 
72.30 


71.97 
71-38 




Aver. 70.93 
-0.32 


Aver. 72.27 
+ 1.02 


Aver. 71.67 
+ 0.42 



In the above table, the figures marked -f or — indicate the per- 
centage above or below theoretical, of the average of duplicate 
determinations. 



Attention is called to the fact that with the progressively more 
dilute solutions B and A in the case of Experiment Xo. I, there goes 



Am. Jour, fharm. ) 
March, 1909. f 



Determination of Alcohol. 



139 



a corresponding increase in deviation from the theoretical. It is 
significant that in the case of Solution C results close to theory 
were obtained, while in the case of Solution A a deviation of more 
than 2.5 per cent, below theoretical was observed. This is undoubt- 
edly due to the fact that in each case 50 c.c. were taken for the 
experiment, regardless of whether it was approximately 75, 50 or 
25 per cent, in alcohol strength, and it is evident that when the 
distillation from a solution containing much extractive is continued 
for a considerable time after the alcohol has probably all been 
recovered, in order to get nearly 100 c.c. of distillate, sufficient non- 
alcoholic material is carried over, mechanically or otherwise, to con- 
siderably vitiate the result. The femedy for this difficulty is to work 
upon 100 c.c. instead of 50 c.c. in the case of solution A, and upon 
75 c.c. instead of 50 c.c. in the case of solution B. 

The results on Experiment No. 2 are not close, but withal are 
closer than by distillation. 

Results on solution A in case of Experiment No. 3, which were 
subsequently repeated and confirmed, were inexplainably low, until 
I discovered that on dilution to 47.5 per cent, alcoholic strength a 
considerable amount of precipitation had occurred. This completely 
accounts for the low results, since a precipitation of extractive would 
cause a lowering of specific gravity, which at that point would lower 
the final result. 

The results on solution B, Experiment No. 3, show a wide varia- 
tion in the " duplicates," thus illustrating the enormous " experi- 
mental " or " laboratory " error that it is difficult to avoid in making 
alcohol determinations. 

The results on the taraxacum seeming to justify further experi- 
ments, it was next attempted to apply the modified method, described 
as Experiment No. 3, to fluidextracts of buchu, cubeb and sandal- 
wood, which are among those preparations already enumerated as 
causing difficulty in the method by distillation. It was soon demon- 
strated, however, that a further modification of the modified method 
as already described would be necessary owing to the fact that it is 
impossible to transfer the residue, remaining after evaporating the 
alcohol from such preparations, from a dish to a measuring cylinder, 
with the aid of water alone. 

After many experiments, the following procedure was adopted : 

Fifty cubic centimetres of the preparation, measured at a definite tempera- 
ture, are transferred (in portions if necessary) to a test-tube having an inside 



140 



Determination of Alcohol. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( March, 1909. 



diameter of 22 mm., a height of 200 mm., and being graduated at the point 
where it holds exactly 50 c.c. The test-tube is then placed in a water-bath 
and contents allowed to evaporate until all alcohol has been dissipated. After 
cooling to original temperature, U. S. P. alcohol (of known percentage of 
abs. ale. by volume), at the same temperature, is run in from a burette until 
an amount has been added which when diluted with water to exactly 50 c.c. 
will give a solution of approximately the same alcoholic strength as that 
used as menstruum for the preparation being worked upon. The test-tube is 
then stoppered, the contents thoroughly mixed (whereby a clear solution is 
obtained) and then the specific gravity of the solution determined, at the 
same temperature, by means of the Westphal balance. 

Calculation: Algebraically subtract original specific gravity from that of 
the obtained solution, and subtract the algebraic difference from the theo- 
retical specific gravity (at the same temperature) of alcohol of the theoretical 
strength obtained by the dilution. Consult tables. 



Preparation 


A. 

By Distillation 


B. 

Thorpe and Holmes 
method 


c. 

New modified 
method (in test- 
tube) 


Fluidextract Buchu.... 
Fluidextract Cubeb .... 
Fluidextract Santal .... 


55.82 per cent. 

f 70.15 per cent. \ 
X 71.14 per cent. / 

79.60 per cent. 


f 49.08 per cent. 1 
X 50-5 6 per cent. J 




56.10 per cent. 
71.30 per cent. 
84.54 per cent. 


f 80.40 per cent. 1 
X 82.00 per cent. J 





The above table shows not only the results obtained by the 
foregoing procedure, but also results by distillation, and some results 
by the Thorpe and Holmes method. 

Attention is called to the apparently low results obtained by both 
the distillation method and the Thorpe and Holmes method. It is 
hoped that others interested in alcohol determinations will also try 
the modified wine method, so called, and report their results. 

In conclusion, attention is called to the possibility of determining 
the alcoholic strength of the final distillate by means other than that 
afforded by the Westphal balance : 

First, by other means of determining the specific gravity. Dr. 
A. B. Lyons, in a paper presented to the Scientific Section of the 
A. Ph. A. at the Hot Springs meeting, described a method in which, 
by simply weighing the distillate in a special pyenometer, and con- 
sulting tables, the alcoholic content of the original preparation, at 
various temperatures, could be read off directly. Inasmuch as the 
paper did not attempt to provide means of eliminating the difficulties 



Am. Jour. Phariii. ) 
March, 1909. j 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



141 



incident to the distillation, and as it would undoubtedly, for most 
operators, consume as much (if not more) time to properly fill and 
weigh a pycnometer as it would to take the specific gravity by 
means of the Westphal balance and make the necessary calculations, 
Dr. Lyons's method, as a time-saver, is of problematic value. More- 
over, the method has the additional drawback of requiring specially 
constructed pycnometers for use in various altitudes, on account of 
differences in barometric pressure. 

Second, by means of the refractive index. The Zeiss immersion 
refractometer has been proposed and used as a means of determining 
the alcoholic content of the final distillate. Inasmuch, however, as 
many of the same substances which are liable to contaminate the dis- 
tillate and which cause a vitiation of the specific gravity will also 
cause a vitiation of the refractive index, the method does not offer 
any special advantages in the general laboratory. The immersion 
refractometer, however, may be employed to great advantage in 
determining the relative proportions of ethyl and methyl alcohols in 
denatured alcohol, for which see Herrick's " Denatured or Industrial 
Alcohol," pp. 145-157- 

Finally, I desire to express my thanks to Mr. L. Henry Bernegau 
and Mr. Fritz Heidlberg for valuable suggestions as well as for the 
carrying out of the determinations and experiments described in 
this paper. 

Analytic Laboratory of the 
H. K. Mulford Company. 



PROGRESS IN PHARMACY. 

A QUARTERLY REVIEW OF SOME OF THE MORE INTERESTING LITERA- 
TURE RELATING TO PHARMACY AND MATERIA MEDICA. 

By M. I. Wilbert, Washington, D. C. 

From a pharmaceutical point of view, or, rather, from the point 
of view of one interested in the progress of pharmacy as a science, 
the most important happening during the past three months was the 
initial session of the section on pharmaceutical chemistry that was 
held in connection with the thirty-ninth general meeting of the 
American Chemical Society, held in Baltimore, during Convocation 
Week. 



142 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( March, 1909. 



The meeting itself was probably the most successful, best 
attended, most interesting and most promising meeting that the 
American Chemical Society has ever held and the enthusiasm that 
was manifested in connection with the sessions of the several 
divisions and sections could not be otherwise than encouraging to 
the members of the society who were more directly interested in 
pharmaceutical chemistry, and their enthusiasm, in turn, manifested 
itself in a resolution expressing their desire for a continued inde- 
pendent existence and their preference for the ultimate formation 
of a Division on Pharmaceutical Chemistry. 

It is quite probable that such a division will be organized at the 
coming meeting of the American Chemical Society, in Detroit next 
June, and, when formed, it will surely mark a distinct advance in 
the progress of American pharmacy. 

There can be no gainsaying the fact that pharmacy, particularly 
the science of pharmacy, is closely related to, and in many respects 
dependent on, the progress that is made in other sciences ; and the 
efforts that have been made in the past to encourage the pharmacist 
in holding aloof from scientific organizations devoted more specifi- 
cally to the development of other lines of work have been unfor- 
tunate in that they have really hampered the progress of pharmacy 
rather than concentrated the energies of its votaries to aid in its 
advancement. 

Of the many scientific organizations, in this country, that are 
deserving of the support of the pharmacist, few if any compare, in 
possible returns, with the American Chemical Society. This society 
now has upwards of three thousand members, all of them intensely 
interested in some one phase of the science of chemistry, and the 
society itself is an excellent illustration of the possibility of having 
general meetings, with simultaneous sessions devoted to the reading 
and discussion of scientific papers, ample time for meeting the 
members in a social way, and practically no time wasted on the con- 
sideration of the more purely administrative business of the society, 
which is delegated to the Council. As an object lesson alone, attend- 
ance at a meeting of the American Chemical Society would be of 
value to American pharmacists, and, particularly, to the more active 
members of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 

With the formation of a division on pharmaceutical chemistry 
the American Chemical Society should become more than ever an 
attraction for pharmacists who are interested in the science of their 



Aru. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1909. [ 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



143 



calling, but, even at the present time, the publications of the society 
alone should be a sufficient inducement for the up-to-date pharmacist 
to seek membership in its ranks. The newly established Journal of 
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry is devoted to the more prac- 
tical side of chemistry, while the Abstract Journal covers practi- 
cally all of the available chemical literature. 

The Convocation Week meeting of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science was held in Baltimore from Decem- 
ber 26 to January 2. It is generally conceded that this meeting has 
never been equalled either in size or importance by any gathering of 
scientific men in this country. The program that was issued included 
upwards of one thousand titles of papers that were to be read at 
the meeting. 

In matters pharmacopceial the more interesting publication is 
the new, Ninth, edition of the Swedish Pharmacopoeia, Svenska 
Farmakopen, 1909. The eighth edition of the Swedish Pharma- 
copoeia, it will be remembered, was published in 1902, just before 
the meeting of the International Conference, in Brussels. The pro- 
visions of that conference were considered to be of such importance 
that the Revision Committee decided to revise the entire work SO' as 
to bring it thoroughly up to date. 

The comments that have appeared in European pharmaceutical 
journals on this new Swedish Pharmacopoeia are uniformly favor- 
able and it would appear as though the Revision Committee had 
been successful in preparing a book that is both compact and 
comprehensive. 

The British Pharmacopoeia is now in active course of revision 
and, judging from the interest that is being manifested in the 
making of the book, by both the medical and pharmaceutical pro- 
fessions, it will be thoroughly up to date and will accurately repre- 
sent the present-day advances in materia medica. 

From the available comments on the coming revision of the 
British Pharmacopoeia, it would appear that Dr. Dixon and his 
colleagues advocate a volume which will deal only with medica- 
ments of proved virtue and will include a minimum number of the 
preparations of those drugs (Pharm. Jour., London). 

The British Pharmaceutical Codex has been out of print for 
several months but is now in press, and the revisers promise that 
the book will meet all expectations. In addition to the matter 
included in the first edition the re-issue will include information 



144 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1909. 



regarding many other drugs, chemicals and galenical preparations 
which have come into prominence during the past twelve months 
or more. 

Codex Notes is the title applied by A. D. Watson to a collection 
of comments on the British Pharmaceutical Codex, in the course of 
which he makes sundry recommendations regarding the book and 
the possibility of improving it. He points out, among other features, 
that the book is the property of the druggists of Great Britain and 
that it is both their interest and their duty to make it as widely 
known and used as possible. 

He also suggests adopting the arrangement of the subjects fol- 
lowed in Squire's Companion to the Pharmacopoeia. 

A new edition of the booklet, now a book, entitled The Propa- 
ganda for Reform in Proprietary Medicine, has been published by 
the American Medical Association. The book now comprises nearly 
three hundred pages of material, reprinted from the Journal of the 
American Medical Association, and, to the pharmacist particularly, 
should be worth many times the price that is asked for it. For those 
who wish to have the material in more permanent form a cloth 
bound edition has been prepared, and this will no doubt be an advan- 
tage because of its more presentable appearance and the permanent 
character of the binding. 

Therapeutic "Progress. — Every wide-awake pharmacist should 
read and mentally digest the address delivered at the opening session 
of the Department of Medicine and Surgery of the University of 
Michigan, by Dr. C. W. Edmunds. In this address Dr. Edmunds 
has gathered together an array of facts that will serve to attract 
attention to a number of abuses that serve to still further complicate 
" the complex character of the present-day therapeutic situation." 
This address is printed in full in the Journal of the American Med- 
ical Association (1909, v. 52, pp. 519-524). 

The Annual Meetings. — Active preparations are being made for 
the coming meetings of the several National associations in which 
retail druggists are more or less interested. The Council of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association has decided to accept the invi- 
tation of the retail druggists of Los Angeles and the meeting of the 
A. Ph. A. will probably be held in that city some time in August. 

While there are, no doubt, many members of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association who honestly doubt the judiciousness 
of this decision, particularly in view of the really warm experience 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

March, 1909. / 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



145 



in the southwest last September, there can be no doubt of the sin- 
cerity of members of the American Pharmaceutical Association to 
make the best of the situation and secure as large a delegation as 
possible to attend the meeting in Los Angeles. 

The National Association of Retail Druggists has decided to 
meet in Louisville, Ky., the first week in September and is not alone 
assured of a hearty welcome, but, also, a record-breaking attendance. 

An editorial in the Journal of the American Medical Association 
(1909, v. 52, p. 562) discusses the report of the referee board on 
sodium benzoate, from the point of view of the average intelligent 
citizen who is interested in getting value for value and, incidentally 
at least, in conserving his own health and the health of those 
dependent on him. In this editorial it is made plain that the several 
questions reported on by the referee board do not alter or even 
involve the real question at issue : the use of chemical preservatives 
to hide the indiscriminate use of partially decomposed food materials. 

Gelatin Capsules. — F. Lorenzen has examined a number of gela- 
tin capsules containing extract of male fern and finds that they vary 
in weight from 0.8 to 1.08 Gm. ; the weight of the empty capsule 
varied from 0.29 to 0.49 Gm. and the content varied from 0.50 to 
0.64 in place of 0.55 Gm. claimed by the manufacturer. — Apoth. 
Ztg., Berlin, 1908, v. 23, p. 899. 

The Java Cinchona Plantations. — The British and Colonial 
Druggist (1909, v. 55, p. 7) contains an illustrated article descrip- 
tive of the introduction of cinchona into Java and gives some account 
of the military pharmacists who were interested in the cultivation 
of this plant and have supervised the government plantations. 

Cinchona Assay. — Dr. N. H.. Cohen (Pharm. Wcekbld., 1907) 
has devised a modification of the assay process for cinchona bark, 
in which the powdered bark is extracted by means of ether, heated 
in a reflux condenser; the mixture, after cooling, is made alkaline 
with soda solution. The ethereal solution is subsequently treated 
with lime water and the ethereal layer finally evaporated and the 
alkaloid dried and weighed. — Pharm. Zentralb., 1908, v. 50, p. 1025. 

Coca and Cocaine. — An interesting historical study of coca and 
its chief alkaloid is printed in a recent number of the Pharmaceutical 
Journal (1909, v. 28, pp. 28-30). Dating back to the early history 
of Peru the story of this drug is traced chronologically, with many 
interesting quotations, up to the present time. 

Scopola. — G. Weigel points out that there is a marked difference 



146 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 

t March, 1909. 



between the rhizome of the European Scopola carniolica and that 
of the Japanese variety Scopola japonica. There is a distinct 
structural difference between the two drugs, the Japanese root being 
the larger and somewhat lighter in color. The Japanese root, too, 
contains only about one-half the amount of alkaloid contained in 
the European root. — Pharm. Zentralb., 1908, v. 50, p. 516. 

Sugar. — The per capita consumption of sugar in the United 
States was 77.54 pounds in 1907, which exceeds that of any pre- 
vious year, the total amount of refined sugar amounting to 2,843,928 
long tons against 2,760,343 long tons produced in 1906. — /. Ind. 
and Eng. Chem., 1909, v. 1, p. 3. 

False Senega. — C. Hartwich (Sc.hweiz. Wochenschr. f. Chem. u. 
Pharm., 1908, v. 46, pp. 537 and 749) calls attention to two> samples 
of false senega that have been brought to his notice within a short 
time. He describes the macroscopic as well as the microscopic 
characteristics of the root and calls attention to the absence of the 
characteristic keel of the true senega in one of the samples, while 
in the other an eccentric formation of the several structures occa- 
sionally simulates the keel of the true drug. — Apoth. Ztg., 1908, 
v. 23, pp. 906-907. 

Ergot Oil. — A. Rothje has studied the physical and chemical 
properties of the oil extracted from ergot by ether. He finds that 
the oil has a specific gravity of 0.925, a refraction index of 1.4685, a 
saponification value of 178.4 to 180.2, an acid value of 73.4 to 74.5, 
and contains 7.9 to 8.1 per cent, of glycerin, 0.36 per cent, of unsa- 
ponifiable matter and 0.2 per cent, of ash. — Pharm. Jour., London, 
1909, v. 28, p 32. from Arch. d. Pharm. 

South African Oil of Eucalyptus. — E. F. Harrison has examined 
a sample of this oil from the Transvaal. The cineol content was 
83.7 per cent., the specific gravity 0.9227 at 1 5.5 C. and gave a 
negative test for phellandrene. — Pharm. Jour., London, 1909, v. 28, 
p. 4. 

Berte and Romeo, commenting on the characters and tests given 
in the U. S. P. VIII, for oil of lemon, say that the minimum limit 
for specific gravity at 25 C. should be 0.849 an ^ the minimum figure 
for optical rotation -f-58 . As regards the difference in optical 
rotation of the first 10 per cent, of distillate and that of the original 
oil, the limit of 2 should be extended to 4 or 5 . Berte and Romeo 
did not get satisfactory results with the method given for the deter- 
mination of citral owing to the difficulty of observing the neutral 



Am. Jour. Pharni. | 
March, 1909. j 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



147 



point in the titration. — Chem. and Drug., London, 1909, v. 74, 
p. 81. 

The manufacture of oil of lemon and citrate of lime in Sicily is 
the subject of an exhaustive paper by E. M. Chace who made a 
personal investigation of the conditions prevailing in Sicily at the 
time of his visit. The article is illustrated and is particularly inter- 
esting at this time as being descriptive -of the conditions prevailing 
in Sicily before the recent catastrophe in the citrus district. — Jour, 
of Industr. and Eng. Chem., 1909, v. 1, p. 25. 

Lemon Scented Bay. — An abstract (from West Ind. Bull:, v. 9, 
pp. 265-276) describes a variety of "bay" known as Pigmenta 
acris var citrifolia or lemon scented bay, which yields an oil that has 
a distinct lemon-like odor, with a secondary odor resembling that 
of phenylisocyanide. — Pharni. Jour., London, 1909, v. 28, p. 6. 

New Adulterant of Lavender Oil. — J. Delphin points out that 
the esters of the fatty acids of cocoa-nut oil have been detected as 
being added to lavender oil of poor quality. These cocoa-nut esters 
lend themselves well to this fraudulent application since the saponi- 
fication value is very high, so that only a very slight addition is 
necessary to greatly " improve " the ester value of the oil. — Pharni. 
Jour., London, 1909, v. 28, p. 60. (From Svensk farm. Tidskr.) 

Turpentine and its Adulterants.— Arthur E. Paul discusses the 
production of turpentine and the characteristics of the oil distilled 
from it. He also describes " wood turpentine;" also known as 
" stump " turpentine, steamed wood turpentine and wood pulp tur- 
pentine. As these products are but slightly below turpentine in 
price it follows that as a commercial adulterant they would have to 
be used in large quantities to be profitable. Among the more 
common adulterants he enumerates the several petroleum products 
and turpentine substitutes. — Jour, of Industr. and Eng. Chem., 1909, 
v. 1, pp. 27-31. 

Toxicity of Bismuth Subnitrate. — The toxicity of this substance 
is discussed by Emil G. Beck, who reviews the literature and con- 
cludes that bismuth subnitrate administered by stomach in small 
doses is harmless. When given in large doses, by mouth, or, more 
particularly, when injected by rectum, bismuth subnitrate may lib- 
erate nitrites which may, in turn, cause poisoning. — Jour. Am. M. 
Assoc., Chicago, 1909, v. 52, pp. 14-18. 

Mercurous nitrate as a micro chemical reagent for arsenic has 
been recommended by G. Deniges, who dissolves mercurous nitrate 



i 4 8 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



(Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
I March, L909. 



by means of nitric acid and adds this solution to a nitric-acid solu- 
tion of the suspected material previously treated with ammonia. — 
Compt. Rend., v. 147,, pp. 744-/45- 

Mercury Sozo-iodolate. — W. A. Puckner points out that a solu- 
tion of mercury sozo-iodolate which was submitted for examination 
contained sodium and mercury as the essential ingredients, the 
mercury sozo-iodolate being soluble in solutions of iodides, bromides 
or chlorides. From an estimation of the mercury, the sodium and 
the iodine, he concludes that 100 c.c. of the solution contained 
approximately one gramme of mercury sozo-iodolate and somewhat 
less than 3 grammes of sodium iodide, so that it would represent 
the activity of approximately 0.8 gramme of mercuric iodide and 
3 grammes of sodium iodide. — Jour. Am. M. Assoc., 1909, v. 52, 
P- 574- 

The permanency of permanganate solutions has been further 
investigated by J. W. Hammer (Svensk. farm. Tidskr.), who found 
that after the destruction of the organic matter in the water or on 
the walls of the container the undecomposed portion of the solution 
is indefinitely permanent, so that a titrimetric solution which is pre- 
served from light and contamination may be used indefinitely. — 
Pharm. Zentralb., 1908, v. 50, p. 1023. 

Zinc Permanganate. — An examination of zinc permanganate 
made in the chemical laboratory of the American Medical Associa- 
tion showed that the commercial product varied from 72 to 97 
per cent. pure. Tablets of zinc permanganate were examined and 
found to contain from 86 to 89 per cent, of the amount claimed by 
the manufacturer. — Jour. Am. M. Assoc., 1909, v. 52, pp. 488-489. 

Xickel Culinary Utensils. — The harmlessness of nickel cooking 
utensils has been demonstrated by two Russian investigators who 
studied the solvent action of such fluids as are likely to come in 
contact with the metal, and the probable ill effects of the resulting 
solutions of nickel on the animal organism. Their results appear to 
indicate that when taken for a long period of time in doses much 
larger than can be derived from nickel cooking vessels the metal 
and its salts are quite devoid of harmful effects. — Abstract in Pharm. 
Jour.. London, 1909, v. 28, p. 6. 

Methyl Red as an Indicator of Extreme Delicacy. — Rupp and 
Loose (Berichte, 1908, p. 3905) recommend the use of methyl red 
as an indicator of great delicacy with 1 / ](M) X. solutions. Methyl 
red is defined as an azo combination of o-amidobenzoic acid and 



Am. Jour. Pharm. I 
March, 1909. f 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



149 



dimethylaniline. In alkaline and neutral solutions it has a pale 
yellow color and in acid solutions a violet red. — Pharm. Jour., 
London, 1909, v. 28, p. 6. 

Aloesol is the name that has been given to a complex phenol, 
obtained by E. Leger, as one of the products of the action of 
potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid on cape aloes. The product 
occurs as a tetrachlor derivative that is almost insoluble in water or 
in alcohol and only slightly soluble in dilute solutions of the alkalies. 
— Co nipt. Rend., 1908, v. 147, pp. 806-808. 

Anusol suppositories were examined by J. F. Suyver who found 
that they contained neither iodine nor sulphonated resorcin, or, in 
other words, that anusol suppositories contain no anusol, which the 
manufacturers claim to be an iodized resorcin sulphonate of bis- 
muth. — Apoth. Ztg., 1908, pp. 863-864 from Pharm. Week hi, 

Helkomen. — This is claimed to be* a basic bismuth dibromate 
oxynaphthoate. It has been examined by F. Zernik who found it 
to contain 72.88 per cent, of bismuth and 19.57 P er cent - of bromine, 
and concludes that the product represents a much more basic com- 
bination than is indicated by the evidently misleading formula pub- 
lished by the manufacturers of helkomen. — Apoth. Ztg., Berlin, 
1909, v. 23, p. 898. 

Hordenine is said to be para-ethylphenylethyldimethylamine. 
The sulphate of this compound crystallizes in needles and has a 
slightly bitter taste; its aqueous solution may be sterilized at 120 C. 
One milligramme per kilo is said to have a tonic action on the heart, 
but toxic doses (1 to 2 grammes per kilo) produce the reverse 
effect by suspending the activity of the pneumogastric nerve. — 
Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind., 1909, v. 28, p. 38. 

Iodomenin was examined by F. Zernik who found it to contain, 
as claimed, bismuth albumin and iodine. The amount of iodine 
present corresponded practically to the claim made for it by the 
manufacturer. — Apoth. Ztg., Berlin, 1908, v. 23, pp. 871-872. 

Iodoval is described as a-mono-iodo-iso-valerianyl-urea that 
occurs as white needles having a melting point of 180 C. It is 
recommended for the administration of iodine as substitute for 
the iodides. It may be given in doses of 0.30 three times daily, 
in powder form or in tablets. — Pharm. Jour., London, 1909, v. 28, 
p. 86. 

Propdsin is the proprietary name for the propyl ester of param- 
idobenzoic acid. It occurs as white crystals with a faintly alkaline 



i5o 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



f Am Jour. Phariu. 
\ March, 1909. 



reaction melting at 73 ° to 74 C, sparingly soluble in organic 
solvents and in fats. It is recommended as a non-toxic local anaes- 
thetic to the mucous membrane. 

Diprop'dsin is an odorless and tasteless white powder, melting at 
171 to 172 C, insoluble in water, readily soluble in other liquids, 
but only sparingly soluble in other liquids. It is decomposed by 
alkaline solutions or secretions liberating the anaesthetic propasin. — 
Pliar in. Jour., London, 1909, v. 28, p. 86. 

Stroplianthus. — H. Beckurts discusses the sulphuric acid test for 
strophanthus and points out that 75 per cent, sulphuric acid, with 
comparatively thin, transverse sections of the seed will give most 
uniformly satisfactory results. — Apoth. Ztg., 1908, v. 23, pp. 921- 
922. 

Synthetic Snprarenin. — Krausz (Apoth. Ztg., 1908, v. 23, p. 
701) enumerates a number of tests and reactions for the alkaloid of 
the suprarenal gland and the synthetic product that is now being 
marketed. 

Synthetic suprarenin is now being made identical in every respect 
with the natural substance. Formerly the synthetic preparation was 
optically inactive, owing to its consisting of a mixture of dextro- 
and laworotatory suprarenin, the former being therapeutically inac- 
tive. It has now been found possible to separate the two forms and 
the synthetic suprarenin bids fair to surpass the natural product 
in efficiency. — F. Flacher, abstract from Ztschr. f. Pliysiol. Chan, in 
Phann. Jour., London, 1909, v. 28, p. 27. 

Cushny reports on the action of the pure, laworotatory supra- 
renin which he finds to be equal in power to the natural product, 
while the dextrorotatory suprarenin was found to be much weaker. 
While it is difficult to obtain the exact relative strength of the two 
bodies, it appears to require more than ten times as much dextro- 
suprarenin as lsevosuprarenin to raise the blood-pressure to a definite 
point. — Phann. Jour., London, 1909, v. 28, p. 56. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
March, 1909. / 



Book Reviews. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Geschichte der Pharmazie. By Dr. Hermann Schelenz. 
Verlag von Julius Springer, Berlin. 

Every science has its history and many historical works have 
been published, for instance, " A' History of Chemistry " by Ernst 
von Meyer, translated into English by George McGowan, which is 
of special interest to the pharmacist. 

But our dear old " Mater Pharmacia " has been treated some- 
what step-motherly until after ten years' work the well-known 
German author, historian and, we are proud to state, apotheker, 
Hermann Schelenz, Cassel, published a master-work in his " History 
of Pharmacy." 

In this excellent book of about iooo pages Schelenz gives the 
history of pharmacy of all nations from the oldest times to the 
present day, divided into nineteen periods. 

Schelenz gives the history of the various drugs, their cultivation, 
marketing and even adulterations. The history of galenical prepa- 
rations is not only traced to Claudius Galenus, but even to Dios- 
corides. Etymology, that important and interesting study of the 
origin and derivation of the names of drugs, in fact of all names 
connected with pharmacy, is one of Schelenz's specialties. 

The history of nostrums and the development of the nostrum 
evil are not forgotten in this book. 

Furthermore, Schelenz gives the biographies of celebrated phar- 
macists, botanists and pharmacognosists, alchemists and chemists, 
physicians and pharmacologists. We find in this work the history 
of the Pharmacopoeias, Dispensatories and Formularies of all 
nations, also pharmaceutical laws and price-taxes. 

Schelenz gives a review of pharmaceutical literature and journals, 
also the history of the universities; and allied sciences from the 
earliest times to the present day. 

A 5-page list of scentific reference works which have been con- 
sulted by the author, and a very complete index of 100 pages and 
containing 26,000 words, conclude the book. 

Schelenz's " Geschichte der Pharmazie " is just the book to 
awaken in the young pharmacist, the apprentice and the student a 
love for his work and studies, and it is also well suited to strengthen 
the love for his profession in the pharmacist and apothecary. Let 



Correspondence. 



( Am. Jour. Pharru. 
\ March, 1909. 



us hope that this valuable book will be translated into English, so it 
will have a still larger circulation. 

Schelenz's " History of Pharmacy " ought to be a reference book, 
if not a text-book, in our pharmaceutical schools, and although this 
is an age of commercialism, nevertheless pharmaceutical history 
should be included in the curriculum of our colleges. 

Otto Raubenheimer. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

DISCUSSION ON FORMULAS FOR MEDICINES WHICH MAY BE DISPENSED 

BY PHARMACISTS. 

[In a lecture by Dr. H. W. Wiley, delivered recently at the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy (see American Journal of Pharmacy, February, 
1909), he says: "The pharmacist must in some cases exercise the functions 
of a physician and the physician to some extent those of the pharmacist," 
and following in the line of the suggestion made by Dr. McCormack a year 
ago he stated " that for the minor diseases, for which the druggist may 
safely prescribe, it would be sufficient for the medical fraternity in each local- 
ity to agree with the druggist in regard to remedies which should be given 
for simple colds and other minor diseases." 

Inasmuch as this suggestion has been made on two different occasions 
it seems desirable to take it up and discuss it. It is proposed to take up the 
discussion of this subject at the Pharmaceutical Meeting in March and it 
is hoped that the following communications which have been received will 
stimulate the discussion of this subject.] 

To the Editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy : 

In his lecture published in your February number Dr. H. W. 
Wiley touched upon some of the most serious difficulties which at 
present beset the pharmacist in his struggle for existence. He 
referred to the extremely unsatisfactory standards of education for 
pharmacy, " the great evil of the patent medicine habit," the shaken 
faith in the virtue of drugs, the spread of various forms of drugless 
treatment of disease, and the contentions between physicians and 
pharmacists. 

Dr. Wiley's prediction that the preliminary education required 
for pharmacy will advance until the degree of A.B. or its equivalent 
is demanded is too optimistic. High school graduation is required 
in all other countries and South Dakota has shown that it is attain- 



A in. Jour. Pharm. ) 
March, 1909. / 



Correspondence. 



153 



able in the United States; but it will be a long time before more 
can be done. 

The quack nostrum traffic should be stamped out for the pro- 
tection of the public, and druggists who encourage it for the sake 
of the commission they receive are not only doing injury to their 
fellowmen but at the same time selling their birthright for a mess 
of pottage. 

The remarkable spread of the belief in drugless treatment of 
disease is but the reaction against the insane abuse of drugs. The 
cure for it is real investigation and education. No person should 
be permitted to endanger health and life by undertaking the diag- 
nosis and treatment of disease who does not possess an adequate 
knowledge of the human body, its organization and structure, and its 
disorders, and of medical chemistry. Such a knowledge cannot be 
attained without systematic training and clinical study. If mental 
healing cannot stand the test of special knowledge, truth and experi- 
ence, it must be false. Let it be subjected to* that test. 

There is but little or no danger of jealousy or contention between 
physicians and pharmacists of education and high moral character. 
The ignorant, venal and selfish will always make and have trouble. 

It is quite true that the physician must in these days carry certain 
important remedies in his office or his hand bag in convenient form 
for immediate use in order to< better serve his patients, and the 
pharmacist cannot object to it without discredit to himself. The 
pharmacist must be permitted to dispense many simple and compara- 
tively harmless remedies commonly called for by persons who do 
not need or who think they do not need the advice of a physician. 
A conscientious, high-minded physician will neither knowingly 
patronize an incompetent or faithless pharmacist nor will he under- 
take to perform the duties of the pharmacist himself. A conscien- 
tious high-minded pharmacist will not perform any functions belong- 
ing to the physician. 

By all means let local physicians and pharmacists get together 
and agree upon the course each should take and upon what remedies 
the pharmacists might dispense without a physician's prescription to 
satisfy reasonable demands which the public will surely continue to 
make upon them and which it is better to satisfy than to refuse. A 
beginning might appropriately be made in cities where local branches 
of the American Pharmaceutical Association exist. 

Yours truly, 

Oscar Oldberg. 



154 



Correspondence. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ March, 1909. 



Editor, American Journal of Pharmacy : 

When I first read Dr. Wiley's lecture, I felt that he was a 
veritable Daniel come to judgment, but when I considered the 
subject in detail as it would have to be worked out, my spirits fell, 
and I had to conclude that in the present state of the public mind it 
would only be possible to carry out his plan to a very limited extent. 
His suggestion certainly is fascinating to the physician and hyper- 
ethical pharmacist, but I fear there are very few communities in 
which it could be carried out. There are not many localities in 
which druggists and doctors could come to such an agreement as 
would be necessary to make it a success. As an ideal, however, it 
is something good to work up to, but as a practical measure for 
general adoption at the present time I fear it is not feasible. 

To carry out such a plan, the concurrence of four parties is neces- 
sary; these are: (i) the doctors, (2) the druggists, (3) the great 
American public, and (4) the patent medicine proprietors. If we 
assume that the first two are able to come to an agreement that 
would render Wiley's plan feasible, we still have the other two 
parties to deal with. The patent medicine proprietors have vast 
sums of money invested in their products, and they would not 
consent to let their capital be dissipated and in some cases them- 
selves ruined for the sake of carrying out an idea with which they 
have no sympathy. They would surely make more strenuous efforts 
than ever to create a demand for their goods, and the great American 
public would exercise their right to choose between the remedies 
advertised by the patent medicine men and those put forward by 
druggists. Comparing the flaming advertisements of " cures," with 
the modest recommendations by druggists of medicines to " relieve," 
the choice would almost always be in favor of the former. And so 
in the majority of cases the ethical preparations would remain 
unsold. 

But suppose the druggists should discontinue to sell the patent 
medicines, what would happen ? Surely somebody would sell them. 
The proprietors would find some means of marketing their goods. 
With the public calling for them and proprietors pushing them, the 
sale would go on. It is quite likely that such action by druggists 
would hurt the sale of these " patents " and perhaps after many 
years almost kill it, but no one can now foresee what the effect would 
be, nor how long it would be before any marked effect would be 
produced. 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 1 
March, 1909. f 



Correspondence. 



155 



Again, supposing that druggists did resolve to throw patent 
medicines out of their business, where would they draw the line? 
Nothing short of a joint commission of doctors and druggists could 
settle this point, and they would probably never come to an agree- 
ment. Some of these very physicians who would be the most enthu- 
siastic over Dr. Wiley's plan, would continue to prescribe some of 
the " patents " which the druggists had been induced to throw out, 
and there would be dissatisfaction all around. 

In fact, I am obliged to admit that Dr. Wiley's roseate plan is 
in advance of the times. Many physicians are not ready for it, more 
druggists would fail fo endorse it, and the great American public 
would have none of it. All these three classes of persons need to be 
educated up to it. In the present state of public sentiment, I do not 
see how it could be worked. 

W. M. Searby. 

My dear Prof. Kraemer : 

Replying to your esteemed favor of Jan. 30th, would state that 
I had read the abstract of lecture delivered by Dr. Wiley at the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and noted with considerable inter- 
est the suggestions he made about retail druggists handling domestic 
remedies compounded from prescriptions furnished by the local 
medical association. 

The recommendation of patent or proprietary medicines by 
retail druggists is more a force of habit than otherwise. If you 
were to ask one why he recommended that particular remedy he 
would probably reply, (i Oh, I don't know why, unless it was to get 
rid of some old stock." What we are endeavoring to teach the 
druggist to say, when a patron comes in his store and asks for 
a specific patent medicine and also the question " Is it any good ? " 
is, " Now, you know just as much about that as we do. It is exten- 
sively advertised and has a sale, but I am entirely ignorant of its 
contents, etc." 

This would be only telling the absolute truth and would be apt 
to gain the confidence of his customer did he not go further and 
say, " Here is something I can recommend to you which is just as 
good or better," and probably be just as ignorant of its contents as 
he was on the first article. 

This applies more particularly to a later class of remedies called 
non-secret preparations. How in the world the average retail 



156 



Correspondence. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
'( March, 1909. 



druggist can be gulled by the sophistry of these preparations is 
beyond me. In fact his only argument is that he can buy them 
cheaper than ordinary proprietaries and therefore makes more profit. 
It has often been said that the American people like to be gulled. 
It does seem so. 

The proprietors of a patent medicine put out a flaming adver- 
tisement covering all the ills that flesh is heir to or ever expects to 
be. They are generally written in such a measure that the average 
person is led to believe that he or she has just that disease. I regret 
to say that some retail druggists apparently believe the same thing, 
especially if there is a good margin of profit upon the medicine in 
question. 

Now, as to the suggestion of Dr. Wiley, I think it would be far 
more practicable and more apt to meet with the approval of the 
druggists did we reverse the order of doing. For instance, every 
retailer is interested in getting up for ready sale those medicines 
which are the best for the purposes indicated and then again you 
must take into consideration the fact that each one thinks he has 
the best, etc. 

Now, it follows that if the local medical association were to 
write general prescriptions for this class of remedies, each druggist 
would have similar preparations, whereas could there be an agree- 
ment whereby the druggist could submit his preparation and for- 
mula to the local medical association for censorship and approval, 
then you would have something tangible. 

For instance, the Philadelphia County Medical Society could have 
a committee similar to the Council of Pharmacv and Chemistry of 
the American Medical Association to whom, at stated periods, these 
formulas could be submitted and if they were approved could be 
dispensed, and how easy and ethical it would be for the druggist to 
say, " Here is a remedy for a cough that has been approved by the 
County Medical Association and I can truthfully recommend it." 

If this plan could be made possible and practical, I can see the 
whole group of popular headache remedies go flying in the air. In 
mv belief the time is coming when the physician and pharmacist are 
going to get together upon a common basis and when it does come 
you will see pharmacy restored to where it properly belongs. 

T. H. Potts. 



THE AMERICAN 

JOURXAL OF PHARMACY 



APRIL, ipop 



THE STORY OF A PIECE OF PITCHBLENDE. 1 
By Harry F. Keller. Ph.D." 

Not long ago., after a somewhat dull meeting of one of our 
scientific societies, a little coterie among the members agreed to 
hold an informal symposium on some topic of more general interest. 
Quite a number of subjects had been suggested only to be dismissed 
as not suited for the occasion, when one of the gentlemen made a 
ten-strike by proposing that every one present give his views as to 
which mineral substance should be regarded as the most interesting 
component of the earth's crust. The motion was carried unani- 
mously, and the discussion that followed continued into the small 
hours of the morning. 

It may be doubted whether a stenographic report of the pro- 
ceedings, set up in type, would prove entirely satisfactory to the 
several speakers, but " the way they heaved those fossils " certainly 
made more pleasing impressions than that indulged in by the 
members of the " Society upon the Stanislaus " in Bret Harte's 
poem, and all went home with the feeling of having assisted at a 
most profitable and entertaining seance. 

1 A .post-graduate lecture given under the auspices of the Philadelphia 
Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association at the Central High 
School, Philadelphia. 

2 1 would gratefully acknowledge here the kind permission of Messrs. 
Munn & Co... publishers of the Scientific American, William J. Hammer, Esq., 
of New York, and Prof. Arthur W. Goodspeed, of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, to use some of the portraits and radiographs with which this lecture 
was illustrated. — H. F. K. 

(157) 




A Piece of Pitchblende. 



{ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I April, 1909. 



A prominent metallurgist was the one to open the debate. In a 
snappy and interest-compelling manner he gave an account of the 
principal ores of iron, their occurrence in nature and their economic 
importance, and he vividly depicted the various processes by which 
the most useful of the metals — iron and steel — are extracted from 
these earthy substances. 

He was followed by a mineralogist, well known for his con- 
tributions to crystallography and crystal-physics. While conceding 
that the iron ores had perhaps few rivals among the useful minerals, 
and that the metal obtained from them had been one of the greatest 
material factors in the welfare and progress of the human race, he 
was of the opinion that, considered simply as minerals, they did not 
even remotely approach in interest a score or more of other mineral 
substances which he could name without even stopping to think. 
But if he had to express a decided preference for any particular one 
of these, it would be carbonate of lime in its multiform varieties. 
It would be impossible, he said, to find another material which is 
capable of appealing to our sense of beauty in so many different 
ways. He then proceeded to explain the intricate molecular structure 
of calcite and aragonite which manifests itself in the diverse crystal 
forms and optical properties of these species, then dwelt upon the 
picturesque and weird forms that Nature has fashioned and carved 
out of limestone, chalk and coral rock, and on the beauties presented 
by this substance in the corals, shells and pearls, and in the endless 
varieties of marble, — white, colored and variegated. And what other 
material, he exclaimed, can vie with marble in expressing and 
perpetuating the finest conceptions of the great masters of sculpture 
and architecture, from the most ancient times to our own day? 
And if it came to a question of utility, he believed that carbonate of 
lime exceeded the iron ores even in this respect ; for besides supplying 
us with building stones, concrete and mortar, it was an indispensable 
adjunct to the manufacture of iron, soda, glass, bleach and innumer- 
able other commodities. 

Other speakers then championed with varying success the claims 
of such minerals as quartz, the felspars, the ores of copper, lead and 
the precious metals, the diamond and other gems, until another 
pronounced hit was scored by a mechanical engineer who made an 
eloquent plea for coal. He regretted that his limited knowledge of 
geology, botany and organic chemistry would not permit his doing 
full justice to the subject, but nevertheless he hoped to show that 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
lApril, 1909. j 



A Piece of Pitchblende. 



159 



the fossil remains of an extinct vegetation touched a far wider 
range of interest than any of the minerals yet mentioned. After 
giving a fascinating account of the vegetable and mineral history 
of coal, he explained how the sunshine of a remote geological age 
had been stored up in this substance, so that it can be conveniently 
tapped and utilized by man for the production of heat and cold, power, 
light and electricity, and further how inventive genius and chemical 
science had united in wresting from the plain black mineral in- 
numerable substances that minister to our wants and comfort. No 
chapter in the entire realm of science, he contended, could boast of 
such a wealth of discoveries as the chemistry of coal-tar, itself only 
one of a number of products resulting from the destructive distilla- 
tion of coal. There was no- room for doubt in his mind that this 
substance easily takes the first place in the Mineral Kingdom. 

Only one of the company remained to set forth his views on the 
subject under discussion, and all eyes were now turned upon the plain 
science teacher at the lower end of the table, wondering what choice 
was left for him after such a convincing argument in favor of coal. 

He rose deliberately, looked at his watch and began with words 
to this effect: " One of the most coveted trophies of scientific 
achievement, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, has just been bestowed 
upon Ernest Rutherford, whose brilliant researches lie chiefly in the 
domain of physics. As I interpret the award, however, the Nobel 
commission intended it as a recognition of the wonderful influence 
which Rutherford's work has had on chemical investigation, opening 
up as it did entirely new avenues of research, and stimulating hosts 
of experimenters to work in the new field. It is significant, how- 
ever, that the starting point of Rutherford's work was a chemical 
discovery, the most remarkable of our time ; I refer to the discovery 
of radium in a mineral which for more than a century has engaged 
the attention of chemists, now proving a will-o'-the-wisp, and again 
yielding up unexpected finds to the patient investigator. If I may 
detain you for half an hour longer, I shall endeavor to tell, without 
going into unnecessary detail, the ' Story of a Piece of Pitchblende.' " 

His story was listened to with rapt attention, and while many of 
the party cast their votes in favor of " coal " and " carbonate of 
lime," all agreed that at the present time, at least, pitchblende was 
undoubtedly in the lime-light of scientific interest. And it is my 
object here to-night, ladies and gentlemen, to introduce this wonder- 
ful mineral to your acquaintance. 



i6o 



A Piece of Pitchblende. 



\ April, 1909. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 



Here is a typical specimen of pitchblende, and we will have a 
better view of it by throwing its image upon the screen. You notice 
that its features are not prepossessing; there is no indication of 
crystal form, and the complexion is dusky with a resin-like lustre. 
In this respect the mineral resembles blende, and for this reason was 
formerly mistaken for an ore of zinc. 

Old Werner, the father of mineralogy, believed it to be an iron 
ore, while others, on account of its high specific gravity, suspected 
that it contained tungsten. 



Our specimen comes from Joachimsthal, a place in Bohemia 
which has long been famous for its silver mines, and from which the 
German thaler and our dollar derive the names. It is the only 
locality where pitchblende is actually mined, and the Imperial factory 
at Joachimsthal is, I believe, the only plant where the mineral is 
worked up on a large scale. 

But pitchblende, or uraninite as mineralogists prefer to call it, is 
found also in many other localities, both in Europe and America. 
In some cases it forms an original constituent of granite rocks, while 
in others it occurs in deposits of metallic ores. Considerable quanti- 
ties of the mineral are met with in certain parts of Saxony and 
Bohemia, at St. Stephens in Cornwall, in Mitchell County, North- 
Carolina, and in Colorado and South Dakota. Two of the most 
interesting varieties, cleveite and brbggerite, come from Norway. 





Pitchblende from Joachimsthal 



Am. Jour. Pharrn.") 
April, 1909. J 



A Piece of Pitchblende. 



161 



The external characters of uraninite from different localities vary 
within wider limits than those of other species. In rather rare in- 
stances the mineral is crystallized in cubes or octohedra, but usually 
it is massive or of granular structure. Its color is grayish, greenish- 
brown, or black ; its lustre pitch-like or dull. The specific gravity 
fluctuates from 6.5 to nearly to. 




Martin Heitirich Klaproth 



Now a substance which exhibits such great variations in its 
physical properties must also be variable in its chemical composition, 
and pitchblende, as we shall see, is no exception to this rule. The 
chemical history of the mineral began in 1789, when a German 
apothecary, Martin Henry Klaproth by name, discovered that its 
principal constituent was a previously unknown metal to which he 



162 A Piece of Pitchblende. { Am Aprii\909 arm ' 

gave the name uranium, after the planet Uranus, then recently dis- 
covered by Herschel. 

I may mention here in passing that the art of chemical analysis 
was in those days almost monopolized by your profession, and that 
many of the most important chemical discoveries of the eighteenth 
century must be credited to pharmacists. 

But neither Klaproth nor his contemporaries who* investigated 
the new metal succeeded in obtaining it in the free or elemental 
state. This was not accomplished until 1840, when the French chemist 
Peligot demonstrated that the supposed metal was really' an oxide 
and that its isolation requires special means to remove the oxygen. 
Thanks to his researches and those of Roscoe, Zimmermann and 
others, we are now as familiar with this rare element as we are with 
the more common elementary bodies. Its peculiarities and idiosyn- 
crasies have been duly noted and recorded, and its proper place in 
the natural families of elements definitely established. 

Moissan has taught us how metallic uranium can readily be pro- 
duced by the reduction of its oxides in the electric furnace. We can 
also effect its reduction by the Goldschmidt process, that is by the 
aid of metallic aluminum. I am not aware, however, that metallic 
uranium has found any practical applications. "It is in the form of 
compounds that uranium is extracted from pitchblende at Joachims- 
thal, the products being highly prized as pigments in the manufac- 
ture of glass and for decorating china. The uranyl compounds are 
characterized by a fine yellow color and a strong green fluorescence. 
This piece of uranium glass, for instance, is yellow in transmitted 
light, but shows a beautiful green color on the surface. Here are a 
number of uranyl minerals and salts, all of which show this peculiar 
phenomenon. This black substance is an oxide of uranium employed 
in china painting. 

The chemical processes by which the uranium products are manu- 
factured at Joachimsthal are rather complicated, and it would hardly 
interest you to know the details. Essentially the treatment consists 
in calcining a mixture of the roasted and powdered ore and soda, 
washing the yellowish-brown mass resulting from this operation with 
hot water, and then extracting it with dilute sulphuric acid. The 
solution so obtained contains the bulk of the uranium, which is 
further converted into the desired compounds, such as the yellow 
uranates of sodium or ammonium, and the black oxide of uranium. 
The insoluble residue was formerly cast aside as a waste-product, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1909. 



A Piece of Pitchblende. 



but it has recently become the source of that most interesting con- 
stituent of pitchblende, radium. 

Let us now return to the question of the chemical composition of 
our mineral. Can it be expressed like that of any well-defined 
species by a definite formula? I know of no other mineral that has 
presented so many difficult problems to the analyst, and of none that 
has so persistently defied his efforts to unravel its innermost nature, 
as has uraninite. An enormous number of analyses, and many of 
them by the most skilful chemists, have been recorded, but our 
knowledge of the constitution of the mineral is far from complete. 
In one respect., however, all analyses agree : that the principal con- 
stituent of pitchblende, say from 50 to 80 per cent, of it, is the 
uranate of uranyl, or in the shorthand of chemists, Ur 3 O s . In 
addition to this, varying amounts of many other elements have been 
found in the different varieties ; indeed it would seem as if nearly 
all of the known elements existed in one or another of the modifica- 
tions of this mineral. That many of the minor constituents are 
merely admixtures, that is to say, do not enter into the composition 
of uraninite, is generally recognized, but the role which others play 
in it is only imperfectly understood. 

Invariably present in all varieties are the oxides of lead and iron ; 
the majority contain also alumina, lime and magnesia, and some of 
the rarer varieties are characterized by considerable proportions of 
rare earths, such as thoria and yttria. 

It is not my intention here, to-night, to discuss the extended 
literature on this subject, but I can recommend it as affording much 
interesting and some amusing reading; one writer after another 
claims to have solved the riddle of the composition, and charges all 
others with the gravest errors, only to be told in turn that he, too. is 
entirely mistaken. 

It was on account of an unfortunate oversight in the analysis of 
cleveite that one of the foremost chemical experts of our country 
just missed the honor of having discovered that most interesting of 
gaseous elements, helium. This is the way it happened : In 189 1 
Dr. Hillebrand, chief chemist of the United States Geological 
Survey, observed that many of the uranium minerals, and notably 
cleveite, give off considerable quantities of gas when they are heated 
with acids. He carefully collected this gas and subjected it to 
various tests, but although he noticed certain peculiarities in its 
behavior, he concluded that it was nitrogen. Four years later the 



164 



A Piece of Pitchblende. 



( Am. Jour. Pharru. 
\ April, 1909. 



great English chemist. Prof. William Ramsay, in searching for com- 
pounds of the then newly discovered element argon, had his attention 
called to the cleveite gas, and made a thorough chemical and spec- 




Copyright, 1904, Scientific American. 

Sir William Ramsay in his laboratory 



troscopic examination of it. To his surprise it showed a spectrum 
entirely different from that of either argon or any other known 
terrestrial element. The most characteristic of the several bright 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
April, 1909. | 



A Piece of Pitchblende. 



165 



lines of this spectrum was, however, soon recognized by Sir Norman 
Lockyer as the yellow " D3 " line which he and Janssen had observed 
in the spectrum of the sun's chromosphere during the eclipse of 1868. 
The brilliant line had been attributed to an element supposed to exist 
only in the sun and certain stars, and this hypothetical solar constit- 
uent had accordingly been named helium (from Helios, the sun). 
Thus after a lapse of 27 years terrestrial helium was found, and the 
searching investigations of Prof. Ramsay and of the Swedish chemist 
Langlet soon established the true character of the new element. 
Like argon, it was found to be devoid of chemical energy, showing 
no tendency to form compounds with any of the known elements, 
and to consist of monatomic molecules. Physically, however, it dif- 
fered from argon in its lightness — its density is only 2 compared 
to hydrogen — in its very slight solubility in water, in its behavior at 
low temperatures, as well as in other ways. 

Of all the gases known to chemistry helium is the most perfect. 
Thermometers filled with it afford the most reliable means of 
measuring extremely low temperatures, and the liquefaction of this 
gas, which was only recently effected by Prof. Kamerlingh Onnes 
of Ley den, is regarded as the crowning triumph of low-temperature 
research. The picture and diagram upon the screen will give you 
an idea of the complicated apparatus by which the Dutch physicist 
attained his object. 

The occurrence of helium is by no means confined to the heavenly 
bodies and cleveite. Minute quantities of it exist in the atmosphere, 
it is present in the gases dissolved in many mineral waters, like those 
of Bath and Cauterets, and has been detected in a great number of 
minerals, particularly those containing the heavy elements uranium 
and thorium. 

In view of the circumstances surrounding the discovery and 
investigation of helium, you will readily appreciate the prominent 
part this element has played in the recent history of chemistry; yet 
its claims upon the attention of scientists were to be vastly enhanced 
by another discover}' for which pitchblende also supplied the 
material. 

This brings us to the most interesting chapter of our story. In 
1896 the late and lamented Henri Becquerel, while engaged in the 
study of the phosphorescence of certain uranium salts, made the 
remarkable observation that they continuously emit rays of a peculiar 
character. His experiments showed that these radiations could not 



i66 



A Piece of Pitchblende. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ April, 1909. 



be due to phosphorescence, but were in some way connected with the 
uranium contained in the salts ; for the strange property was exhibited 
also by the non-fluorescent uranium compounds and metallic uranium, 
even after these substances had been kept for a long time in the dark. 
Uranium rays was the name proposed by the discoverer for these 
invisible radiations, but they have since been re-christened Becquerel 
rays, and they are now recognized as a manifestation of that most 
remarkable condition of matter called radio-activity. 

Let us see by what means these Becquerel rays can be detected 
and measured. The easiest way, perhaps, is that by which Becquerel 
discovered the phenomenon. It consists in placing the substance 
under examination, a piece of pitchblende for instance, upon a 
photographic plate wrapped in black paper. The rays then penetrate 
the latter and act on the plate, producing an impression analogous to 
that of ordinary light. It is thus possible to make radiographs of 
objects which are not transparent to the Becquerel rays. 

Another method of testing for radio-activity is to allow the 
substance to act on certain crystalline substances, such as barium 
platinoeyanide or the sulphide of zinc, known as Sidot's blende. If 
the radiations are fairly strong, they are made manifest by the gleam 
or the scintillations they excite in the phosphorescent material. 

More delicate and far better adapted for the measurement of 
radio-activity, is the electric method. This depends on the fact that 
the rays emitted by radio-active substances have the power to ionize 
the air through which they pass, and of thus conferring upon this air 
the property of discharging electrified bodies. The rate of discharge 
is proportional to the intensity of the radio-activity. The instrument 
commonly used for this purpose is the gold-leaf electroscope, for the 
fall of the gold leaf can easily be observed and measured. 

It was by the aid of this electric method that one of the most 
successful investigators of our time, Mme. Sklodowska Curie, 
undertook, in 1898, to make a systematic examination of a great 
number of substances, including both elements and compounds, for 
radio-activity. She discovered that thorium is radio-active in about 
the same degree as uranium, and that some of the uranium and 
thorium minerals are several times as radio-active as the two metals 
are in the free state. Further inquiries showed that the radio-activity 
of uranium is not affected by the combination of the element with 
other elements, so that it must be regarded as an atomic property. 
The only way then that the excess of radio-activity of the uranium 



Am. Jour. Pharni.") 
April, 1909. J 



A Piece of Pitchblende. 



167 



minerals could be accounted for, was to assume that they contained 
some unknown substance of extraordinary radio-active power. 

But how could this hidden constituent be brought to light? 
Chemists had apparently exhausted their analytical resources in the 
study of pitchblende, the mineral which headed Mme. Curie's list of 
radio-active substances. Her fertile mind, however, devised a novel 
means of searching for the hypothetical component : by introducing 
the electroscope into chemical analysis, and systematically testing the 



products of chemical separation for their radio-active power, she 
succeeded in concentrating those intensely radio-active substances in 
certain minute fractions of material she obtained from the ore. 

It was evident now that the extraction, even of small quantities 
of the radio-active body or bodies, would require the use of enormous 
quantities of the costly pitchblende ; but this difficulty was overcome 
by the happy idea to experiment upon the uranium residues of which 
such large quantities had accumulated at Joachimsthal. Mme. Curie 
and her husband, the late Pierre Curie, having ascertained that this 
material contains practically all of the radio-active components of 




Copyrighted, 1904, by William J. Hammer. 



Mme. Sklodowska Curie 



A Piece of Pitchblende. 



JAm. Jour. Pharm 
\ April, 1909. 



the pitchblende, asked and obtained permission from the Austrian 
Government to draw upon these residues, and a ton or more of the 
material was shipped to Paris and there treated under the able 
direction of M. Debierne. From the crude products thus obtained 
the Curies extracted two distinct substances of most remarkable 
radio-active power. 

The first of these, which was separated with the bismuth and 
which closely resembles the latter chemically, was named polonium, 




Copyrighted, 1904, by William J. Hammer. 

Pierre Curie 

in honor of Mme. Curie's native country, Poland. Although it has 
since been obtained and studied by other scientists, it has not been 
prepared in the pure state, indeed it is still doubtful whether it 
constitutes a chemical element. 

Far more important is the second radio-active substance of which 
the discovery was shortly afterwards announced by the Curies and 
M. Bemont. It has appropriately received the name radium, being 
fully two million times as active as uranium, and it has been clearly 
characterized as a new element. It must be admitted that, owing to 
the extremely precious nature of the radium compounds, little at- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
April, 1909. j 



A Piece of Pitchblende. 



169 



tempt has been made to reduce radium to the elemental state ; there 
can be no doubt, however, that it would be found to be a metal 
similar to barium, which it closely resembles in its compounds. The 
chemical reactions and the spectrum of radium are analogous to 
those of the alkaline-earth metals, and its atomic weight of about 
226 fixes its position as the fourth member of this family in the 
periodic system of Mendelejeff. Small amounts of radium salts 
have been prepared in the pure state by the Curies, by the German 
chemist Giesel, and quite recently by the Austrian Radium Commis- 
sion. In appearance and reactions they differ very little from the 
corresponding barium salts, but are readily distinguished from the 
latter by their radio-activity. With the most approved processes less 
than fifty grains of radium bromide have been obtained from ten 
tons of uranium residues, and the entire stock of pure radium 
preparations now in the hands of investigators probably falls short 
of 100 grains. You can readily appreciate the exceedingly precious 
character of this material. 

In addition to polonium and radium a number of other radio- 
active bodies have been separated from various uranium and 
thorium minerals. They differ from radium both in their chemical 
character and in their radio-active properties, but for the most part 
appear to trace their origin to the same parent substance. The 
most interesting among them are actinium, which Debierne has 
separated from the thorium contents of pitchblende, and ionium, 
recently discovered by the American chemist Boltwood, as a con- 
stituent of carnotite, a vanadate of uranium found in Colorado. 

The discovery of the radio-active substances, and especially of 
radium, has had a wonderfully stimulating influence on research in 
physical science, and the advances that have been made in this 
field during the past decade have been so rapid that it would lead us 
far beyond the scope of this lecture to consider even in a general 
way our present knowledge of the subject. I must content myself 
with bringing to your attention a few facts that will help you 
understand the role which the radio-active substances play in pitch- 
blende. 

It has been ascertained that the rays emitted by these substances 
are of three distinct types, differing from one another in their power 
of penetrating matter and in their behavior towards the magnetic or 
electric field. They are respectively known as alpha, beta, and 
gamma rays. The alpha rays are completely stopped by a layer of 



i7o 



A Piece of Pitchblende. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

April, 1909. ij 



aluminum no thicker than I /500 of an inch, and are but very slightly 
deflected out of their course by a magnet. They are believed to 
consist of material particles of a density about twice as great as 
that of the hydrogen atom, and to be projected at a speed of some 
20,000 miles per second. The beta rays travel with a much greater 
velocity, and are strongly deflected by a magnetic field. They are 
regarded as particles of only 1/1000 the weight of the hydrogen 
atom, and charged with negative electricity. The gamma rays are 
10,000 times as penetrating as the alpha rays and are not deflected 
by the magnetic or electric field. They invariably accompany the 
beta rays, and appear to be a wave motion set up in the ether by 
the expulsion of the beta particles. The three types of rays can thus 
be separated and distinguished from one another by means of the 
magnetic field, as well as by their different penetrating powers. 

For our knowledge of these radiations we are chiefly indebted to 
the work of Ernest Rutherford, a native of New Zealand, and now 
Professor of Physics in Victoria University, Manchester, England. 
The picture on the screen shows the brilliant investigator in his 
laboratory at McGill University of Montreal, where most of this 
work was done. 

But more remarkable even than these investigations are some 
other contributions which Rutherford has made to our knowledge 
of the radio-active substances ; indeed his experimental discoveries 
and his theoretical reasoning have thrown such a flood of light upon 
the subject that it may fairly be claimed to be one of the most 
assiduously cultivated and most productive fields of scientific re- 
search at the present time. 

Perhaps the most striking discovery in radio-activity next to that 
of radium, is the observation that some of the radio-active substances 
continuously give off gases which have properties of the most extra- 
ordinary character. These gases differ from all other gases with 
which we are acquainted in that they rapidly decompose or disinte- 
grate, and in being powerfully radio-active. This was first noticed 
by Rutherford in the case of thorium, and subsequently it was found 
that radium, actinium and, perhaps, other bodies of this class give 
off similar emanations. 

The several emanations differ from one another in their " periods 
of life," that from radium being the slowest to decay and therefore 
the one which has been best investigated. " The strongest and 
strangest thing in the world," are the words in which Sir William 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

April, 1909. J 



A Piece of Pitchblende. 



Ramsay has aptly summed up its character ; for it differs in many 
respects from all other forms of matter, and is capable of producing 
most wonderful effects on other bodies. 

Unlike the radiations, the emanation is scarcely given off by 
radium compounds in dry air, but is released from them when they 
are heated or dissolved in water. In the latter case the water is 
decomposed in a similar way as by an electric current, yielding up 
bubbles of gas. This gas is a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen, very 
nearly in the proportions in which these elements exist in water, but 
it contains in addition a minute amount of the emanation. When 
the gas is placed in a tube surrounded by liquid air and thus cooled to 
say 356 F., the emanation condenses or freezes to the walls of the 
tube, while the other gases can be removed by means of an air- 
pump. Upon raising the temperature of the tube, the emanation 
turns into gas again, but its volume is so small that it must be 
collected in a vessel of exceedingly fine bore. Ramsay estimates that 
one grain of radium bromide yields about one thirty thousandth 
cubic centimetre of this gas per week. 

You will see from this what enormous difficulties must have been 
encountered in experimenting with the radium emanation; yet the 
results which have already been obtained are quite sufficient fully 
to repay the investigators for their great sacrifices of labor, time 
and expense. 

There cannot be the slightest doubt that the emanation is a 
gaseous substance. Not only has it been collected and measured, 
but it has also been shown to obey the simple laws that govern the 
effects of pressure and temperature upon gases. Moreover, it 
freely diffuses through other gases, such as air, and, as already 
stated, condenses to a liquid or solid at very low temperatures. The 
emanation glows in the dark ; its spectrum shows characteristic 
bright lines, recalling the spectra of the argon group of inert gases. 
Its density is estimated to be about 100 times that of hydrogen. 

Like argon and its congeners, the emanation is not acted upon 
by the most powerful of chemical agencies. It appears to be 
chemically inert, and probably belongs to the argon group of ele- 
ments. But, although devoid of such chemical affinities as are 
manifested in the chemical changes with which we are familiar, it 
nevertheless produces most remarkable chemical effects upon other 
substances. This is due to its enormous radio-active power. 
Weight for weight it is estimated that the radium gas is 100,000 



172 



A Piece of Pitchblende. 



Am. Jour. Phann. 
April, 1909. 



as active as radium, and the heat liberated in its disintegration, 
according to Ramsay, is about 3,000,000 times as great as that 
resulting from the explosion of a like volume of oxyhydrogen gas. 

The only product of the disintegration of radium emanation which 
has been definitely identified is helium, the gas which exists in so 
many of the uranium and thorium minerals. The production of 
helium from radium was first observed by Ramsay and Soddy in 
1903 and has since been abundantly confirmed by others. It is the 
first instance of the transformation of one well-defined element into 
another. The announcement created a sensation in the scientific 
world, for it broke down one of the most cherished doctrines of 
chemistry, that of the immutability of the atoms, and thus seemed 
to shake the very foundations of the atomic theory. 

During the past five years there has been accumulated a vast 
amount of experimental evidence to elucidate the true nature of the 
radio-active changes, and it is to Professor Rutherford that we owe 
not only a masterful and complete account of what has been accom- 
plished, but also the one consistent generalization that explains the 
facts. As my time is nearly up, I must pass over the experimental 
results from which the theory derives its support, and I shall only 
briefly indicate the main features of Rutherford's hypothesis. It 
proceeds from the bold and novel assumption that the atoms of the 
radio-active elements are in a state of continuous disintegration, and 
that these smallest units which enter into chemical changes, in the 
accepted sense of this term, are really made up of great numbers of 
still smaller particles, carrying negative electrical charges. Just 
how these electrons, as they are called, are disposed within the 
chemical atoms has taxed and is still taxing the ingenuity of the 
foremost physicists of our time, but a fairly satisfactory conception 
has been developed by such men as Lord Kelvin, J. J. Thomson, 
Lorentz, and others. According to the electronic hypothesis the 
integral parts of the complex little structures or atoms are in a state 
of incessant and rapid motion; they rotate about a common centre, 
and it is this oscillation which supplies the energy which the atoms 
are capable of yielding up. The atom as whole is supposed to be 
positively charged, while the moving electrons carry negative 
charges. A definite number of the radio-active atoms undergo 
spontaneous disintegration in a unit of time, one or several of the 
electrons being expelled, while the remaining ones form a new con- 
figuration, which in turn suffers analogous radio-active changes. In 



Am. Jour. Pharni. 
April, 1909. 



A Piece of Pitchblende. 



173 



this manner the heavy radio-active atoms are gradually " degraded " 
into other atoms of smaller weight, but of greater stability. The rays, 
then, which are peculiar to the radio-active substances, are simply 
the emission of particles resulting from the continuous disruption 
of their atoms. 

In the light of our present knowledge it appears that the known 
radio-active substances, with the exception of thorium, are de- 
rived from uranium, and represent successive stages in a series of 
transformations, and perhaps ramifications of this series. These 
relations are shown in this pedigree: uranium, uranium X, ionium, 
radium, radium emanation, radium A, B, C, 3 D, Ei, E2, and F, 
which latter is identical with polonium or radio-tellurium. Actinium 
is regarded as belonging to a branch of this series, while other radio- 
active substances are the descendants of thorium. There can be no 
doubt that even the youngest known members of these series undergo 
further transformations, and not a little evidence has been gathered 
to indicate that other elements also undergo a " rayless " disintegra- 
tion into elements of smaller atomic weight. At present, however, 
the connections which may exist among the non-radio-active elements 
are largely conjectural, and the observations of some of the most 
distinguished workers in this field are in many respects contradictory. 

This much, however, is certain, that the radio-active changes 
are not chemical changes in the accepted sense of the term. They 
must be regarded as a spontaneous disintegration of elementary 
atoms, and cannot, therefore, be recognized by strictly chemical 
methods. Their discovery has given us a new chemistry which does 
not limit the changes in matter to rearrangements of the Daltonian 
atoms, but penetrates to the still smaller units, or corpuscles, of 
which they are made up, and to those marvellous forces which are 
liberated in their disintegration. 

In conclusion let us cast another glance at our black and shape- 
less piece of pitchblende, and recall the interesting and dramatic part 
this mineral has played in the history of physical science. Its chem- 
ical investigation during the past 120 years has not only brought to 
light a large number of the most interesting elementary substances, 
but has also furnished science with a novel and most powerful weapon 
for attacking such fundamental problems as those of the constitution 



3 Radium A, B and C constitute the quickly decaying " active deposit " 
which radium produces on bodies placed near it. 



174 



Compressed 'Air Wash-Bottle. 



Am. Jour. Ph&rm. 
April, 1909. 



of matter and the genesis of the elements. And as every advance of 
knowledge brings with it new problems to be solved, we may confi- 
dently look for rich harvests of discovery in the further study of our 
mineral and its constituents. To him who is gifted with a vivid 
imagination and disposed to indulge in extravagant speculation, the 
future history of pitchblende offers an unlimited opportunity to 
exercise these gifts to his heart's content. He might tell us how 
some day our mineral will turn out to be a veritable philosophers' 
stone by which the base metals are transmuted into the precious, 
and the heavy elements degraded into the lightest of gases ; he might 
enlighten us how, after our coal deposits have been mined and burned 
up, it will afford almost inexhaustible supplies of energy ; and, per- 
haps, he might even be able to persuade you, gentlemen of the 
pharmaceutical profession, that it is destined to be the great panacea 
to cure all ills that human flesh is heir to. 

But such visions of the future we may leave to the Jules Vernes 
and the contributors of our popular magazines. Science is a stern 
mistress : she clips the wings of phantasy too closely to permit her 
votaries to deviate — or had I better say aviate? — from the secure 
tracks of observation and logical induction. If I conclude, then 
without having satisfied you as to how pitchblende or products 
obtained from it will some day take the place of your materia medica, 
I trust that my story* has not been unworthy of the kind attention 
you have given me. 



A COMPRESSED AIR WASH-BOTTLE. 
By Edwin Dowzard. 

In laboratories where a supply of compressed air is available, the 
apparatus about to be described will be found of value. 

The apparatus consists of a flask of suitable size (as the latter is 
stationary when in use, a flask of two or three litres capacity may be 
used), provided with a rubber stopper with two perforations. 
Through one of the perforations a limb of the T piece A passes, the 
horizontal portion of which should be about twice the diameter of 
the vertical. Through the other perforation passes a tube, B, which 
nearly touches the bottom of the flask. The part outside the flask 
passes through the horizontal limb of the T piece C, and is held 
in position by the perforated rubber stopper, D. The vertical limb 



Am \p?!i r 190?™' } Compressed Air W 'ash-Bottle. 175 

of the T piece C, is connected with A by means of a piece of rubber 
tubing, E. To the end of the tube B, which passes through the T 
piece C, is attached any desired length of narrow rubber tubing ; two 



E 




Compressed air wash-bottle 



feet is a convenient length, although any length may be used. A 
glass jet, F, is attached to the end of the tubing. A piece of rubber 
tubing about twice the diameter of the narrow tubing is passed over 
the latter and attached to the T piece C, at G. The other end is 



176 Periodide Test for Alkaloids. { Am k^i9^ arm " 

attached to a piece of glass tubing, H, in the side of which a hole 
about 6 mm. in diameter has been blown. The jet, F, is fixed firmly 
in this tube by means of the perforated rubber stopper /. A piece 
of copper wire provided with a hook is attached to the tube H, so 
that the latter may be suspended from the wire /, which is attached 
to the flask. The end of the T piece A, is connected with the com- 
pressed air main by means of rubber tubing. When the compressed 
air is turned on, it passes through the horizontal portion of T piece 
A, then through T piece C, and leaves the apparatus at the hole H. 
When the apparatus is in use the thumb of the right hand is placed 
over H, the compressed air then passes through the vertical limb of 
T piece A, into the flask, and forces the water through the jet F. 

Very little compressed air is required by this apparatus. If the 
air is turned on in the morning, the apparatus may be used at any 
time by simply placing the thumb over H. The force of the jet 
may be easily regulated by allowing part of the air to escape at H. 

This apparatus is very convenient for washing precipitates, etc., 
as the jet of water may be sent in any direction by a slight turn of 
the wrist. 

Analytical Department, 
Parke, Davis & Co., Detroit. 



A NOTE ON THE PERIODIDE TEST FOR ALKALOIDS. 

By A. H. Clark. 

In the course of the alkaloidal assay of crude drugs one is con- 
stantly testing for the presence of alkaloids to determine whether 
or not extractions are complete. Of the numerous tests employed, 
a solution of iodine in potassium iodide and water is very common 
because of its great sensitiveness, simplicity of preparation, and ever 
readiness. This solution, as is well known, when added to an acidu- 
lated solution of an alkaloid yields a brownish-red precipitate. 

On one occasion when extracting an ethereal solution of an 
alkaloid with normal acid I attempted to use this test to determine 
when all of the alkaloid was extracted from the ether. After shak- 
ing out with eight or ten portions of acid and still obtaining a pre- 
cipitate indicating incomplete extraction, I concluded that something 
was wrong and began a search for the trouble. This search (the 
details of which I will omit) revealed the, to me, surprising fact that 
water saturated with ether and then acidulated gives with iodine 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1909. 



Enzymes of Cow's Milk. 



177 



solution a reddish-brown precipitate of iodine, which, in appearance, 
resembles the precipitate formed when the iodine solution is added 
to a solution of an alkaloid. 

A saturated solution of ether alone will not precipitate in this 
manner, neither will acid, or water and acid together. The addition 
of an equal volume of water at once dissolves the precipitate. 

The necessity of guarding against this condition will be apparent 
to all those interested in alkaloidal work. If this test is used where 
ether is the solvent the acidulated solution should be diluted with 
water before applying the test. It is still better to add the iodine first, 
and if a precipitate is obtained add water, when it will disappear if 
caused by the ether. 

University of Illinois School of Pharmacy. 



THE ENZYMES OF COW'S MILK. 
By Joseph W. England. 

Milk is not simply a mixture of chemical compounds. It is an 
organized tissue, as much so as blood. In fact, the resemblance is 
so close that it could be called " white blood." It contains not only 
fat, proteids, sugar, salts, and water, but also the elements that go to 
make up blood. Among these may be mentioned the enzymes or 
ferments. The presence of these bodies has been known for a 
decade or more, but their physiological significance, in the growth 
and development of the tissues of the body, has been, apparently, 
entirely overlooked. 

The function of food is not only nutritional, but also develop- 
mental ; that is, it furnishes not only pabulum for the tissues, but 
stimulates the growth and development of the digestive tract, espe- 
cially in infants and growing children. Milk, and probably other 
foods also, furnish enzymes that promote, in some degree at least, 
the development of the digestive tract. The reason why unboiled 
milk is superior to boiled milk, as an infant food, is because it con- 
tains enzymes or ferments that assist digestion ; in other words, it is 
autodigestive, while in boiled milk, the enzymes have been destroyed, 
and its autodigestibility lost. 

The power of ferments for work is remarkable. As Abderhalden 
states (Physiological Chemistry, 1908, 46) : " They are never found 
as end products of the reactions. They remain unchanged. The 
smallest amount suffices to repeat the same reaction a countless 



178 



Enzymes of Cozv's Milk. 



fAm. Jour. Pharm. 
\ April, 1909. 



number of times. Thus, invertase is capable of inverting at least 
200,000 times its own weight of cane sugar {Jour. Chem. Soc. 
Trans., 57, 384, 1890), and rennin at least 400,000 parts of casein. 
The action of the ferments should be, theoretically, an unlimited one. 
There is, however, as has been shown in the case of rennin (Reichel 
and Spiro: Hofmeister's Beitrage 6, 68, 1904, and 7, 479, 1905) 
a gradual loss of efficiency. This is not, however, caused by the 
reaction of itself, but by other factors. 

Now, as to the specific ferments of milks : The most important 
of these is galactose, a proteolytic enzyme of the tryptic group, dis- 
covered by Babcock and Russell in 1897. These investigators ob- 
served that milk kept under certain antiseptic conditions showed, in 
time, a progressive increase in the percentage of " nitrogen com- 
pounds soluble in water," which were formed at the expense of 
the casein. 

" In milk 12 days old (' The Soluble Ferments,' by J. Reynolds 
Green, 1901, 207), the nitrogen existing in this condition was 30 
per cent, of the total nitrogen ; in one 240 clays old, it had become 
63 per cent. In another sample, twelve hours after milking, it was 
less than 10 per cent., but after three weeks' standing it had risen 
to 30 per cent. During all this time bacteria were found to be 
entirely absent. These changes in milk did not take place in samples 
that had been boiled at the outset." 

These experiments clearly demonstrated the presence of a 
proteolytic ferment in fresh milk. The ferment was isolated by 
centrifuging the milk, collecting the slime that remained adhering to 
the instrument, mixing it with an equal weight of 40 per cent, 
alcohol, and adding an antiseptic. After standing twenty-four hours, 
the mixture was filtered, the filtrate concentrated by evaporation at 
52° C. to one-tenth its original volume, additional antiseptic being 
added. The faintly acid solution was then neutralized with sodium 
carbonate, when syntonin and calcium phosphate were precipitated. 
The filtrate from this precipitate curdled milk, and subsequently 
dissolved the curd, indicating the presence of rennet and a proteolytic 
ferment. 

While galactase belongs to the tryptic group, it differs from 
trypsin in forming not only amido-acids, and albumoses and pep- 
tones/ but later, also, a certain quantity of ammonia. 

The principal properties of galactase are: 

(1) It hydrolyzes proteids, especially casein, carrying the de- 
composition to the liberation of ammonia. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1909. 



Enzymes of Cow's Milk. 



179 



(2) It is active in neutral, faintly alkaline and faintly acid 
solution ; a very slight excess of acid rapidly inhibits its action. 

(3) Its optimum point is 3/°-42° C, its activity at 52 C. is about 
equal to that it exhibits at 28 C. ; its proteolytic power is destroyed 
at 76 C, and its action on gelatin — which it liquefies — takes place 
at 65 C. 

(4) It decomposes hydrogen dioxide with the liberation of 
oxygen, being probably one of the ferments which react with the 
Wilkinson-Peters test or the Dupouy test, observed by Charles H. 
LaWall, and reported to the pharmaceutical meeting of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy in January, 1909 ("The Differentiation 
of the Enzymes of Milk by Hydrogen Dioxide and its Tests," by 
Charles H. LaWall, American Journal of Pharmacy, February, 
1909, 5). 

(5) It is inhibited in action by mercuric chloride, formaldehyde, 
carbon disulphide and phenol, but not by chloroform, ether, benzol, 
or toluol. 

Later, without knowledge of the work of Babcock and Russell, 
Bertrand and Bourquelot demonstrated, by other methods, the 
presence of an oxidizing ferment in milk. " As long ago as 188 1," 
states the Dietetic and Hygienic Gazette (1904, 523), "Arnold had 
found that fresh cow's milk became blue on contact with tincture 
of guaiac, and that this reaction is no longer produced if the milk be 
heated to a temperature of 8o° C. In 1890 Kowalesky established 
undeniably that the same reaction takes place in milk when mixed 
with old oil of turpentine. But at that time this reaction was at- 
tributed to the presence of ozone. Later it was recognized that free 
ozone cannot exist in the system, and Bertrand and Bourquelot 
demonstrated that the reaction of milk toward oxidizing agents is 
due to the presence of a ferment (an oxydase). Of itself it is 
powerless to oxidize oxidizable substances without the assistance of 
an intermediary agent highly oxygenated, such as the tincture of 
guaiacum, old turpentine or oxygenated water. But, when these 
agents yield their oxygen to this ferment, the latter is able to hold 
it, and in consequence to oxidize any oxidizable substance with which 
it comes in contact. For example, if some drops of tincture of 
guaiac are added to fresh milk, this does not change color. But if 
at the same time some drops of oxygenated water are poured into 
the milk, a blue color begins to show itself at once. The ferment 
has absorbed a portion of the oxygen, and coming into contact with 
the guaiac has oxidized the latter. Thus this ferment belongs to 



i8o 



Enzymes of Cow's Milk. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1909. 



the family of anaeroxydases. At this same time Dupouy, and in the 
following year (1898) W. Raudnitz, studied this oxydase, and 
found that it is present in the milk of the goat, the cow, and the ewe, 
and that it is absent, or that its action is very weak in the milk of 
the ass, the mare, the dog, and in human milk. Marfan and Fillet 
have also studied this ferment, and confirm its presence in the milk 
of the cow. 

" In 1901 Spolverini took up this line of research and recognized 
in cow's milk the presence of pepsin and trypsin. Working on milk 
aseptically treated, and in which perfect asepsis was maintained by 
thymol, he placed in a drying-stove, at 104 R, various quantities 
of milk, some acidified for the research for pepsin, others alkalinized 
for the research for trypsin. After a certain time, he determined 
the quantity of soluble albumins in it by the biuret reaction. A 
boiled sample served as a means of verification. By proceeding in 
this manner, Spolverini found that the pepsin and trypsin were to 
be met with in all the milks, but were most abundant in cow's milk. 
The proportion diminishes in the milk of the dog, the goat, human 
milk, and that of the ass. Besides these ferments, of which we have 
already spoken, still another is to be found, which Spolverini identi- 
fies with the glycolytic ferment of the blood. If the sugar contained 
in a given quantity of fresh milk is determined, and the latter is 
placed in a drying-stove at a temperature of from 38 to 41 G, 
and the quantity of sugar is again determined after a lapse of 
twenty-four hours, it will be found that the quantity of sugar has 
considerably diminished. A portion has been destroyed. This is by 
the action of a glycolytic ferment. This ferment shows itself fairly 
active in cow's milk, but slightly less so in other milks. Moreover, 
in 1901, Luzzati, Boilchini, and Marfan, and in 1902, Gillet, as well 
as Spolverini, separated still another ferment that belongs to the 
family of hydrolytic ferments. Under the influence of this ferment, 
monobutyrin 'resolves itself into butyric acid and glycerin. These 
authors operated by distilling a mixture of milk and monobutyrin, 
and in then determining the acidity of the distilled products. They 
encountered this reaction of splitting up monobutyrin in the milks 
of woman, dog, cow, goat, and ass, stronger in the former, and less 
energetic in the latter. They have agreed upon giving this ferment 
the name of lipase, a name which Bourquelot had given to a ferment 
of the same nature, which Hanriot was the first to discover in the 
blood." 



Am. Jour. Pharni. ) 
April, 1909. j 



Alpha- and Beta-Ionones. 



181 



By these findings it will be seen that cow's milk contains nu- 
merous ferments, and these, have been found, also, in the milk of a 
r mber of mammifers, such as the ass, mare, goat, sheep, sow, buf- 
falo and woman. 

The ferments found in cow's milk are curdling, proteolytic or 
proteid-digesting, amylolytic or carbohydrate-digesting, and hydro- 
lytic or fat-splitting. The quantities of the ferments present are 
small, but when we consider that they are- catalyzers, and exert 
their power over and over again, after the end products have been 
removed from them, that they are probably the source from which 
the growing body gets its natural supply of ferments, and that they 
accumulate within the body, the physiological significance of their 
pre ence in milk becomes apparent. 



ALPHA- AND BETA-IONONES. 1 

By Samuel P. Sadtler. 

The artificial manufacture of both flavoring and odoriferous 
natural principles has long been a problem which has enlisted the 
skill of some of the ablest of organic chemists. A notable achieve- 
ment in this line was the production of artificial vanillin in 1874, by 
Professor Tiemann of the University of Berlin, from the coniferin 
of the pine cones. This new and widely noticed synthetic product 
was shown in the German Chemical Exhibit at the Centennial Ex- 
position in this city in 1876, and I was so fortunate as to get a small 
vial of this exhibit at the time, which I still have as an interesting 
historical specimen. 

The same Professor Tiemann, who had in the meantime suc- 
cessfully launched vanillin in a commercial way, then undertook to 
study the nature of the odoriferous principle of the orris root and 
the violet. After an extensive investigation he succeeded in isolating 
the odoriferous principle " irone," C 13 H 20 O. As thus extracted it 
was very costly and the amount was small. He then undertook the 
preparation of a synthetic compound of the same formula as irone, 
hoping thus to get a similar odoriferous principle. By the condensa- 
tion of citral,C 10 H 16 O,with acetone, C 3 H 6 0,he obtained a compound 



1 Read before the Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, March 2, 1909. 



182 



Alpha- and Beta-Ionones. 



A in. Jour. Pharni. 
April, 1909. 



C 13 H 20 O. This compound, an open chain ketone, was not the same 
as irone and had an odor only slightly recalling that of violet. It 
was moreover unstable and decomposable by alkalies. But he found 
that by the action of dilute acids he could convert it into an isomeric 
ketone, cyclic in structure, which had in the fullest degree the violet 
odor, and in very diluted form served as the basis for artificial violet 
perfumes. The ketone first obtained was called " pseudo-ionone " 
and the second product " ionone." 

His earliest patents for this ionone were taken out in 1893 and 
U. S. Patent 556943 of March 24, 1896, speaks of this product as a 
" fragrant ketone of the formula C 13 H 20 O." 

In 1897, however, apparently independently, Chuit, Naef & Co.. 
of Geneva, called attention to a violet essence, or ionone, of slightly 
different properties, and Tiemann soon announced (Berichte, 1898, p. 
867) that there existed two isomeric and physically different ionones, 
viz., a-ionone and ^-ionone, and that one or the other predominated 
according as the conversion of the pseudo-ionone was effected by 
dilute acids (the method of his 1893 patent) or by concentrated acid 
in the cold. In the 1898 Berichte article Tiemann gives the credit of 
the latter discovery to his French business associate, Edgar DeLaire, 
and it was DeLaire who applied for the U. S. patent November 3, 
1897, and to whom it was issued March 5, 1898. It is claimed, 
however, that a product consisting predominately of ^-ionone (and 
DeLaire'' s product always contains some a-ionone) was marketed by 
Chuit, Naef & Co. in the early part of 1897, and a process substan- 
tially that of Tiemann and DeLaire had been described by Barbier 
and Bouveault in the Bulletin dc la Societe Chimique in 1896. 

Be that as it may, we now have the means of preparing an 
artificial violet characterized by the predominance of either a- or 
/3-ionone and as there is a slight but appreciable difference in the 
violet perfumes made from these two, both are manufactured. 

The most important physical and chemical distinctions between 
the two ionones may thus be stated : 

a-ionone /3-ionone 

Specific gravity at 20 C °-93° °-944 

Boiling point at 11 mm. pressure i23°-i24°C. (10 mm.) i27°-i28°C. 

Boiling point at 17 mm. pressure i34°-i36° C. (18 mm.) 140 C. 

Refractometer Nd 1.498 i-5 21 

Oxime melts at 89°-oo C. oily 

Semicarbazone melts at io7°-io8° C. 148 C. 

/9-bromphenylhydrazone melts at i42°-i45° C. ii5°-ii6° C. 



Am. Jour. Pharni. ") 
April, 1909. j 



Alpha- and Beta-Iononcs. 



183 



From this comparison of physical properties of the two ionones 
and their compounds it will be seen that a perfect separation of the 
two when occurring- in admixture is not an easy task. 

Fractional crystallization of the mixed semicarbazones and 
/?-bromphenylhydrazones has been used and differences of solubility 
of the same, but the methods that are most satisfactory are both 
upon the different behavior of the bisulphite compounds of the two 
ionones. The firm of Haarmann & Reimer, the holders of the Tie- 
mann and DeLaire patent in Germany, published the first of these 
methods, which is to boil the mixture of a- and /^-ionones with a 
concentrated aqueous alkaline bisulphite solution until they both go 
into solution. On distilling the solution with steam, /?-ionone is 
set free from its combination and can be distilled over, while a-ionone 
is only set free after making the solution alkaline with sodium 
hydroxide. 

The other process is that of Chuit, Naef & Co., and depends upon 
the saturation of the mixed bisulphite solutions of the two ionones 
with salt, when the a-ionone compound separates out insoluble in 
the salt solution while the /3-compound remains dissolved. Both 
hydrosulphonates may then be decomposed with alkalies and the 
respective ionones set free. ■ 

The difference in odor between the pure a- and /^-ionones is 
sufficient to enable a person with some little practice not to mistake 
one for the other ; when the oils themselves are smelled, the a-ionone 
is possessed of a sweeter and at the same time more penetrating odor, 
reminding one more of the orris than the /3-ionone, but if a drop 
of each of these products is allowed to evaporate spontaneously on 
a slip of paper, it is noticed that the /?-ionone yields a perfume which 
is quite as strong and which has perhaps more resemblance to the 
true odor of the flower. 

Both the product of the Tiemann patent No. 556943 and the 
DeLaire patent No. 600429 are mixtures, although in the former the 
a-ionone predominates, and in the latter the /3-ionone is the chief 
ingredient. As these mixtures differ from each other in odor, and 
both differ from the pure ionones separated by one of the methods 
mentioned above, it is obvious that the perfumer has a variety of 
slightly different violet perfumes, made possible by varying his 
choice of the basic substance used. 

Violet extract, or violet perfume, as sold, however, always con- 
tains other essential oil extracts, as " adjuncts " or " auxiliaries " to 



1&4 Federal Control of Therapeutic Sera. Mm. jour, pharm. 

L l April, 1909. 

the underlying odoriferous substance. " Intermediaries " or " blend- 
ing agents " are also used and the true final perfume effect often only 
develops after the mixtures have stood for a few days. 

There is no doubt, however, that the ionone synthesis of 
Tiemann has been the most marked advance made in the perfume 
field that we have as yet recorded, and it illustrates well what 
organic research is capable of doing for an important industry. 



FEDERAL CONTROL OF THE MANUFACTURE OF 
THERAPEUTIC SERA. 1 

By John F. Anderson, 
Assistant Director Hygienic Laboratory. 

I wish to speak especially of the practical working of the federal 
control of the manufacture of therapeutic sera as exercised by the 
Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service through the Hygienic 
Laboratory. 

On April I, 1905, the standard unit for determining the strength 
of diphtheria antitoxin in the United States was promulgated ; it was 
approved and included in the Eighth Decennial Revision of the 
Pharmacopoeia. 

The American standard unit for tetanus antitoxin was promul- 
gated October 25, 1907. Before the diphtheria unit was adopted 
most of the manufacturers in this country used the Ehrlich unit, 
which is of the same value as the American unit for the standardiza- 
tion of diphtheria antitoxin ; before the adoption of the standard 
tetanus unit by the Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service there 
were as many different units for measuring the strength of tetanus 
antitoxin as there were producers. 

You may be interested to know how this control is exercised by 
the Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service over the production 
of therapeutic sera. In accordance with an Act of Congress ap- 
proved July 1, 1902, and the regulations framed thereunder, all 
persons or establishments engaged in the manufacture and interstate 
sale of viruses, serums, toxins, and analogous products are required 
to be licensed by the Secretary of the Treasury upon the recom- 



1 Read before the Washington Branch of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, February, 1909. 



Am A^ri9o h 9 arm '[ Federal Control of Therapeutic Sera. 185 

mendation of the Surgeon-General, after a sanitary inspection has 
been made of their establishments, methods, and products. 

An inspector visits the establishment and examines carefully the 
sanitary condition of the buildings, the condition of the animals 
used for the production of the serum, the technic — such as methods 
of bleeding, collecting and storing the serum, and especially the 
methods used in measuring the strength of their product. He sees 
as to the labelling of the product, paying especial attention to the 
date when the serum is labelled to be exchanged. He also takes 
samples of their various products, which are forwarded to the 
Hygienic Laboratory for examination. 

Upon the results of the examination of these samples and his 
inspection of the establishments are based his recommendation for 
or against a license for the particular establishment. 

After a firm has been licensed to engage in the manufacture and 
interstate sale of these products, samples of their products are 
bought at frequent intervals in various parts of the country and 
examined in the laboratory. These samples are examined, first, 
as to labelling; second, as to the potency of the product; third, as 
to sterility and the presence of toxins ; fourth, as to the amount of 
preservative. 

If the samples are found to be deficient in any of the above 
particulars, the matter is at once reported to the Surgeon-General 
who, in the case of a lack of potency, contamination, or excessive 
amount of preservative, requires the manufacturer to withdraw from 
the market that particular lot of serum. This is a comparatively 
easy matter for them to do, as they are required to label each lot of 
serum with a laboratory number and keep records to whom the 
same is sold. 

Since April 1, 1905, many samples of serum have been examined 
in the Hygienic Laboratory, and of this number only a very few 
have been found to be below strength or contain a less number of 
units than labelled, or to have bacterial contamination. 

The great advantage of this strict control over these products to 
the physician, and consequently in the control of the various diseases 
for which they are used, is of course very manifest. 

There is at present no control over the sera for veterinary use. 
We have recently examined in the laboratory some veterinary 
tetanus antitoxins and found them to contain less than 25 units per 
cubic centimetre, whereas the minimum strength of any tetanus 



Habit-Forming Drugs. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1909. 



antitoxin for human use is found to be more than 160 units per 
cubic centimetre. 

Now the physician, when he buys a package of diphtheria or 
tetanus antitoxin labelled to contain iooo or 2000 units, as the case 
may be, can be absolutely sure that his patient will get at least 
that number of units. 

Another result of the control over the manufacture of these sera 
has been a progressive increase in the potency of the sera now 
marketed and as marketed four or five years ago. I should say 
that now the average strength of the diphtheria antitoxin placed 
upon the market is over 600 units, whereas four or five years ago 
the average strength was about 300 units ; and this has been done 
without an increase in cost of the sera to the consumer. 

In conclusion I would say that the tests for potency, freedom 
from bacterial and toxin contamination, and the amount of preserva- 
tive, are necessarily performed upon certain small animals. Without 
the use of physiological tests for the determination of these points 
there would be no way in which we could arrive at any conclusion 
as to the strength of the various sera and their freedom from certain 
toxins, especially those made by the tetanus bacillus. 



EXISTING LAWS REGULATING THE SALE OF HABIT- 
FORMING DRUGS AND THE NECESSITY FOR 
ADDITIONAL LEGISLATION. 1 

By L. F. Kebler, 

Chief, Division of Drugs, Bureau of Chemistry, Department of Agriculture. 

The fact that certain drugs tend to produce pernicious habits 
when improperly used, or used without due circumspection, has 
been^known since the memory of man, but it is only within the last 
few decades that any material legislation has been enacted in this 
country tending to limit, their indiscriminate sale. Habit-forming 
drugs are poisonous. The prime object for enacting laws governing 
the sale of poisons, etc., and restricting their sale to druggists, etc., 
is to inform the public that these agents are not only dangerous to 
life but should be used with the utmost precaution. The main object 



*Read at the second regular meeting of the Washington Branch of the 
A. Ph. A., Jan. 12, 1909. 



Am Jour. Pharm. \ 
April, 1909. j 



Habit-Forming Drugs. 



187 



of this communication is to consider legislation dealing specifically 
with the sale of habit-forming drugs, and therefore laws dealing 
with other features will be considered only incidentally. 

The earliest law at present in force in the United States (to the 
writer's knowledge) restricting the sale of opium was passed in 
1885 in the state of Oregon, and the same law is also effective in 
Alaska. In 1887 a Federal law was enacted forbidding Chinese 
subjects from importing opium into the United States. In time 
additional restrictive legislation was enacted in several states, but 
it was not until about a decade ago that more general interest was 
manifest in protecting the public against the indiscriminate use of 
these baneful agents. With one exception every state and territory 
in the Union has on its statute books some law, however limited 
or circumscribed, governing the sale of certain habit-forming drugs. 
The Federal Food and Drugs Act and state laws similar to the 
Federal law are undoubtedly considered mild restrictive measures 
and contemplate a diminution of the use of certain drugs. These 
laws have undoubtedly accomplished much good, but it is well 
known that in some cases where no specific state legislation exists 
against the indiscriminate selling of cocaine, morphine, opium and 
certain other life-wrecking remedies, habitues seek out for their 
use those products which contain the greatest amounts of the desired 
drugs. Fortunately, however, a goodly number of state laws forbid 
the sale of cocaine, morphine, opium, etc., or any of their salts or 
preparations containing any of the foregoing substances except upon 
original prescriptions of legally qualified physicians. Some of these 
laws exempt preparations containing less than given quantities of 
cocaine, morphine, opium, etc., their salts and derivatives, and, with 
certain restrictions, liniments, ointments, diarrhoea mixtures, etc., 
containing same, but a number of states do not possess any specific 
restrictive measures whatever. In order that existing conditions may 
be clearly realized a brief resume will be here given of the Federal, 
state and territorial laws. 

FEDERAL LAWS. 

The importation of opium by Chinese subjects into the United 
States was prohibited in 1887, and the traffic of opium in China and 
certain Pacific islands by citizens of the United States was for- 
bidden in 1902. The high duty of $6 per pound placed upon smok- 
ing opium and opium containing less than 9 per cent, of morphine 



i88 



Ha bit-Forming D rugs . 



fAm. Jour. Pharm. 
( April, 1909. 



by the tariff law of 1897 probably also serves as a restrictive measure 
to the consumption of these products, which appear to be used only 
for improper purposes. The Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906, 
restricts, by information, the sale and use of certain habit-forming 
drugs, their derivatives and preparations, by requiring the quantity 
or proportion present to be declared upon the label. The restrictions 
relative to imported products, however, are more stringent, in that 
this law forbids entry not only to drugs adulterated or misbranded 
within the meaning of this Act but, in addition, forbids entry to a 
drug which is " dangerous to the health of the people of the United 
States or is of a kind forbidden entry into, or forbidden to be sold 
or restricted in sale in the country in which it is made or from 
which it is exported, or is otherwise falsely labelled in any respect, 
. . From this clause it is clearly evident that drugs dangerous 

to the health of the people of the United States, or of a character 
forbidden to be sold in or restricted in sale in the countrv of pro- 
duction or exportation, " shall be refused admission " even though 
they comply with the adulteration and misbranding features of the 
Act. It is under this clause that smoking opium is debarred. 

With the exception of the Post Office Appropriation Act which 
forbids the use of any money appropriated thereby for carrying 
through the mails any cocaine or derivative of cocaine for the fiscal 
year beginning July 1, 1908, there is no Act which regulates or 
restricts the shipping direct to the consumer 6*r otherwise, into 
interstate commerce, which is now a common practice, pernicious 
habit-forming drugs. In many cases they are shipped into jurisdic- 
tions where stringent restrictive laws prevail. The state officials 
are helpless. Several bills have been introduced into the present 
Congress for the purpose of restricting such evils. These bills will 
be considered in the latter part of this article. 

STATE AND TERRITORIAL LAWS. 

It will be impossible to consider more than general principles, 
and for this reason if two or more states have the same or similar 
laws a resume of the law will be considered under the first state, or 
the District of Columbia, taken alphabetically, and for other states, 
etc., having similar laws, suitable references will be made together 
with the more important variations. The general headings advise 
what particular features obtain in each jurisdiction. In order to 
save repetition and some space a number of explanatory statements 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1909. 



Hab it-Forming D rugs. 



will be made here : Specific regulations means laws specifically 
restricting the sale of certain habit-forming- drugs; poison regula- 
tions, restrictions contained in poison laws; misbranding regulations, 
the enforced declaration of the quantity or proportion of certain 
agents. In general it is unlawful to sell, furnish, give away or# 
otherwise dispose of, by retail, the drugs, their salts and derivatives, 
enumerated in connection with each state, except upon the prescrip- 
tions of legally qualified physicians, dentists or veterinarians, which 
prescriptions must be dated and can be refilled only upon written 
notice from the original prescriber, and must be kept on file, subject 
to official inspection for varying lengths of time. The name of the 
prescriber and the name and address of the patient are also usually 
required to appear in the prescription. In many states the sale of 
preparations containing considerable amounts of certain habit-form- 
ing drugs is also restricted. As a rule physicians are forbidden to 
prescribe habit-forming drugs to habitues, except in good faith and 
then only to such persons as are under their personal care. 

Alabama (1907). — Specific and poison regulations. Cocaine, eucaine, 
morphine and salts of the preceding. Prescriptions calling for more than 
5 grains cannot be rilled unless prescribed with other drugs. 

Alaska (1885). — Specific, poison and misbranding regulations. Opium 
and preparations of opium. 

Arizona. — Poison and misbranding regulations only. 

Arkansas (1905). — Specific, poison and misbranding regulations. Cocaine, 
morphine, opium, codeine, heroin, their salts, compounds and preparations 
containing same, except preparations containing less than 2 grains to the 
fluidounce. 

California (1907). — Specific, poison and misbranding regulations. Cocaine, 
morphine, opium, codeine, heroin, their salts, compounds and preparations 
containing same, except preparations containing less than 2 grains to the 
fluidounce. 

Colorado. — Similar to Arizona. 

Connecticut (1905). — Specific, poison and misbranding regulations. 
Cocaine, eucaine, their salts and any preparations containing same. The 
misbranding regulation exempts from declaration the amounts of certain 
drugs when present in remedies for external use only. 

Delaware is the only state which does not possess any restrictions what- 
ever to the sale of these drugs. 

District of Columbia (1906). — Specific, poison and misbranding regula- 
tions. Cocaine, morphine, opium, chloral hydrate, their salts and preparations 
containing any of the foregoing. The above restrictions do not apply to 
Dover's powder, not exceeding 20 grains per sale, nor to preparations con- 
taining not more than 2 grains of opium, or grain morphine, or *4 grain 
of cocaine, or 2 grains of chloral hydrate to the fluid- or avoirdupois ounce ; 



190 Habit-Forming Drugs. { Km 'I^^ m ' 

nor to opium preparations sold in good faith for diarrhoea and cholera when 
accompanied by a caution label against habitual use ; nor to liniments or 
ointments when plainly marked " for external use." 

Florida (1903). — Specific, poison and misbranding regulations. Cocaine 
and its salts. (1881) Morphine sulphate is required to be labelled with a 
scarlet label. 

Georgia (1907). — Similar to the District of Columbia with the following 
differences : Includes heroin, the eucaines, their salts and compounds ; excepts 
Dover's powder unconditionally, and preparations containing not more than 
4 grains of opium, or 1 grain of morphine, or J4 grain of heroin, or % grain 
alpha- or beta-eucaine, or more than 20 grains of chloral hydrate in the fluid- 
or avoirdupois ounce. The law of 1887 permitted the sale of opium and its 
preparations containing more than 2 grains to the ounce, on prescription only, 
to habitues after receiving instructions in writing from a near relative that 
such person is addicted to the use of the drug. (1884) Morphine salts must 
be wrapped in scarlet paper with white letters. 

Hawaii (1896). — Similar to Alaska. Contains misbranding regulation. 

Idaho. — Poison regulations only. 

Illinois (1903). — Similar to Arkansas except does not contain misbrand- 
ing regulation. 

Indiana (1907). — Specific, poison and misbranding regulations. Cocaine, 
morphine and opium. 

Iozva (1907). — Specific, poison and misbranding regulations. Cocaine, 
eucaine, coca (Erythroxylon Coca), their derivatives and preparations con- 
taining any of the foregoing. 

Kansas (1901). — Specific, poison and misbranding regulations. Cocaine, 
morphine and chloral hydrate. 

Kentucky (1902). — Similar to Florida excepting scarlet wrapper. 

Louisiana (1908). — Specific, poison and misbranding regulations. Cocaine, 
" crown " or any concoction in which cocaine is the principal ingredient. 
This state also has a regulation which prohibits the sale of opium, cocaine 
and their derivatives (excepting paregoric), and chloral hydrate, in any form 
except to pharmacists, physicians, dentists and veterinary surgeons. Another 
regulation, however, forbids the refilling of prescriptions containing these 
drugs, which gives the impression that prescriptions containing same may 
be filled. 

Maine (1889). — Same as Florida. 

Maryland (1906). — Similar to the law of the District of Columbia, with 
the following differences and exceptions : No misbranding regulations ; 
includes heroin and the eucaines, their salts and compounds. The restrictions, 
however, do not apply to Dover's powder, paregoric, laudanum, or to bonafide 
proprietary medicines containing codeine, or preparations containing not more 
than */« grain morphine or y A grain heroin, or 10 grains of chloral hydrate 
to the fluid- or avoirdupois ounce. 

Massachusetts (1908). — Specific and poison regulations. It is unlawful 
for any person, firm or corporation to sell, exchange, deliver, have in his 
possession or custody with intent to sell, exchange, deliver or give away any 
cocaine, eucaine, their salts, or any synthetic substitute for the aforesaid or 



Am. Jour. Pharui. ) 
April, 1909. ]" 



Habit -Forming Drugs. 



any preparation containing same. It is unlawful for any person, firm or 
corporation to manufacture any catarrh remedy or patent or proprietary 
preparation containing cocaine or eucaine or any synthetic substitute. 

Michigan (1907). — Specific and poison regulations. Cocaine, morphine, 
eucaine, their salts and derivatives. The law of 1905 exempts morphine in 
pill and tablet form when sold in quantities not less than % ounce original 
packages, but the law of 1907 exempts " morphine " itself when sold in not 
less than the above quantity in original packages. 

Minnesota (1905). — Similar to Florida, except misbranding regulation. 

Mississippi (1900).— Similar to Florida, except misbranding regulation. 
The law of 1886 requires a scarlet wrapper with white letters for cocaine, 
morphine and their salts. 

Missouri (1905). — Similar to Arkansas. 

Montana. — Similar to Idaho. 

Nebraska (1905). — Similar to Florida, except scarlet wrapper. 
Nevada. — Similar to Idaho. 

New Hampshire (1907). — Misbranding regulations. The poison schedule 
covers only arsenic, corrosive sublimate, mix vomica, strychnine and prussic 
acid. 

New Jersey (1908). — Specific, poison and misbranding regulations. 
Cocaine, alpha- or beta-eucaine, their salts and any preparation containing 
any of the foregoing, morphine, opium, codeine, chloral hydrate, or any 
derivative of chloral hydrate. The New Jersey law contains several excellent 
features which deserve particular mention. In the first place, it forbids 
the bringing into the state of any substance or mixture of substances which 
shall be purchased or otherwise obtained contrary to the laws of such state. 
It also requires that the " wholesale dealer or registered druggist shall, 
before delivering any of said articles, make or cause to be made in a book 
kept for that purpose, an entry of the sale thereof, stating the date of the 
sale, the quantity, name and form in which sold, the name and address of 
the person purchasing the same and by whom the entry is made, and the 
said book shall be always open for inspection by the proper authorities, and 
shall be preserved for at least five years after the date of the last entry made 
therein." 

New Mexico (1897). — Similar to Arizona. 

New York (1907). — Specific and poison regulations. Cocaine, eucaine, 
their salts and preparations containing same. The law also requires that 
" each manufacturer and each wholesale dealer in drugs shall, before the 
delivery or at the time of the receipt, as the case may be, of any such drug, 
enter or cause to be entered in a book kept by them respectively for that 
purpose a record of the purchase and sale of such drug, stating the date 
of purchase and the name and address of the person from whom purchased ; 
the date of sale and the name and address of the person to whom sold ; 
the quantity, name and form in which sold and a description of the package 
or container in which sold and how sealed, and there shall also be entered 
in such book at the place of such record a statement that such drug was 
sold or purchased, as the case may be, in the original package ; that the 
seals thereon were undamaged and unbroken, and the labels were attached 



192 



Habit-Forming Drugs. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1909. 



thereto as herein provided and were not in any manner defaced or damaged, 
which statement shall be signed by the person selling such drug and the 
person purchasing such drug in the books herein required to be kept by 
them respectively." 

North Carolina (1907). — Similar to the District of Columbia law, includ- 
ing, however, eucaine, but exempting chloral hydrate. Certain differences 
also exist, namely, the exemption of Dover's powder, unconditionally, and 
preparations containing not more than J /$ grain of cocaine, or l /$ grain 
eucaine, or *4 grain heroin to the fluid- or avoirdupois ounce. The law of 
this state contains the peculiar proviso that a druggist may sell these 
products to habitues personally known to him, although physicians are 
apparently forbidden to write prescriptions for habitues. It is interesting 
to note also that the law of 1905 exempts sales of laudanum and paregoric 
or other preparations containing not more than 30 per cent, of cocaine, 
morphine or opium. 

North Dakota (1907). — Similar to Florida, except scarlet wrapper. 

Ohio (1902 and 1908). — Specific, poison and' misbranding regulations. 
Cocaine or its salts or any preparation containing any of the foregoing ; 
morphine or its salts or any opium alkaloids or their salts; morphine sulphate, 
however, may be retailed when sold in not less than ^ ounce original 
packages. 

Oklahoma (1897). — Similar to Arizona. 

Oregon (1885). — Specific and poison regulations. Cocaine, opium, 
morphine, eng-she, or cooked opium, and chloral hydrate may be sold on 
pharmacist's prescription. 

Pennsylvania (1903). — Similar to Arkansas; no misbranding regulation. 

Philippine Islands (1907). — Specific, poison and misbranding regulations. 
All imported opium shall be delivered by the custom authorities to the 
Collector of Internal Revenue who shall supervise its distribution. " Every 
dispenser of opium, pharmacist, and second class pharmacist, shall keep a 
book in which he shall enter, in Spanish and English, the full quantity of 
opium received by him from every source, the date on which the same was 
received, the person from whom received, the price thereof, the date and 
hour of each and every sale or delivery made by him, the quantity and kind 
of opium sold or delivered by him, the name and authorization of the person 
purchasing or receiving the same, the quantity and kind of opium transferred 
on permit, the date of such transfer, the name and address of the person to 
whom transferred, together with the number of the permit for withdrawal 
or removal, and such other information as may be prescribed by the Collector 
of Internal Revenue." It is also unlawful to be in possession of any cocaine, 
opium or eucaine, their derivatives or any preparation containing same, 
except when duly licensed and then only for medicinal purposes. It is also 
unlawful, excepting duly licensed persons, to be in possession of " any pipes, 
hypodermic syringes, and apparatus or paraphernalia for smoking or using 
opium " in any manner. Possession of any of the above " shall be deemed 
prima facie evidence " of violation of the law, unless the person is duly 
licensed or is in possession of a bonafide prescription. 

Porto Rico. — Misbranding regulation only. 



Am. Jour. Phatm. 
April, 1909. 



Habit-Forming Drugs. 



193 



Rhode Island (1906). — Similar to the District of Columbia law but also 
covers heroin and the eucaines, their salts and compounds. The law also 
provides for the following differences and exemptions : exempts preparations 
containing not more than 6 grains of opium, or 1 / x6 grain cocaine in the fluid- 
or avoirdupois ounce. Dover's powder is not exempt. 

South Carolina (1907). — Similar to Florida, except scarlet wrapper. 

South Dakota. — Similar to Arizona. 

Tennessee (1901). — Similar to Arkansas. 

Texas (1905).— Similar to District of Columbia with certain slight differ- 
ences, namely, preparations are exempted which do not contain more than 
Vie grain of cocaine, or J /s grain of morphine to the fluid- or avoirdupois 
ounce. Dover's powder is not exempted. 

Utah (1907). — Similar to Arkansas. Opium cannot be sold or given to 
persons under eighteen years of age. 

Vermont. — Similar to Arizona. 

Virginia (1908). — Similar to District of Columbia but markedly different. 
Does not include chloral hydrate. The selling of cocaine, the eucaines, or any 
mixture containing the same, except on prescription, is a felony. Any person 
not duly authorized by the Act who shall have " in his possession cocaine, 
or alpha- or beta-eucaine, or any mixture of either with intent to sell (at 
retail), give away or otherwise dispense the same, he shall be deemed guilty 
of a felony." It is also unlawful to sell, furnish, or give away " any 
morphine, heroin, opium and preparations thereof containing a higher per- 
centage of morphine than tincture of opium of the strength ordered by the 
United States Pharmacopoeia, or any salt or compound of the foregoing 
substances," except on prescription. The above, however, does not apply to 
preparations containing not more than J/3 grain morphine, or *4 grain heroin 
to the fluid- or avoirdupois ounce. Dover's powder is exempted uncon- 
ditionally. 

Washington. — Similar to Arizona. 

West Virginia (1907). — Similar to the District of Columbia with certain 
additions and different exceptions. Includes heroin, the eucaines, their salts 
and preparations. Exempts Dover's powder unconditionally, and preparations 
containing not more than % grain cocaine, l /s grain eucaine, 10 grains chloral 
hydrate, grain heroin, or 2 grains codeine in a fluid- or troy ounce. 

Wisconsin (1906). — Similar to the District of Columbia with certain 
additions and differences. Contains no misbranding regulation. Includes 
heroin, the eucaines, their salts and preparations. Dover's powder is not 
exempt. Other different and additional exemptions are preparations con- 
taining not more than % grain of cocaine, % grain of the eucaines, % grain 
of heroin, or 10 grains chloral hydrate in the fluid- or avoirdupois ounce. 

Wyoming (1903). — Specific and poison regulations. Cocaine, opium and 
chloral hydrate, derivatives and preparations containing same. 

It requires but a casual perusal of the above resume to be con- 
vinced that many of the states and some of the territories have 
excellent laws which, if properly enforced and strengthened as time 



194 



Habit-Forming Drugs. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1909. 



requires, will ultimately stamp out drug addictions. It must also 
be stated that some of the state officials are laboring strenuously to 
enforce these laws and are doing much toward eradicating the curse, 
but there are several features beyond their control to which attention 
will now be directed. 

The laws of one state are unable to reach parties sending habit- 
forming drugs into its borders from another jurisdiction, although 
the jurisdiction from which the drugs are sent may prohibit the 
selling, locally, of similar drugs. For example, the sale of cocaine 
is prohibited in the state of Maryland excepting on physician's pre- 
scription, but this does not prevent a party in Maryland from ship- 
ping cocaine into the District of Columbia, where a similar law 
prevails, to the consumer, peddler, or any other irresponsible party ; 
in fact this is now not an uncommon practice. I was informed some 
time ago that a certain wholesale druggist in an adjacent state was 
shipping a cocaine-laden catarrh powder to an habitue in the District 
of Columbia. Steps were immediately taken to determine whether 
or not this representation was correct, and as an evidence of the 
correctness of the statement I have here one of the three packages 
actually sent to a supposed drug habitue. 

Here I have a cocaine preparation intended for the treatment of 
the tobacco habit, placed on the market by an M.D., as is plainly 
shown by the label. Think of treating the tobacco habit by means 
of a cocaine product ! Here I have one of the many drug-addiction 
cures containing 24 grains of morphine to the ounce. Here we have 
the scriptural 99 saved extending aid to the one lost. The product 
contains 7 grains of morphine sulphate to the ounce, and is supplied 
by a Chicago druggist. This " Asthma, Whooping-Cough, Etc." 
preparation contains no grains of chloral hydrate to the ounce, a 
most pernicious mixture, sent directly into the home without any 
indication whatever respecting its deadly nature. A teaspoonful 
may send a child to eternity. A number of other samples contain- 
ing habit-forming drugs were exhibited, for example, an asthma 
preparation containing cocaine, a teething-syrup containing the 
same insidious drug, a morphine-bearing " Infant's Friend," etc. 

The above are only a few of the many instances which we have 
on record showing in what manner the District and state laws are 
violated daily for want of a satisfactory Federal law regulating the 
shipment into interstate commerce of these pernicious products. 

During the first session of the 60th Congress several bills were 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, 1909. J 



Habit-Forming Drugs. 



195 



introduced, the object of which is to provide for some regulation. 
During the second session of the same Congress two other bills were 
introduced, for the purpose of controlling the importation of various 
forms of opium. The Gallinger Bill, S. 4892, forbids the importa- 
tion of all forms of opium and compositions containing any opium, 
excepting by duly appointed government officials who are also 
charged with the final disposition of the opium. A similar but much 
more stringent law, covering not only the above products but cocaine 
and the eucaines as well, was enacted by Congress in 1907 for the 
Philippine Islands. If this law is properly executed the illegitimate 
use of opium, cocaine and the eucaines will be short-lived. It was 
thought by many that the Gallinger Bill would meet with severe 
opposition, yet the belief prevailed that this country was in need of 
a Federal antinarcotic law drafted along the lines of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association's model antinarcotic law. The principles 
of this model law are embodied in the two Mann bills, one, H.R. 
19240, introduced by request March 13, 1908, and the other, H.R. 
21982, introduced May 12, 1908. In fact, these bills are modifica- 
tions of the District of Columbia antinarcotic law passed by the 
United States Congress in 1906, modified so as to be applicable to 
importations, interstate commerce and territorial transactions. The 
law also limits the amounts of certain prescribed drugs which may 
be called for in a single prescription. Each of the bills also contains 
a poison label section, a feature which has been in existence in most 
of the states for many years. The bill has been severely criticized 
by a number of interests. 

It is estimated that 150,000 ounces of cocaine hydrochloride is 
used yearly in the United States. Of this quantity it is estimated 
that at least one-half is employed for improper purposes. It is also 
estimated that over one-half of the amount of opium and morphine 
imported into the United States is used illegally. 

During the first eight years of the present decade beginning with 
the year 1900, the average amount of crude opium imported into 
the United States was 8,027,792 ounces per year, of smoking opium 
the average per year was 2.431,104 ounces, and of morphine and its 
salts 21,731 ounces. These data should certainly be sufficient to 
warrant some activity along the line of regulating the sales of these 
pernicious, life-wrecking agents and preparations containing same. 



196 



Centenary of Charles Darwin. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 April, 1909. 



THE CENTENARY OF CHARLES DARWIN. 1 

By Henry Kraemer. 

It is not my purpose to take the time of the meeting by attempt- 
ing to give a resume of the work of Charles Darwin or an estimate 
of the influence and character of this savant of the nineteenth 
century, the centenary of whose birth is being celebrated throughout 
the civilized world at this time. 2 I think, however, that it is but fit- 
ting for a professor of natural science of this college to place on 
record a minute that we, in this centenary year, paused along with 
other scientists, and paid our tribute of praise and gratitude to this 
liberator of thought. 

Darwin was the author of something over twenty books and 
nearly one hundred papers, about one-third of his writings being on 
botanical subjects. It was his book, " The Origin of Species by 
Means of Natural Selection," published on November 24, 1859, 
which was his epoch-making work, freeing us, as it did, from the 
shackles of the past, or, in other words, freeing us from the necessity 
of considering the supernatural in our study of the biological 
sciences. While this is true, it is probably safe to say that apart 
from his masterful deductions his other most enduring contribution 
to science lies in the impetus given to scientific research by his 
comprehensiveness of vision, his ability to study natural phenomena 
at first hand, to discriminate between facts and opinions, and finally 
to connect facts in an orderly sequence. In short, it is the Darwinian 
method which has proved to be such a boon in scientific research. 

Darwin furnished a conspicuous example of the law of heredity 
for which he claimed so much. His grandfather on his paternal side 
was Dr. Erasmus Darwin, a poet and philosopher, his name being 
often coupled with that of Lamarck, as an early evolutionist ; and 
on his mother's side his grandfather was Josiah Wedgwood, the 
inventor of wedgwood-ware, formerly used much in making mortars 
for the use of apothecaries. His father, Robert Waring Darwin, 
F.R.S., was an eminent physician, and it was his desire that Charles 
should likewise study medicine. Accordingly, in 1825, he was sent 
to Edinburgh, where, he says, he found the lectures on geology rand 

1 Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, held February 16, 1909. 

a Charles (Robert) Darwin was born February 12, 1809, at Shrewsbury 
(England) . 



Am \prii r 'i909 arm "} Centenary of Charles Darwin. 197 

zoology incredibly dull, although he was at that time engaged in 
collecting and studying mineral and zoological specimens, and 
although he afterwards attained such eminence in each of these 
sciences. Darwin's father, learning that he did not like the study 
of medicine, decided that he should fit himself to be a clergyman, 
and thus after two years at Edinburgh he was sent to Christ's 
College, Cambridge. Here he attracted the attention of Professor 
Henslow, the mineralogist and botanist, who became his " dearest 
friend," directed him in his natural history studies, and aroused in 
him that enthusiasm which characterized the remainder of his career 
as a scientist. 

Through the reading of Humboldt's " Personal Narrative " 
Darwin acquired a desire to travel, and this opportunity soon offered 
itself. Professor Henslow not only used his influence in securing 
for him the privilege of going on the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle 
as naturalist under Captain Fitz-Roy on a surveying tour round 
the world, but strongly advised him to do so. The voyage lasted 
from December 27, 183 1, to October 2, 1836, nearly five years, and 
it was on this trip that Darwin collected so much of the material 
that formed the basis of his future work in geology, zoology, and 
botany. He described carefully his observations each day in his 
famous Journal of the Voyage, and altogether it is no wonder that 
Darwin looked upon this voyage as the most important event in his 
life and as one that determined his whole career. 

Then, for more than twenty years he experimented, and pondered 
on his observations and those of others, before giving his final 
conclusion to the world. This was his theory of natural selection 
as a factor in organic evolution, and his discussion of this subject was 
set forth, as already pointed out, in his " Origin of Species." Darwin 
takes as his starting point the fact that in the lives of organic beings 
there is a struggle for existence, and that those which survive in 
this struggle are those possessing some favorable qualities. These 
qualities arise or originate as slight variations or modifications, 
which are transmitted through inheritance, and preserved and 
accumulated through natural selection. That is, favorable variations 
give the organism an advantage, and it survives and they are pre- 
served or perpetuated. Thus, through gradual modification in the 
course of time new varieties and species come to be recugnized 

Darwin felt that if natural selection was one of the factors in 
evolution, light would be thrown on the subject by careful studies 



198 Centenary of Charles Darwin. {^ApXim™' 

on plants and animals under domestication, and his observations, 
together with those of others on the marked improvement brought 
about by man's selection, confirmed him in this view. To this topic 
alone he devoted two volumes under the title " Variation of Animals 
and Plants Under Domestication." 

In enunciating his doctrine of natural selection, or the Survival 
of the Fittest, as Herbert Spencer termed it, Darwin was strongly 
assailed on all sides, even by naturalists and scientists themselves, as 
up until that time the majority of naturalists believed that species 
were fixed and distinct creations, not even Lyell or Hooker having 
previously considered that species were mutable. Fortunately, he 
was supported by Alfred Russell Wallace who had simultaneously 
arrived at the same conclusion, Huxley, Asa Gray, Hooker, Spencer, 
and others. To-day we have neo-Darwinians, Lamarckians, neo- 
Lamarckians, mutationists, Weismannians and Mendelians, and so 
on, — all battering away at Darwin's doctrines of heredity and evolu- 
tion, but these doctrines bid fair to stand for an indefinite period. 

It is not too much to say that Darwin's work has formed the 
basis of a newer geology, botany and zoology. His book on the 
" Descent of Man " has been the basis in the development of 
anthropology ; while his book on il The Expression of the Emotions 
in Man and Animals " has made a rational psychology possible, and 
the celebrated geologist, Geikie, said, " No man of his time exercised 
upon the science of geology a profounder influence than Charles 
Darwin." 

Darwin touched life at every point. Like Aristotle, he believed 
that the essence of a living thing is not what it is made of, nor what 
it does, but why it does it. His love of science was great, as he twice 
states in his Autobiography. In addition to this, his ambition was 
to be esteemed by fellow naturalists like Lyell and Hooker, caring 
nothing for public applause, although pleased if his works were 
understood or appreciated. Twenty per cent, of his life was made 
up of years of illness, and he conserved his time so that no moment 
was wasted. Poulton has recently suggested that it was largely 
because of the relatively few hours a day that he could work, he gave 
up his interest in poetry, music and art in later life. 

He attached relatively little importance to priority of discovery, 
and said of some of his fundamental discoveries which had given 
him great satisfaction, and which were subsequently worked out 
more fully, that if he failed to impress his readers he who succeeds in 



^aSmX™*} Centenary of Charles Darwin. 199 

doing so deserves all the credit. His generous treatment of the 
writings and observations of others, whether published or simply in 
letters, was proverbial. It is true, he made some mistakes, which 
he apparently knew better than others, and in a letter to Huxley 
on one occasion, said, " I have sometimes amused myself with 
thinking how I could best pitch into myself, and I believe I could 
give two or three good digs.'' Darwin was not a controversialist, 
being advised as he said by Lyell, " never to get entangled in a 
controversy, as it rarely did any good and caused a miserable loss 
of time and temper." 

If one wishes to spend a few hours profitably, one cannot do 
better than to read " The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin," 
including an autobiographical chapter, by his son Francis Darwin. 

And if one desires to get some idea of the physiognomy of Dar- 
win, let him go to the American Museum of Xatural History in Xew 
York, where there was unveiled, last Friday (February 12th), a 
bronze bust of him, which is clever in conception and in execution. 
I shall never forget, as I saw the canvas removed, the impression 
I first received, as it seemed that I could think of nothing but Mount 
Shasta. The eyes, overarched with the prominent brows, seem as 
if they could look into the noon-day sun and penetrate its secrets ; 
the nose and lips both indicate strong character, yet tempered with 
kindliness, and the massive wrinkled brow also adds to the distinc- 
tion of this master mind of the nineteenth century. 

It is a matter of pride that in the city of Philadelphia the epoch- 
making work of Charles Darwin first received official recognition, 
and it is also a matter of congratulation that in America he immedi- 
ately found some of his most ardent friends and supporters. 



200 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Km 'A^\'^ vm ' 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

FEBRUARY PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The stated pharmaceutical meeting of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy was held Tuesday, February 16, at 3 o'clock, with 
Prof. Joseph P. Remington in the chair. Interest in the meeting 
was heightened by the presence of Caswell A. Mayo, editor of the 
American Druggist, and of Otto Raubenheimer, the Brooklyn 
chemist and pharmacist. 

Mr. Mayo was the first speaker on the program and gave an 
instructive address on " The Use of Ampuls in the Preservation and 
Dispensing of Hypodermic Solutions," which will appear in a 
subsequent issue of the Journal. All of the processes involved in 
the making, filling, and sterilizing of ampuls was amply demon- 
strated, not only by means of apparatus which the speaker had 
fitted up, but also by the use of apparatus and products furnished by 
manufacturers of ampuls at home and abroad. 

In reply to the question as to whether ampuls would become 
popular with American physicians, Mr. Mayo said that this was 
somewhat problematical, for the reason that American physicians 
are not in the habit of administering medicines themselves, as is 
customary in France and Italy in the use of ampuls. 

Professor Remington said that he supposed they would find 
more use in army practice, as instanced by Mr. Mayo in the use of 
ampuls of quinine by the Italian Army, or in hospitals, where the 
hypodermic injections could be made by nurses. 

Mr. Raubenheimer read an interesting paper having the title, 
" History of the Medicinal Earths and Cataplasma Kaolini," by Dr. 
Hermann Schelenz, a German Apotheker, of Cassel, which he had 
translated from the German (see March number of Am. Jour. 
Pharm., p. 111). Before reading the paper Mr. Raubenheimer 
called attention to a copy of the " History of Pharmacy," by 
Schelenz (see March number of Am. Jour. Pharm., p. 151). 

In reply to a query by Mr. Franklin M. Apple as to whether the 
virtues of cataplasm of kaolin were not due to the glycerin, Mr. 
Mayo referred to a statement by Mr. A. M. Roehrig to the effect 
that he formerly knew a physician in Nebraska, who sometimes 
prescribed a mixture of Fuller's earth, glycerin, and laudanum. 
This mixture was used in the Civil War, and when the other in- 
gredients were not obtainable blue clay alone was used. 



Am Ap?S r 'i909 arm '} Philadelphia. College of Pharmacy. 201 

Mr. Raubenheimer said that, as already mentioned in his paper, 
references to the medicinal virtues of clay could be traced back to 
the writings of Dioscorides. 

Mr. George M. Beringer stated that the British Pharmaceutical 
Codex had increased the percentage of glycerin in the cataplasm of 
kaolin, and said that a practical difficulty was thus introduced, in 
that a smeary mixture resulted. 

Professor Remington, in commenting on the paper, said he did 
not imagine that a clay poultice could form the subject of such a 
classical paper. He said that the principal difficulty in making the 
cataplasm of kaolin was that of getting kaolin having uniform 
absorptive property, and that it was not a question of the proportion 
of the different components, as in one instance the product Would 
be crumbly and in another more or less liquid. He therefore 
claimed that there should be a test to determine the relative glycerin- 
absorption power of the kaolin, or a purity rubric for kaolin. 

Prof. Henry Kraemer read a paper on <e The Centenary of 
Charles Darwin" (see p. 196). 

Prof. E. Fullerton Cook followed with some notes on " Drug 
Store Conveniences," which will be published in a later issue of the 
Journal. In this connection he exhibited a vapor-alcohol stove 
which has the advantage of giving a sustained moderate heat in the 
presence of draughts and is thus adapted for those operations where 
a comparatively low temperature is required. 

A cordial vote of thanks was tendered the speakers of the after- 
noon. 

MARCH PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The stated pharmaceutical meeting was held Tuesday, March 
16, with George M. Beringer, a member of the Board of Trustees, 
presiding. 

Joseph W. England read a brief paper giving a review of the 
literature relating to the "Enzymes of Cow's Milk" (see p. 177). 
In commenting upon the paper Prof. Chas. H. LaWall said that 
he had been conducting some experiments with reference to the 
enzymes in condensed milks, and found that they, particularly those 
condensed in vacuo, gave a positive reaction with Dupouy's test and 
a negative one with the Wilkinson and Peters method, which showed 
that an intermediate temperature had been employed in their prepara- 
tion. Mr. Beringer remarked that the manufacturers are beginning 
to take cognizance of the presence of the enzymes in milk. 



202 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am A JS, ri 1 ^ rm " 

Prof. Henry Kraemer gave a talk and demonstration on methods 
of disinfection and the technic employed in the examination of 
sputum for tubercle bacilli. Professor Kraemer first called atten- 
tion to the fact that the work of disinfection alone in infectious 
diseases is, as stated by Dr. Lawrence F. Flick, a very extensive 
project, and he said that druggists are not only asked to co-operate 
with boards of health and physicians in private practice in carrying 
out this work, but that their training and knowledge of chemistry 
especially qualify them to do so. He stated that there are four 
degrees of temperature which are to be considered in relation to 
micro-organisms, namely, (i) a zero temperature, at which the 
organisms are inactive; (2) a temperature of 25 — 40 C, at which 
they manifest growth or activity; (3) a temperature of 8o°-ioo° C, 
at which the organisms are killed; and (4) a temperature of 
iio°-I20° C. which is required to kill the spores; and that there 
are likewise four degrees of concentration of chemicals which should 
be borne in mind in practical work: (1) very weak solutions, which 
do not affect the organisms; (2) slightly stronger solutions, which 
stimulate growth; (3) solutions which kill the organisms but do 
not affect the spores ; and (4) still stronger solutions which kill the 
spores. The last degree of concentration of a chemical mentioned, 
as well as a temperature of no°-i20° C, is classed as a germicide, 
while a temperature of 8o°-ioo° C. and a concentration of a 
chemical solution sufficient to kill the organisms only are classed as 
antiseptics. For this reason, it was pointed out that all work of 
disinfection by means of chemicals, whether of rooms and dwellings, 
clothing and other articles, or of excreta, should be carried out 
quantitatively, and that it should be carried on by those having a 
knowledge of the subject, there being not only a difference in the 
toxic power of different chemicals, but also a marked difference in 
the degree of resistance of different micro-organisms. In speaking 
of the disinfection of rooms and dwellings the use of formaldehyde 
was recommended, and the method of generating the gas from 
formaldehyde solution and potassium permanganate demonstrated. 
The necessity of having a moist atmosphere during the generation 
of the gases in disinfection was emphasized, and the statement 
made that it is usually necessary to make special provision for insur- 
ing the necessary degree of humidity, which should be near the 
point of saturation. 

After describing the tubercle bacillus and giving the methods for 



Am Aprii^iS?™' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 203 

its detection, Professor Kraemer exhibited forms of containers used 
in collecting samples of sputum, to which a 5 per cent, solution of 
carbolic acid should be added. 

In discussing the subject of disinfection, Mr. Beringer also spoke 
of the importance of the presence of moisture, and said that in the 
generation of formaldehyde from the solution, it polymerizes unless 
there is a sufficient supply of moisture. Mr. England spoke of the 
opportuneness of the demonstration, and referred to the work which 
is being carried on by Dr. Rosenberger, of Jefferson Medical College, 
for the detection of tubercle bacilli in blood. 

A discussion on formulas for medicines which may be dispensed 
by pharmacists, devised according to the plan suggested by Dr. 
McCormack and Dr. Wiley (see Am. Jour. Pharm., Feb., 1909, 
p. 56), was opened by George M. Beringer, who said that the propo- 
sition is one which affects every pharmacist, especially those having 
the ethics of pharmacy at heart, and that it is one which appeals to 
the pharmacist from the ideal point of view, but that when it comes 
to the practical consideration of it a number of difficulties present 
themselves. In illustration, he presented the question as to who 
will decide what a minor ailment is, and said that a cold may be 
the signal of pneumonia, and a headache the forerunner of typhoid 
fever. He, moreover, felt that druggists should not have this 
responsibility, and was of the opinion that physicians would not like 
to have druggists assume responsibility in the early stages of disease. 
In this connection he stated that druggists already answer calls for 
diarrhoea mixtures, cough medicines, and similar preparations. Then, 
alluding to the subject of patent medicines, he said that druggists 
should not encourage their sale, and referred to a suggestion made 
by him in a paper presented to the New Jersey Pharmaceutical 
Association a few years ago, that before medicines are advertised 
in the papers the formulas should be submitted to some authority 
for criticism. 

The discussion was also participated in by the following : Warren 
H. Poley, Henry C. Blair, W. L. Cliffe, C. B. Lowe, F. M. Apple, 
William E. Lee, John K. Thum, and Henry Kraemer, and the 
consensus of opinion of the retail druggists was that the plan pro- 
posed did not appear practicable at the present time. It was brought 
out that the custom generally approved by retail druggists, is to 
supply such medicines as are called for, except in cases where inquiry 
shows that their use would be inadvisable, and that in all cases 



204 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Km '^\'vm Tm ' 

where it seems at all necessary the patients are advised to consult a 
physician, an attempt at diagnosis not being approved. Moreover, 
the feeling seemed to be that while druggists do not approve of the 
use of patent medicines they are justified in selling them so long 
as physicians prescribe them and that, therefore, the elimination of 
this class of remedies depends upon the physician, on the one hand, 
and upon the education of the public, on the other. 

Mr. Blair quoted figures to show that there has been a marked 
falling off in the sale of patent medicines the last year or so, but 
stated that there are indications that strong efforts will be put forth 
to revive the business in this line. 

Professor Kraemer said that druggists should share in the work 
of educating the public, and that if they were not in a position to 
refuse entirely to sell nostrums, they should discourage their use at 
every opportunity. He took the position that they should at least 
refuse to sell patent medicines advertised as consumption remedies, 
and said that he hoped the question of the Government's granting 
serial numbers to this class of medicines would be taken up for 
discussion. 

Mr. Poley spoke of the difficulty of overcoming the influence of 
those advertisements of patent medicines which appear in the news- 
papers as reading matter. 

A communication bearing on this subject was received from 
M. I. Wilbert, who after referring to the awakening of the public 
in regard to food preservatives, writes as follows : 

. " Pretty much the same conditions will soon prevail in regard 
to proprietary medicines and nostrums and it would be well for the 
retail druggists of this country to take cognizance of this possibility 
and to shape their business so that when the people of this country 
awake to a proper appreciation of the injustice that has been done 
them they will not be likely to place the blame on the least interested 
beneficiary of the sale of nostrums. In a lecture delivered in this 
college recently (Am. Jour. Pharm., February, 1909, p. 56), Dr. 
H. W. Wiley pointed out that the American people, more than any 
other, were the victims of the drug habit, and that the direct cause 
for this drug habit was to be sought in the false and really misleading 
claims that are made in connection with nostrums or so-called patent 
medicines. To the thinking pharmacist it must be evident that once 
the American people realize that the retail druggists of this country 
have indiscriminately sold them worthless or even harmful prepara- 



Am '\pXi9(?9 arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 205 

tions, in the guise of sure cures, and that at least some of these 
preparations have led to the formation of drug habits, either general 
or specific, and that the retail druggist, because of his special knowl- 
edge and training, knew of the uselessness and possible harmfulness 
of these compounds, he, and not the manufacturer, will be held 
responsible for their sale. 

" In this same connection it is interesting to note that Dr. Wiley 
makes practically the same suggestion regarding the possible de- 
velopment of a line of household remedies that was made by Dr. 
McCormack at the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, in New York, in 1907. 

" It will be remembered that at that time Dr. McCormack dis- 
cussed rather freely what he considered to be some of the more 
evident shortcomings in the present-day make-up of the retail drug 
business. Some of his statements were objected to by men who 
either did not grasp, or were not willing to allow other members 
of their calling to grasp, the true object of the address, and so far 
as the retail drug trade is concerned little or nothing has been done 
to remedy the evils that were pointed out. 

" In the course of his address Dr. McCormack pointed out 
that, quite aside from the moral wrong involved in the nostrum 
business, the trade has only enriched the manufacturer and has 
always been an unprofitable curse to the retail druggist. He also 
pointed out the possibility of developing a line of unobjectionable 
household remedies that might be sold by the retail druggist with 
profit to himself, and serve to displace the frequently harmful 
nostrums that are now sold. 

" At the meeting of the American Medical Association, in Chi- 
cago, the following summer (see Am. Jour. Pharm., 1908, pp. 
393-396), Dr. McCormack recommended that a conference commit- 
tee be appointed by the American Medical Association and the 
American Pharmaceutical Association to consider the possibility 
of bringing about reforms in connection with the use of drugs, a 
return to scientific prescription writing, the development of a line of 
unobjectionable household remedies, and other matters of interest to 
the members of the two professions and bearing on their mutual 
duties to the public at large. 

" The American Medical Association has provided for such a 
conference committee and such a committee would undoubtedly be 
in position to accomplish much good if the retail druggists of the 



206 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { ^^XiS?™' 

country would but awaken to a proper realization of their duties to 
themselves, to the medical profession, and to the public at large, 
whose material interests, well-being and even lives are, to a con- 
siderable extent, in their care. 

" With the more or less concerted efforts that are being made at 
the present time to advance what has become known as ' The U. S. 
P. and N. F. Propaganda,' it would appear as though the retail 
druggists of the country had an excellent opportunity to demon- 
strate that they are really interested in the science of their calling 
and in the promotion of the public health, and that they are not alone 
willing but also able to live up to the responsibilities that are im- 
posed on them, by the legislation that has been enacted for their 
protection and guidance, making them responsible for the drugs 
and medicines dispensed and sold. ' The subject is certainly one that 
is deserving of careful thought, particularly at this time when the 
popular wave for honesty and publicity is so wide-spread and is ever 
assuming greater force and volume." 

Among the exhibits were a metal Minot Slide Cabinet for micro- 
scope specimens, manufactured by Peter Gray & Sons of Cam- 
bridge ; a specimen of opium, the interior of which was filled with 
clay, presented by the Smith, Kline & French Co. ; and specimens 
of drugs and spices received from Professor LaWall and Harry 
E. Sindall. Florence Yaple, 

Secretary pro tern. 

FOOD AND DRUG COURSE LECTURE. 

The second of the series of special lectures in the Food and 
Drug Course of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy for 1908-1909 
was given Tuesday, February 9, at 3 o'clock, in the Museum of the 
College, by Prof. C. B. Cochran, of West Chester, Pa., chemist to the 
Pennsylvania State Dairy and Food Commissioner. The speaker 
was introduced by Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler, dean of the Food and 
Drug Course, and spoke upon the subject, "The First Chapters in 
the History of Food Adulteration in Pennsylvania." 

Professor Cochran contrasted the conditions surrounding the 
production and transportation of food products forty or fifty years 
ago with those of the past twenty or twenty-five years, and said 
that, whereas formerly they were largely the product of domestic 
or home labor, their production is now in the hands of manufac- 
turers and large commercial concerns. This, he said, had much to 



AD \pXi909 arm 'f Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 207 

do with their quality, or, as he tersely expressed it, formerly foods 
were produced to eat, while now they are produced to sell. Then 
the qualities sought for were taste or flavor, now the qualities most 
looked for are those which render the articles valuable commercially, 
such as appearance, yield of product, and stability in transportation. 

It was stated that the outlay for foods in the United States is 
larger than that for any other commodity, and exclusive of the cost 
of liquors amounts to $2,300,000,000 annually. Foods being articles 
of daily consumption, there is no other class of commodities, accord- 
ing to Professor Cochran, on which the people in general seek so 
much to economize. This leads to a demand for cheap products, and 
the manufacturers endeavor to meet the demand by adulteration and 
substitution. 

The speaker then gave the history of the several food laws of 
Pennsylvania, including the oleomargarine and lard bills, and the 
State Food Law of 1895, which latter he said was an excellent 
law, and all of which were passed and enforced through the com- 
bined efforts of the farmers of the state and the Farmers and Dairy 
Protective Association. That is, as pointed out, these law T s were 
promulgated by those having a business interest in the products, 
rather than by the consumers, and this, as still further pointed out, 
appears to have been a conspicuous feature of the history of food 
legislation in this country. 

The statement was made that prior to about 1900 all classes of 
food products were adulterated, and that often the adulteration was 
exceedingly gross, after which a number of specific instances of 
adulteration was mentioned. Of 65 samples of cream of tartar 
collected at one time for examination, 62 were adulterated. With 
regard to spices Dr. Cochran said that a great variety of adulterants 
were used together, sometimes including as much as 25 per cent, of 
gypsum. 

In concluding his address Professor Cochran pointed out the 
fallacy of buying cheap adulterated foods on the ground of economy, 
and then spoke deploringly of the baneful influence on the employees 
of the practices in large manufacturing places where adulteration 
and substitution are a part of the daily routine work. F. Y. 



208 



Book Reviews. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
| April, 1909. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Wellcome's Photographic Exposure Record and Diary 1909. 
Wellcome's Photographic Exposure Record and Diary for 1909 con- 
tains a number of new and interesting features. 

The article on exposure contains a large amount of definite infor- 
mation condensed into 28 pages. This is secured by confining atten- 
tion to points which are of real importance to the photographer in 
practice. 

The illustrations which have been a feature of the book from its 
first publication, and which have been of such practical service in 
helping the photographer to make due allowance for his subject in 
exposure, are now conveniently grouped together on a card carried 
in the wallet of the book. 

Other items in this section of the book are the tables of Expos- 
ures for Interiors, Exposures in Telephotography, Exposures for 
Copying and Enlarging, Exposures for Moving Objects, Exposures 
for Night Photography, and the well-known list of plate speeds, 
brought right up to date and, as usual, the most complete list of its 
kind available. 

Wellcome's Photographic Exposure Record and Diary is suit- 
able for use in all quarters of the globe. Its power to calculate 
exposure correctly has been tested in every continent and in every 
latitude, from arctic, temperate, subtropical, tropical, to antarctic. 
For the convenience of users in different parts of the world, three 
editions are issued : The Northern Hemisphere Edition, for all coun- 
tries north of the Tropic of Cancer. The Southern Hemisphere and 
Tropical Edition, for all countries south of the Tropic of Cancer. 
The United States Edition, for use in the United States of America. 
When purchasing, care should be taken to specify which edition is 
required. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHiPMAM 




MA Y, ipop 

THE PREPARATION OF TINCTURE OF STROPHANTI 

By Archibald E. Chace, M.D. mi&£^ 

Instructor in Materia Medica, Cornell University Medical College. 

(From the Laboratory of Pharmacology of Cornell University, 
New York City.) 

In view of the opinion expressed by several observers that the 
tincture of strophanthus has been of variable activity, and also 
considering the present dependence of the retail pharmacist upon 
the large manufacturing houses for standardized tinctures, the fol- 
lowing investigation has been undertaken to devise a means whereby 
the retail pharmacist can prepare the standardized tincture of 
strophanthus, and thus give his own guarantee for the drug which 
he dispenses. The subsidiary objects connected with such an inves- 
tigation, such as the determination of the activity of the seed of 
commerce, the influence of defatting the seeds previous to percola- 
tion, the activity of the fixed oil thus obtained, and comparison of 
the standardized tinctures now on the market with tinctures made 
by fully exhausting the commercial seed, are dealt with briefly. 

The introduction of the drug was due to Pelikan's work on the 
action of strophanthus, and most of all to the pharmaceutical and 
pharmacological studies of Thomas R. Fraser, of the University of 
Edinburgh, following the discovery of the drug during Livingstone's 
expedition to the Zambesi. From the time Pelikan's article 1 
appeared in 1865, until 1890 and later, Fraser, 2 Wm. Elborn, 3 Van 
Hasselt, 4 Baillon, 5 Hardy and Gallois, 6 Martindale, 7 and othe, s 
worked out the botany, chemistry and therapeutics as well as they 

(209) 



210 



Tincture of Strophanthus. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1909. 



could with the impure specimens in their possession. Fraser's 
article on the glucoside, strophanthin, appeared during 1885 in 
the British Medical Journal. Fraser had previously isolated the 
active principle but had not discovered its chemical character, and 
Hardy and Gallois had ascribed to their " strophantine " chemical 
characteristics which it did not possess. 

All observers agreed that the seeds contained more of the active 
principle than any other part of the plant. Tinctures of various 
strengths were advised, and it was found that defatting the seeds 
materially aided percolation, although some observers thought that 
the defatted tincture was weaker than one not so prepared. Fraser 
and Martindale 7 proved that the active principle was practically 
insoluble in ether, and that the defatted tinctures were therefore of 
the same strength as those not defatted. Most of the investigations 
during this period (1865— 1890) were obscured by confusion as to 
the botany of strophanthus, and by the impossibility of obtaining 
pure specimens. To Oliver, of Kew, and especially to E. M. 
Holmes, 8 is due the credit of differentiating the various species, 
and to the latter also is due great credit for insisting that pure seed 
be imported. Finally, in 1906, Holmes announced that the seeds 
coming into England were to be relied upon. 

Gilg, Thorns and Schedel 10 worked out the botany, chemistry, 
and therapeutics of Strophanthus grains which contains a glucoside 
more active than the official strophanthin. 

From among the various species, S. Kombe (of which 5*. his- 
pidus is probably a climatic variation) has gained the widest use. 

For the purpose of this investigation a supply of strophanthus 
seed * in No. 60 powder, " ground for percolation," was obtained 
from Gilpin, Langdon & Co. This was thoroughly mixed and used 
in several portions for the preparation of tinctures as follows : 

Five portions of 100 grammes each were prepared as the Phar- 
macopoeia directs, macerated with the menstruum (about 65 per 
cent, alcohol) for 48 hours; percolated at different rates with inter- 
vals of maceration ; and the tinctures thus prepared were tested in 
the manner to be described presently. 

Tincture No. 1 was made with 58 hours of percolation and 442 
hours of maceration in about 22 days. 

Tincture No. 2 was made with 718 hours of percolation and 

* This was labelled 5. hispidus. The Pharmacopoeia directs that S. 
Kombe be used, but the action of the two is qualitatively the same. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1909. 



Tincture of Strophanthus. 



21 T 



339 hours of maceration in about 47 days; reserved in two equal 
portions. 

Tincture No. 3 was made with 35 hours of percolation and 275 
hours of maceration in about 12 days. 

Tincture No. 4 was made with 164 hours of continuous percola- 
tion, after the 48 hours of maceration as directed by the Pharma- 
copoeia. The percolate was reserved in six portions. 

Tincture No. 5 was made with 169 hours of percolation and 56 
hours of maceration in about 9 days. The percolate was reserved 
in ten portions of 100 c.c. each. 

One hundred grammes of the powdered seed were thoroughly 
exhausted with petroleum ether in a Soxhlet extractor. Twenty- 
eight grammes of fixed oil were thus obtained, and the marc after 
drying weighed 68 grammes, the loss in moisture being four 
grammes. 

The fat-free powder was divided into two parts of 34 grammes 
each representing 50 grammes of seed, and percolated as follows : 

Tincture No. 6. The 34 grammes of fat-free powder were 
moistened and macerated for 48 hours, as directed by the Pharma- 
copoeia, using about 65 per cent, alcohol as menstruum. Five 
hundred cubic centimetres were obtained after 9.5 hours of perco- 
lation, interrupted once by 22 hours of maceration. 

Tincture No. 7. The 34 grammes of fat-free powder were 
moistened and macerated for 48 hours, using a menstruum of about 
25 per cent, alcohol.' Five hundred cubic centimetres were obtained 
after 10 hours of percolation, interrupted once by 22 hours of 
maceration. 

Owing to the want of a practical method of quantitative chem- 
ical analysis for strophanthin, these tinctures were tested by sub- 
cutaneous injection into cats. It has been shown in this laboratory 
that strophanthin can be quantitatively determined fairly accurately 
by defining the minimal lethal dose thus injected. This is about 
two-sevenths of a milligramme injected subcutaneously per kilo of 
cat for the commercial strophanthin of Merck and of Boehringer and 
Sons, which is the official strophanthin. 

One hundred grammes of the seed were percolated until ex- 
hausted, and the tincture thus obtained tested on cats showed that 
one gramme of the seed would suffice to kill 350 kilos of cat, and 
therefore contained about 100 milligrammes of commercial stro- 
phanthin. At least, this seed may be safely stated to contain the 
toxic equivalent of about 10 per cent, of commercial strophanthin. 



212 



Tincture of Strophanthus. 



Am. Jour, Pharm. 
May, 1909. 



Several samples of standardized tinctures made by the large 
manufacturing houses were tested in the same way, and their tox- 
icity indicated that they contained only 7.1 milligrammes of com- 
mercial strophanthin per cubic centimetre, or less than 80 per cent, 
of that in an equivalent amount of a 10 per cent, tincture which 
fully represented the seed used in the above experiments (10 
milligrammes). 

There is nothing in the literature which justifies the claim of 
such a high percentage of strophanthin as these experiments indi- 
cate. Yet we must insist that there is the toxic equivalent of about 
10 per cent, of commercial strophanthin in the seeds which were 
used. Whether the former analyses depending upon chemical 
reactions have been inaccurate, whether the seeds used have not 
been of the same strength, or whether there exists in the seed some 
substance having a synergistic action, — these considerations must 
be left for future investigations. That the physiological method of 
estimating toxicity is sufficiently accurate for practical purposes 
has been proved.* 

The following statements are based upon more than sixty experi- 
ments, all upon cats, by which the minimal lethal dose has been 
determined for each tincture. 

Tincture No. 1 fully represented the seed. 

Tincture No. 2. The first half, obtained by 145 hours of perco- 
lation and 339 hours of maceration, contained 85 per cent, of the 
active principle, and the second half 15 per cent. 

Tincture No. 3 fully represented the seed. 

Tincture No. 4 was about 20 per cent, weaker than No. 5. The 
curve of percolation is given below. 

Tincture No. 5 fully represented the seed. As compared with 
No. 4, it is evident that these two percolations are on either side of 

*A cat-unit is the minimal lethal dose by vein per kilo of cat. If the 
injection be made subcutaneously, then the minimal lethal dose will be some- 
what greater (about one-fourth greater) (Hatcher and Bailey"). 

Injections should be so diluted that the dose can be easily measured. 
If one-half cubic centimetre or more of an alcoholic tincture is to be tested, 
the alcohol should be evaporated. 

The accuracy of this method of standardization may be judged from the 
following experiment. The toxicity of the six portions of tincture No. 4 
were separately determined, and the results added together. Then one- 
tenth of each of the six was taken, these were mixed, and the resulting 
mixture tested. The error was less than 10 per cent. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

May, 1909. / 



Tincture of Strophanthus. 



213 



the line between complete and incomplete exhaustion, and that the 
five hours more of percolation and the eight hours more of macera- 
tion, together with the fact that No. 5 was slightly more firmly 
packed, suffice to make a difference of 20 per cent. This illustrates 
how easily one may fail to completely exhaust the seeds. 

Tincture No. 6 was found to contain 80 per cent, of the active 
principle in 50 grammes of the seed. It is therefore evident that 
defatting the seeds aided materially in percolation, for we found 
that, unless the oil was first removed, 75 hours of percolation and 
maceration would not extract even 80 per cent, of the active principle. 

Tincture No. 7 fully represented the seed. The defatting and 
reduction in the percentage of alcohol in the menstruum was suffi- 
cient to give a thoroughly exhausted marc. 

A statement has been widely circulated in medical literature to 
the effect that the emetic action of strophanthus is due to the fixed 
oil, and that fat-free tinctures are therefore devoid of such action. 
The experiment detailed below proves the incorrectness of this 
claim. 

A 5 per cent, emulsion of the oil obtained in preparing tinctures 
Nos. 6 and 7 was made, and one cubic centimetre per kilo was 
given by stomach-tube to a cat. No emesis occurred and the animal 
remained normal for several days, although it had received the fat 
content of several times the fatal dose of seed. 

On the other hand, a suitable dose of the fat-free tincture, made 
from the residue in the Soxhlet extractor (Nos. 6 and 7), injected 
subcutaneously produced prompt emesis. 

The following conclusions are, we believe, justified from the 
facts given above : 

1. The active principle of strophanthus is slowly extracted by 
the menstruum of the Pharmacopoeia (about 65 per cent, alcohol), 
more rapidly by a menstruum having a lower percentage of alcohol. 
The latter makes an unsightly tincture, which may be cleared by 
chilling (ice and salt), and filtering while cold. 

2. Defatting the seeds aids percolation, does not affect the 
strength of the tincture, and does not in any way eliminate the 
emetic action of the drug. 

3. For percolation, the moistened seeds should be firmly packed 
in a long, narrow percolator. 

4. Tincture of strophanthus, when made in small quantities, 
requires at the very least seven days of percolation with 1000 c.c. 



214 



Tincture of Strophantus. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1909. 



of menstruum for each 100 grammes of seed ; and to be sure of 
exhaustion, in addition, there should be several periods of maceration 
of at least eight hours each. 

5. The minimal lethal dose of such a tincture should be between 
one-thirtieth and one-thirty-fifth of a cubic centimetre per kilo of 
cat, injected subcutaneously {i.e., about forty cat-units per cubic 
centimetre) . 



Cat-units, 
each c.c. 



1 st 
IOO c.c. 

2nd 

IOO c.c. 

3rd 

IOO c.c. 

4th 
IOO c.c. 

5th 
IOO c.c. 

6th 
IOO c.c. 

7 th 
IOO c.c. 

8th 
IOO c.c. 

9th 
100 c.c. 

10th 
100 c.c. 



Curve of Percolation of Two Tinctures of Strophanthus. 

No. 4 and No. 5. 

Percentage of toxicity per 100 grammes of seed. 

0% 3% 6% 9% 12% 14% 17% 20% 23% 25% 28% 31% 34% 36% 39% 
fo 14 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 126 140 154 168 182 196 





























( 
































































■ _> 

/ 


















































/ / 
/ / 




























-f—f — 









































































































































































6. To insure uniformity in the strength of the tincture, the 
strength of the seed should be constant. This may be easily deter- 
mined by the wholesale house. Pharmacists should demand stand- 
ardized seeds of the strength indicated by about 400 cat-units (see 
foot-note, p. 212) per gramme of seed. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ") 
May, 1909. J 



Chemical Assay of Ergot. 



215 



At least two observers have stated that the seeds, or the alcoholic 
extracts of the seeds, are made much more toxic by aqueous macera- 
tion. Experiments conducted in this laboratory are not in accord 
with this statement, for we know that the glucoside loses in toxicity 
when the aqueous solution is allowed to stand. 

I wish here to express my indebtedness to Dr. Robert A. Hatcher 
for suggesting this investigation, and for assistance during its 
execution. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

I Pelikan (1865) : Archives Generates de Medicine, p. 115. 

2 Fraser, T. R. (1873) : /. Anat. and Physiol, vol. vii ; British Medical Jour- 
nal, Nov. 14, 1885, etc. Reviews of Fraser's articles are to be found in 
the Phar. J. and Trans. 

3 Elborn, Wm. (1887) : Phar. J. and Trans. (3), vol. xvii, p. 743 ; Sept. 10, 

1887, p. 219. 

4 Van Hasselt (1872) : Archives Neerlandaises des Sciences, vol. vii, p. 161. 

5 Baillon, quoted by Polaillon and Carville, Archives de Physiologic, No. 5, 

1872, p. 526. 

6 Hardy and Gallois (1877): Comptcs Rendus, vol. 84, p. 261. 

7 Martindale (1886): Pharm. Jour.. Nov. 20, p. 411. 

8 Holmes ( ? -1906) : Pharm. Jour., March 17, p. 312. 

8 Beringer (1889): Am. Jour, of Pharm., Sept., 1889, p. 454. 
10 Gilg, Thorns and Schedel (1904): Berichte der Dent. Phar. Geseli, 14 
(3), 90. 

II Hatcher and Bailey (1909) : /. A. M. A., vol. Hi, p. 5. 



A NEW METHOD FOR THE CHEMICAL ASSAY OF 

ERGOT. 

A PRELIMINARY COMMUNICATION. 

By Horatio C. Wood, Jr., M.D. 
Associate Professor of Pharmacology in the University of Pennsylvania. 

While engaged in working on the physiological standardization 
of ergot I was struck by the fact that a fluid extract which had 
been found to be completely inert physiologically gave almost no 
precipitate on the addition of water. This observation suggested 
to my mind the possibility of there being some relation between the 
physiological activity of ergot and the amount of resin it contained. 
Accordingly I made a rough test to discover the possible truth of 
this idea on four fluid extracts ; I took 10 c.c. of fluid extract, added 



216 Chemical Assay of Ergot. { Am "MaTi9 P o9 arm ' 

20 c.c. of water,, filtered off the precipitate on a weighed filter, 
washed with a small quantity of water, dried in a thermostat 
and weighed. The results were as follows : 

Physiologi- Weight of 

Preparation. cal Test. 1 Precipitate. 

1 o 14 

2 10 48 

3 10 68 

4 21 96 

While these figures cannot be expected to give accurate information, 
they were nevertheless suggestive enough to encourage further 
investigations on this point. 

The following method was then tried : 

To 10 c.c. of fluid extract add 20 c.c. of water; shake out with 
repeated portions of 10 c.c. each of benzole until the benzole after 
shaking remains colorless. Unite the various portions of benzole 
and evaporate in a tared dish on the water bath, dry in a thermo- 
stat at a temperature of 40 C. until the weight is constant, and 
then weigh. Eleven fluid extracts were assayed in this manner 
besides several other galenicals prepared from ergot. The results 
as compared with the results of the physiological tests of the same 
preparations are shown in Table 2. 





Physiologi- 


Per cent. 


Preparation. 


cal Test. 


Benzole Extract. 


Ai. 


33 


0.68 


Bi. 


32 


0.58 


C. 


21 


0.58 


D. 


30 


0.52 


Ei. 


22 


0.48 


F. 


20 


0.45 


G. 


15 


0.42 


A2 • 


13 


0-39 


B2. 


10 


0.37 


E2. 


12 


0.34 


H. 


6 


0.27 


I. 





0.09 


J. 





0.06 



Especial attention may be called to the samples denominated in 
this table: Ai and A2, Bi and B2, and Ei and E2. Each pair 



1 The figures in the column " physiological test " were obtained by the 
method described by Dr. Hofer and myself in the University of Pennsylvania 
Medical Bulletin, February, 1909. 



Am. Jour. Pharro. 1 
May, 1909. / 



Chemical Assay of Ergot. 



217 



of these were from the same fluid extract ; those marked I had been 
kept in a hermetically sealed bottle and retained their original 
potency, while those marked 2 had been exposed to the air and had 
lost much of their power. It will be noted that in each case the 
percentage of benzole extractive diminished as did the physiological 
activity. 

Further evidence that the benzole extracts the greater portion of 
the active principle of ergot in an approximately pure condition is 
found by comparing the dose of the resultant extractive required to 
produce a certain amount of physiological effect with that which 
should be theoretically necessary. For instance, it was found that 
0.00061 Gm. per kilo of the extract caused a rise in the blood- 
pressure of 10 mm., and that 0.00105 Gm. caused a rise of 32 mm. 
Now fluid extract B2, which in doses of 0.17 Gm. per kilo gave a 
rise of 10, contains 0.37 per cent, extractive so that there was in 
the dose given 0.00063 Gm. as the theoretical requirement to compare 
with the figures 0.00061 found experimentally. Sample Bi gave a 
rise of 32 in doses of 0.16 Gm. per kilo, and contains 0.58 per cent, 
extractive ; therefore we have a theoretical dose of 0.00093 as com- 
pared to that found experimentally of 0.00105. 

On the other hand, it must be confessed that the residue left 
behind after extraction with benzole was not inert, that is, the benzole 
had not completely exhausted the drug; and no amount of shaking 
out nor any other treatment with this solvent was able to remove 
entirely its activity. Evidently there is a second principle, perhaps 
an alkaloid, which is not dissolved by the benzole. But I do not 
think this fact disproves at all the practical value of the method of 
assay; no one claims that morphine is the sole active ingredient of 
opium, nor that the brucine in nux vomica is inert and the marc 
after the assay in each of these cases must be physiologically active. 

Now a few words as to the nature of the body extracted by the 
benzole. It was a golden-yellow resin-like mass soluble in ether, 
alcohol, acetic ether, and benzole; insoluble in petroleum ether, 
water, or dilute acids, but readily soluble in solutions of the hydrox- 
ides apparently with chemical change. It is precipitated from 
alkaline solution by acids, from its ethereal or benzole solution by 
petroleum ether or sodium hydroxide. When boiled with the sodium 
hydroxide in a porcelain dish a cherry-red color appears around 
the edge of the solution and the solution itself changes from a 
golden-yellow to a reddish-brown. When kept for some time the 



2l8 



Capsicum in Ginger. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1909. 



substance seems to undergo a similar change spontaneously with a 
loss of physiological power. The solution in dilute alcohol turns 
green if exposed to the air. 

These properties coincide with those ascribed by Jacobi (Arch, 
fur Exper. Path, und Pharm., 1897, 39) to a body whose existence 
he deduced on theoretical grounds but which he appears to have 
actually separated only in the most minute quantities and to which 
he gave the name of Sphacelotoxin. 

I hope later to publish a more detailed description of this body 
and its properties as well as to offer some suggestions concerning 
the other physiologically active ingredients of ergot. I wish here 
to express my thanks to the firms of E. R. Squibb and Sons, to Mr. 
J. W. England of Smith, Kline and French, and to Mr. C. E. 
Vanderkleed of the H. K. Mulford Co. for their kindness in obtain- 
ing the crude material for my study, and their other courtesies. 



A METHOD FOR THE DETECTION OF SMALL QUAN- 
TITIES OF CAPSICUM IN GINGER ALE AND OTHER 
PREPARATIONS OF GINGER. 

By Charles H. La Wall. 

In 1907, Garnett and Green published in the British and Colonial 
Druggist a method for the detection of capsicum in preparations of 
ginger which gives fairly good results as described, and which has 
been taken as a basis for the following method in which the sensi- 
tiveness is materially increased : 

The contents of a bottle of ginger ale, measuring usually about 
250 c.c., are emptied into a large beaker and the carbon dioxide 
driven off by pouring from one beaker to another or by gently 
heating for some time on a water bath. The liquid is then trans- 
ferred to a large separatory funnel and slightly acidulated with 
diluted sulphuric acid, then agitated for one minute with 50 c.c. of 
ether. The ether is removed, evaporated spontaneously and the 
residue is weighed. If the residue weighs 10 milligrammes or less, 
2 c.c. of one-half normal alcoholic potassium hydroxide solution are 
added, the residue dissolved and the liquid transferred to a test- 
tube. If the residue weighs more than 10 milligrammes, add 1 c.c. 
of one-half normal alcoholic potassium hydroxide solution for each 
additional 10 milligrammes of residue. After transferring this 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1909. 



Capsicum in Ginger, 



219 



alkaline solution of the residue to the test-tube, insert a perforated 
cork bearing a glass tube about 1 m. long, to serve as a reflux con- 
denser, stand the test-tube in a beaker of water upon a water bath 
(supporting the tube by a suitable apparatus stand), and maintain 
the temperature at a degree sufficient to cause a gentle ebullition 
of the alcoholic solution for thirty minutes. Remove the stopper 
and glass tube and continue the heat until the alcohol is evaporated 
and the residue in the test-tube is nearly dry. Add water to fill the 
test-tube half full, agitate to dissolve the saponified residue, add an 
amount of ether equivalent to one-half the volume of the aqueous 
solution and again agitate thoroughly. After the ethereal solution 
has separated, draw it off by means of a pipette, transfer to a clean 
dry watch glass and allow it to evaporate spontaneously. After the 
evaporation of the ether taste the residue upon the watch glass. 
Capsicum is indicated by a sharp pungency as soon as the tip of the 
tongue touches the residue. When large quantities of ginger are 
used a slight camphoraceous taste is observed, but there is never any 
pungency unless capsicum is present. 

This method has been tried under varying conditions upon 
several hundred specimens of known origin and has never failed 
to indicate capsicum when present, nor has there been any difficulty 
in distinguishing the residue left from pure ginger preparations. 
Experiments upon quantitative mixtures have shown that it is easily 
possible to detect one part of capsicum in 10,000 parts of water, 
which is equal to one pound of capsicum in 600 gallons of ginger 
ale. 

The method is applicable to any other preparation of ginger by 
driving off the alcohol, if present, diluting with water, acidulating 
and shaking out, as in the foregoing method. 



220 



Purification of Drinking Water. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1909. 



THE PROGRESS OF THE PURIFICATION OF THE 
DRINKING WATER IN PHILADELPHIA * 

By William George Toplis. 

It is our great good fortune to live in the sublime old Common- 
wealth of Pennsylvania. We are justly proud of our citizenship 
in the chief city of this grand old State, notwithstanding the fact 
that it has lately become the practice of some irresponsible sensa- 
tionalists to slander and villify her fair name. I have wondered why 
her people seemed so passive under the lash. The spirit of non- 
resistance characteristic of her illustrious founder still remains to 
counsel patience while waiting for a proper reply to these wanton 
and scandalous attacks. We have at last an answer in thundering 
tones, an answer of splendid deeds to refute the frantic utterances 
of baseless charges and empty words. The filtration and purifica- 
tion of our water supply is now a fact, pouring out its inestimable 
blessing of two hundred gallons of clarified, purified, and whole- 
some water to each individual every day. Fourteen hundred gallons 
every week for less than one cent. Seventy thousand gallons every 
year to each one for thirty cents. That is what filtration costs us. 

Before entering upon a description of the work, it is perhaps 
best to make a brief explanation of the fundamental principles 
underlying the system used in purifying a city's water supply. 
Water contamination may first be divided into two great classes, 
soluble and insoluble. Soluble contamination may again be divided 
into two classes, namely, inorganic or mineral substances, and 
organic substances by which is meant such materials as are pro- 
duced by the life process of plants or animals. It is plain to every 
one that substances in suspension may be removed from water by 
any well-conducted straining process. It is equally plain that sub- 
stances in solution are not removed by any such means, but remain 
unchanged in such a filtrate. As stated, two kinds of soluble con- 
tamination exist, mineral and organic. Of these the mineral con- 
tamination plays but little if any part as a harmful factor in the 
health of the community. The elimination of the disease producers 
is the prime consideration in municipal water purification plans. 
Therefore from this point of view the presence of ordinary mineral 



* An address delivered at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, April 
20, 1909. 



Lm 'May r i909 arm '} Purification of Drinking Water. 221 

contamination is ignored. This leaves then, for our consideration, 
the soluble organic matter. It may be said by way of illustration 
that this matter is entirely represented, from every source, by four 
elements, namely, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. How 
to remove this matter was the problem, and it remained to the 
science of bacteriology to point the way. When dead organic matter 
is exposed to proper influences it begins to decay at once. This 
decay is brought about by the growth in the organic matter of 
minute vegetable organisms, bacteria. The products of this decay, 
when the decomposition is effected in the presence of oxygen, are 
the simple oxides of the elements that enter into the original 
material ; that is, carbon becomes carbon dioxide ; hydrogen becomes 
oxidized to water ; and nitrogen first becomes ammonia, which is 
finally oxidized to nitric acid or its compounds. It had long been 
known that when water is allowed to slowly percolate through a bed 
of sand its chemical character is improved. The reasons for this 
were not understood until after bacteriology was placed on a scien- 
tific basis by the discoveries of Koch, and later by many others. 
Then it w T as found that in a filtering bed of sand each grain of sand 
became coated with a zooglcea of bacteria. The arrangement of a 
filtering bed of sand is such that it forms innumerable avenues 
through which water passes very slowly, carrying the organic matter 
in solution, together with dissolved oxygen. The organic matter 
becomes food for the bacteria living within the filter bed attached 
to the grains of sand. The chemical analysis of water so treated 
shows a distinct change from that which was applied before filtra- 
tion and proves the theory to be correct. This, then, is the plan 
underlying the great water purification project of the city of Phila- 
delphia, around which is clustered so much of vital importance to 
her million and a half of people. 

The very first treatment in the purification of water is that of 
sedimentation. This is accomplished in a large basin open to air 
and sunlight. The storage capacity is equal to about forty-eight 
hours' supply. The basin is divided into two equal parts by a heavy, 
broad earth and concrete partition. This operation includes some 
very ingenious handling. Raw water is entered at the bottom and 
at the far side of basin No. 1. The outlet of No. 1 is through a 
floating drum, which is attached to a large pipe, hinged at the 
bottom of the reservoir to the large main that conducts the water 
to the far side of basin No. 2. In this basin is another floating drum 



222 Purification of Drinking Water. { Am ^™ \$o* rm ' 

hinged to the pipe that supplies the raw water after sedimentation 
to the preliminary filter. Both of the floating drums are located at 
the near side of their respective basins and their function is to skim 
the cleanest water from the surface of the reservoir. This portion 
of the water being at the surface, carries the dissolved oxygen 
which is necessary in subsequent steps of the purification. 

As pointed out, two principal considerations attend the purifica- 
tion of river water, namely, the removal of suspended matter and 
the decomposition of soluble organic matter. The latter being the 
most mysterious would seem the most difficult, yet as a matter of 
fact the reverse is true. Mr. John W. Hill, formerly chief engineer 
in charge of the work, personally told me that the slow sand filters 
could handle water carrying forty parts of suspended matter per 
million without difficulty, but above that turbidity the trouble 
increased with the increase in turbidity. This fact made imprac- 
ticable the accomplishment of both purposes in the same filter, upon 
an economical basis. The necessity for preliminary filtration, at a 
rapid rate, solely for the removal of suspended matter, soon made 
the preliminary filter the chief study. Beginning with Roxborough 
where the first type was employed, there becomes apparent under 
inspection a steady advance in construction and efficiency until the 
highest order is found in the last built at Torresdale. Here every 
operation is carried out on a gigantic scale, and with superb refine- 
ment of detail, in comparison with which the previous efforts are 
palpably crude. The most notable example is found in a considera- 
tion of the two methods followed for the removal of the sediment 
when the filter becomes clogged. At Belmont they have rigged a 
travelling platform which spans the bed, mounted upon wheels that 
run upon tracks secured at the top of the dividing wall. Upon 
this travelling platform is placed an electrically driven suction 
apparatus that lifts the deposit of mud from the surface of the bed 
and ejects it into a sewer. It is possible with this device and the 
aid of several men to remove the deposit from one filter in about 
five hours. At Torresdale the same operation requires one man 
just eight minutes by the watch. This seems almost incredible, yet 
it is absolutely true, and it was only brought into existence through 
the highest order of engineering skill, being the result of evolution, 
experience, and observation gained in work that had preceded it. 
The preliminary filter beds at Torresdale are radically different 
from either those at Roxborough or at Belmont and comprise one 



Am 'May, r i9 P o9 arm '} Purification of Drinking Water. 223 

hundred and twenty units. Each unit is essentially as follows: a 
rectangular concrete basin about eight feet deep, twenty and one- 
half feet wide and sixty feet long. Each one of these basins is 
subdivided into twelve small compartments, about ten feet square, 
separated from each other by partitions which form gutters about 
one foot wide and one foot deep. The compartments are arranged 
in two parallel rows of six each. The gutters all connect with the 
long central dividing drain. At the bottom of these basins per- 
forated pipes are arranged for carrying air and water to the bottom 
of the filtering bed of sand which is two feet in depth. There is 
much more detail than is here stated and only sufficient is given to 
convey understanding of the operation of these filters, which is as 
follows : 

Water is run from the storage basin with but short time for 
sedimentation directly upon the sand. The filtration is controlled, 
but permitted to proceed at a rapid rate, one hundred and twenty 
tanks delivering two hundred and forty million gallons in twenty- 
four hours. The process continues until the collected sediment 
causes such a diminution of the flow that it is no' longer efficient, 
then water is shut off and the bed allowed to drain, after which it 
is washed ; at the end of eight minutes it is again in commission 
and restored to its full activity. The washing is accomplished by 
the attendant who stands with watch in hand at an iron table upon 
which is arranged a maze of levers and switches. He operates a 
switch, immediately the whirr of an electric motor begins, followed 
by the rumble of the direct connected, positive blast, rotary air 
pump, which the motor drives. The next instant the sand in the 
filter begins to quiver and at once begins to bubble and boil and a 
lot of dirty water spills over into the gutters, from which it runs 
into the sewer. The air is continued for two minutes ; a reversal 
of the same switch stops the air. A lever is next moved, at once 
clean water begins to pour into the bottom of the filter, and for one 
minute a flood of dirty water runs out at the top into the gutters. 
This ceases and again for two minutes the air boils the sand as 
before, breaking up the mass into individual grains and separating 
it from the accumulated mud. Finally the water is again introduced 
at the bottom and for three minutes the mud is washed out until 
clean water overflows. The celerity, thoroughness, and economy of 
this method are but little short of absolute perfection ; in every 
department of this work we see the same idea carried out, the 



224 Purification of Drinking Water. {^j^mo* 1 ™' 

elimination of manual labor and the introduction of mechanical 
devices, carried down even to the opening and closing of valves. 
Not a screw in sight — every valve regardless of size operated 
quickly and without effort by hydraulic power under direction of 
but one man. 

The cost of this preliminary filter plant was one million dollars. 
The wonder is not that it cost so much, but rather that so much 
labor and material could be furnished for that sum. These state- 
ments may be regarded as extravagant ; the work is there, it invites 
inspection and honest criticism. 

From the preliminary filters the water is distributed without 
delay to the final filters. They are all covered under ground, this 
latitude requiring such construction. In cold weather it would be 
impossible to scrape a filter if it were frozen or covered with snow. 
While under ground they are illuminated electrically and their 
operation is conducted without hindrance and with comfort to the 
men. Over the entrance to the final filter is placed an iron plate 
bearing this inscription : " Employees are forbidden to carry into 
the filter lunch, paper, tobacco, or other objectionable substances." 
This is a cast iron rule, both literally and figuratively, and it is 
rigorously enforced. 

The final filters do not offer much opportunity for improvement, 
they being practically complete and a thoroughly understood sub- 
ject. Still where there is any chance, they are not wanting in 
ingenuity. Recently a successful attempt has been made to wash 
the sand without removing it to the exterior of the filter. The 
device is operated by hydraulic power, and it saves the removal and 
return of the sand, the only thing removed being the accumulated 
sediment which is washed away through conveyors into the sewer. 
This device saves much time and maintains the sand in the filter 
bed at a permanent level, insuring a more constant working of 
each unit. Through the previous removal of suspended matter by 
the preliminary filter the final rate of filtration has been raised from 
three to six million gallons per acre per twenty-four hours, just 
doubling their capacity. There is ample room at Torresdale for 
increasing the capacity of the plant to meet the demands of the 
future. 

In the laboratory they are diligently engaged with microscopes 
and media, with reagent and balance in eternal vigilance, keeping 
track of the functioning of each filter, seeking to uncover defects 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1909. 



Purification of Drinking Water. 



225 



and to evolve new methods of procedure whereby the general excel- 
lence shall not only be maintained but advanced. Such is the careful 
supervision of these great water plants that the water supplied is 
always maintained at the highest recognized standards. An abstract 
from Annual Report shows a reduction of both turbidity and bacteria 
as follows: 



These results show a change in the quality of the water from an 
intolerable abomination to a condition quite acceptable from its 
chemical, hygienic, and aesthetic sides. 

Another important bearing of the laboratory upon the effective 
working of the plant may be noted in the following incident: 
Clogging of the niters is expected to occur more rapidly during 
times of freshet, as in the spring and fall, due to increased turbidity, 
but during the period of clear water, in July and August, filtration 
would naturally be expected to go on without much hindrance. It 
was noticed, however, that an increased difficulty was experienced 
and that the beds went out of commission even more rapidly than 
with very turbid water. Here, then, was a mystery to be unravelled. 
It remained for the laboratory to solve the problem, which they 
promptly did. The investigation disclosed the cause to be located 
in the presence of a minute vegetable growth known as chloro- 
phycese that occurs in the river water in such prodigous numbers 
that they actually plug the final filters more rapidly than the mud 
had done it before. This incident happened prior to the completion 
of the preliminary filters. Since their installation, however, this 
difficulty is rendered impossible because the growths as well as the 
earthy sediments are removed in the first treatment. 

There is one feature of the filtered water that every one has 
noted, its freedom from turbidity. We remember very distinctly 
the repugnant fluid formerly supplied. After every storm its tur- 
bidity was raised to any degree, and it remained opaque for indefinite 
periods. As we now have it supplied, there is no perceptible tur- 
bidity, regardless of the weather or what the condition of the river 



Average reduction, turbidity, 
Average reduction, bacteria, 



Maximum reduction, turbidity, 
Maximum reduction, bacteria, 



Per Cent. 
99.46 

99-50 

100.00 



Minimum reduction, turbidity, 
Minimum reduction, bacteria, 



99.96 
88.90 
97.61 



226 Purification of Drinking Water. \ Km '^i^ &xm ' 

may be. The water is always clean and inviting. This result alone 
would have made the effort worth while, but in addition to this, 
we have an achievement that cannot be measured nor calculated ; 
it is simply invaluable. 

The water supply of Philadelphia is drawn from two sources : 
the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers. These streams and their tribu- 
taries traverse the most populous territory of this State. They are 
subject to every variety of contamination, from mine refuse to 
household sewage in such quantities that their waters are but dilute 
sewage in fact. Bacterial examination shows astonishing numbers 
and varieties. Dr. Abbott informs us that he has found spirilla 
among their number; that none is the spirillum of Asiatic cholera 
is perhaps due to good fortune and effective quarantine. Certainly 
we have been wide open to every kind of scourge possible. That 
this is now at an end is clearly and conclusively shown by a study 
of the typhoid fever statistics both before and subsequent to the 
introduction of filtered water. These tables are very voluminous 
and would take too much time to go over them in detail, yet it 
would be very interesting to cite a few examples beginning with 
January 5, 1906. 

Number of Cases per 100,000 Population 
Date. Raw Water. Filtered Water. 

January 5 10.66 1. 

January 12 1740 r. 

January 19 14.08 1. 

January 26 17.80 1. 

February 2 : I9-5I o. 

February 9 21.61 1. 

February 16 27.63 o. 

February 23 19-63 1. 

March 2 17.64 2. 

March 9 10.70 1. 

March 16 9.97 o. 

March 23 10.80 o. 

March 30 12.24 2. 

The record of filtered water in West Philadelphia as a whole is 
very remarkable. Eliminating the cases which when traced are 
found to have originated elsewhere, the number remaining credited 
to the district is so small as to leave doubt as to typhoid in this 
city being caused to any extent by anything except the water supply. 
The indications of this are so positive that when on one occasion 
last summer two or three cases of typhoid appeared close together 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

May, 1909. J 



Barbados Aloes. 



227 



and not many blocks from the boundary of the raw water district, 
the matter was attributed, without hesitation, to there being some- 
thing wrong on the dividing line of the two districts, and upon 
examination two valves were found partly open, permitting raw 
water to get across the line. For the period of seven weeks follow- 
ing November 2, 1906, there was not a case originating in the 
district east of Forty-fifth Street, which altogether contains about 
eighty thousand people surrounded by a population of a million 
and a quarter, heavily infected with typhoid. This fact strongly 
indicates that typhoid fever in Philadelphia comes almost entirely 
from the drinking water and that slow sand filtration entirely re- 
moves the disease germs. 

The time is too short for any of us to forget how viciously this 
work was assailed before its completion ; how cruelly men whose 
life work had been spent in building reputations for excellence were 
torn from their places, and doubt and dishonor heaped upon them, 
but finally the work is completed and upon their original plans, the 
most gigantic effort of its kind in the entire world. It is in the 
very forefront of excellence, both as to construction and perform- 
ance. It becomes an example for all the world to follow and an 
enduring monument to the men who made it a living testimonial to 
their integrity, ability, and devotion, and who will long be gratefully 
remembered after the muckraking maligner with his caustic pen and 
sonorous phrases has been lost among the cobwebs of a dark and 
musty past. Philadelphia is neither corrupt nor contented with 
anything but the best. 



" BARBADOS " ALOES A MISNOMER. 

By Lehn and Fink. 
New York. 

For a number of years past this house, in common with others, 
has been unable to secure Barbados aloes from Barbados itself, but 
has been compelled to secure supplies in the London and German 
markets, whence shipments labelled Barbados aloes were made to us. 
To ascertain the causes of this condition and especially to satisfy 
ourselves whether or no there is a true genuine Barbados aloes, we 
have thoroughly investigated the matter and here present the infor- 
mation resulting from our search. Under the Food and Drugs Act 



228 



Barbados Aloes. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1909. 



great care as to correct labelling must be observed, and we wanted 
to be sure whether the use of the term Barbados was allowable. 

To secure authentic and reliable information we applied to the 
British Colonial Secretary at Barbados, and herewith append his 
reply : 

" Colonial Secretary's Office, Barbados, 

" 16th March, 1909. 

" Gentlemen : 

" I have the honour to acknowledge receipt of your letter dated 
February the 18th, 1909, on the subject of ' Barbados aloes.' 

" 2. I have made enquiries and have ascertained that there are 
no exporters of the drug. I enclose, for your information, a copy 
of a memorandum, which Messrs. Knight & Company, a prominent 
firm of Chemists on this Island, have prepared for me, together 
with its enclosures in original. 

" 3. I also enclose a copy of a minute by Dr. Watts, the Imperial 
Commissioner of Agriculture, who gives a reference of which you 
might care to avail yourself. 

" I have the honour to be, gentlemen, 

" Your most obedient servant, 

" Basil Blackmon, 

" Colonial Secretary. 

" Messrs. Lehn & Fink, 

" 120 William Street, New York." 

The report of Messrs. Knight & Co. is as follows : 

" Barbados aloes is still used locally in medicine, but the small 
stock in the hands of the druggists here, bought for the most part 
from the growers years ago, comprises, as far as I can learn, all 
of the genuine article left in the world to-day, its manufacture for 
export having been discontinued. 

" The drug now figuring in the markets of the world as ' Bar- 
bados aloes ' is really exported from Curacao, the produce of that 
Island and its neighbours, Aruba and Bonaire. 

" I believe about 15 or 20 years ago plants of the Barbados gourd 
were introduced into Curacao by a schooner trader from Barbados, 
and as this gourd (in which aloes is packed for export) is regarded 
as a sort of Hall Mark of the genuine Barbados article, its use 
enabled the Curacao shippers to obtain a ready market in London 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
May, 1909. f 



Barbados Aloes. 



229 



and elsewhere, and it is doubtless this unfair competition which 
caused the extinction of our industry. 

" Curacao aloes is still, however, shipped under its right name, 
but this is packed as heretofore in boxes and not in gourds and 
obtains a lesser price. 

" Barbados aloes is quoted by all the English and American 
wholesale druggists in their catalogues, and it is possible to buy 
hundreds and thousands of pounds of an article under this name, in 
spite of the fact that the genuine article is no longer exported from 
Barbados. " 

" Copy of Minute by the Imperial Commissioner of Agriculture." 

" Hon. Col. Sec. : 

" I think Mr. Knight's minute describes the situation clearly 
and fully. 

" The question arises if it is worth while to investigate the 
industry with a view to its revival. 

" The whole question was carefully considered by Mr. Freeman, 
and his observations were published in the West Indian Bulletin* 
Volume III, pages 178-189, to which Messrs. Lehn & Fink might 
be referred. Copies of this publication should be available at Messrs. 
Gillespie Bros., 4 Storn Street, New York, library of Cornell Uni- 
versity, library of New York Botanic Gardens, library of New York 
Export Station, Ithaca, library of Brooklyn Institute Museum. 

"(Sgd.) Francis Watts. 

" IS, 3, '09" 

From the foregoing and from other sources we may summarize 
as follows: 

Barbados aloes is a term originally applied to a variety of aloes 
first produced in and exported from the island of Barbados, and 
which was characterized mainly by its peculiar and individual pack- 
ing in gourds. For a considerable time the term was confined to 
this product and it acquired a positive trade value as indicating an 
aloes exported solely from Barbados. 

Gradually, however, the appellation was widened in its scope to 
include other varieties of aloes from other sources (notably from 
Curacao) that were similarly packed in gourds, and for many years 



230 



Barbados Aloes. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
} May, 1909. 



past the word Barbados has been employed to indicate simply the 
form of packing, not the origin of the drug. Though this fact has 
undoubtedly been known to many in the trade, it is unfortunate that 
this liberal use of the term has come about, for it has caused much 
confusion and given rise to much misconception. Shippers in other 
countries than Barbados have long been packing their domestic 
produced aloes in gourds and sending it forth to appear in the 
market as true Barbados, and it is apparent that for at least a dozen 
years past if not longer not a pound of the genuine article has been 
produced in and exported from Barbados. 

Upon examination of the drug lists referred to by Messrs. 
Knight & Co. it is seen that the purchaser of aloes labelled " Bar- 
bados " has paid considerably higher prices than for identically the 
same product labelled " Curacao." This trade custom has been 
followed very generally, and is possibly not very reprehensible from 
the ordinary trade view-point, neither has it worked any special 
injury in a medicinal and therapeutic sense. The word Barbados 
has simply been diverted from its original and true significance to 
be descriptive merely of the form and not the source of the drug. 

This house, as others, has long been purchasing in the London 
drug markets, in Hamburg, and elsewhere Barbados aloes, so called, 
which in all probability came from Curacao or other countries than 
Barbados. 

Aside from any injury to the pocketbook which this custom may 
have produced, it has occasioned great confusion with respect to 
our trade knowledge of the drug. Our Pharmacopoeias (United 
States, British, and others) have perpetuated the confusion in both 
their descriptions and titles. For instance the British Pharmacopoeia 
under " Aloe Barbadensis " gives the sub-title as " Barbados Aloes 
(Curacao Aloes)" and makes no distinction between the exportation 
from the various West Indian Islands. The U. S. Pharmacopoeia 
as a secondary title has " Aloes (Aloe Barbadensis, Aloe Socotrina)," 
mentioning the botanical sources recognized but specifying no coun- 
try or countries of origin. 

Thus we have both trade custom and official sanction for naming 
as Barbados an aloes which does not come from that island. 

And now let us point out an anomalous condition. 

The U.S. P. is taken as the legal standard under the workings 
of the Food and Drugs Act. 

The U.S. P. applies Barbados to aloes not coming from Barbados. 



Am. Jour. Pharni. | 
3Iay, 1909. j 



Crude and Powdered Drugs. 



231 



The Food and Drugs Act demands that a geographical name 
applied to a product must truly indicate the place of production ; 
thus Barbados aloes must be produced in Barbados, Peruvian bark 
in Peru, Dutch chocolate in Holland, Roman chamomile in Rome, etc. 

It is evidently incumbent upon the framers and revisers of the 
U.S. P. to reform its nomenclature to make it conform with the 
Food and Drugs Act. We protest that a geographical name in 
the title or sub-title of a U.S. P. product should be correctly em- 
ployed. In the case of aloes no sub-title is required ; on the con- 
trary it is objectionable, producing misconception, and should be 
dropped. Let us have aloes, but unincumbered by misleading and 
untrue titular description. The requirements as to botanical origin, 
tests for identity, purity, and strength are all that are necessary. 



CRUDE AND POWDERED DRUGS AT THE PORT OF 
NEW YORK DURING THE YEAR 1907-08. 1 

By H. H. Rusby. 

An experience of one year, studiously devoted to the examination 
of the crude drugs arriving at the Port of New York, and supple- 
mented by the examination of many lots obtained after their entry 
into commerce and while being distributed to the consumer, has 
been found intensely interesting and instructive. It is the object 
of this paper to convey to the members of the Association as much 
as possible of this interest and information. 

The instructions under which I work for the Drug Laboratory of 
the Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, are to 
ascertain whether the drugs imported, and those distributed from 
one State to another, are true to name and of a fit quality for the 
manufacture of medicinal preparations. The method pursued is, 
first, to examine everything offered for import, which the inspector 
on duty is not sure is of standard quality, and to report a recom- 
mendation as to its being admitted or deported. Its actual admis- 
sion or deportation is in the hands of the Treasury Department. If 
deported, it may be again shipped to this country, consigned to some 
other port, where it is believed that it is likely to be admitted, a 
belief that is sometimes justified by the subsequent course of events. 

1 Read at the 56th annual meeting - of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, September, 1908. 



232 Crude and Powdered Drugs. { Am 'May r 'i9oo arm ' 

As a matter of fact, I have to record that a considerable number 
of drugs rejected at New York have afterward been encountered 
in commerce, and we have known an importer and the manufacturer 
for whom the goods were intended to haggle over the distribution 
of the expense connected with reimporting them at a port where 
" we know we can get them admitted." The statement may excite 
surprise, or even incredulity, that it is possible to recognize in 
commerce a particular lot of drug that was formerly rejected at 
the port, but investigation will confirm it. For example, a certain 
lot of adulterated belladonna root is offered and rejected. The use 
of a poke root as the adulterant would not be specific, but its pres- 
ence in a certain percentage might be. When it is determined that 
scopola is also contained and that its percentage is the same in both 
lots, there is a strong probability that the two lots are one. There 
are many minor differences between different lots of the same drug 
which render the evidence of identity cumulative. 

In another case a broker offers for import five tons of ground 
olive pits. On being questioned, he says they are for a party, whom 
he names, who wishes to use them " as a filler for chicken food." 
We know that the party named does not deal in chicken food, but 
only in drugs. We cannot reject the shipment, since it is exactly 
what it is labelled, and is neither adulterated nor misbranded. We 
watch the goods distributed by the party in question, and within a 
few months secure samples of nine of his powdered drugs, five of 
which contain large quantities of ground olive pits. Is there much 
doubt that these belong to the lot imported previously ? 

Let us devote a moment to the results, respectively, of errors 
in acceptance and in rejection, and first as to assayable drugs. It 
might be assumed that the error of admitting a drug deficient in 
alkaloidal percentage would not benefit the importer, since its 
deficiency would be at once detected, and it would be unsalable. 
The reverse is, however, true. With the present excessive scarcity 
of competent aids and the crudity of organization and methods 
natural to the incipient stages of such a work, the percentage of 
cases detected at the point of final distribution, in the form of 
medicinal preparations, is very small indeed. Many medicine- 
makers, large as well as small, even yet make no serious attempt to 
standardize their assayable articles. From these conditions it follows 
that some are not only willing to take their chances of detection with 
substandard drugs,..but are actually on the watch to purchase them 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1909. 



Crude and Powdered Drugs. 



233 



below the regular price for standard goods. It must also be remem- 
bered that if an importation is passed by the authorities this fact is 
apt to be used by the seller as a sort of guarantee that it is of 
standard quality. An error in admission is, therefore, very likely to 
result in serious consequences. If this is true of assayable goods, 
it is obviously far more serious in case of those for which there is 
no practicable standard, with the probability of detection correspond- 
ingly decreased. 

From this it follows that importers desirous, as most of them 
are, of seeing the objects of the pure drugs law accomplished do not 
show good judgment when they apply pressure to secure the 
entrance of an article which they know to be defective. 

Badly as the above class of errors work, they are, on the whole, 
rather less serious than errors in rejecting. A single act of injustice 
to an importer does more to discredit the law, to excite opposition 
to its administration and to alienate sympathy, than can be overcome 
by a long course of exact dealing, or by many acts of special 
consideration. 

It, therefore, goes without saying that officials who are wide 
awake to these two contingencies will be scrupulously careful to 
avoid errors in either direction, and will, when in doubt, incline 
toward favoring the importer. In such cases, it is customary to 
" release without prejudice," by which is meant that that particular 
lot is passed, but that no precedent regarding articles of that char- 
acter is to be regarded as being thereby established, it being held 
that in future better information may lead to reversal of action. 

This important fact regarding the attitude of our officials is not 
appreciated as it should be by our importers. There is too great a 
readiness among them to assume that the authorities are wrong 
when there are the best of reasons why they should have investigated 
thoroughly before taking action. The really surprising fact is that 
the importer frequently protests with great positiveness when, as 
subsequent events prove, he did not examine his own importation 
to ascertain its character. Numerous instances of this kind have 
occurred during the past year. 

A prominent importer appeared before the Drug Section of the 
New York Board of Trade with the open charge that we had 
rejected his cut dandelion root " just because it had a little dust 
upon it " ; but the inspectors had found that it yielded more than 
48 per cent, of ash, about ten times the proper amount, and they 



234 



Crude and Powdered Drugs. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( May, 1909. 



had separated from it, by stirring in water, more than 40 per cent, 
of stones, ingeniously selected because of their similar color, and 
carefully sifted so as to be of the same size as the fragments of 
dandelion. 

The rejection of a lot of belladonna root brought forth not only 
a violent protest, but one not free from insulting allusions. The 
importer, however, was later quite dismayed to be shown that there 
was not a fragment of belladonna in the shipment, it being all 
poke root. 

Another demanded to know on what grounds his matico had been 
rejected, and on accepting an invitation to call and compare it with 
a genuine sample, declared himself perfectly satisfied that the 
decision was just. 

An importer took the writer up to an open bag of bark and 
pointing down to it said : " There you are ! Is not that genuine 
simaruba?" "Which?" was the reply, as both hands were thrust 
into the bag and two totally different articles were drawn out. 
" Oh, of course," said he, " we only look into the bag ; we can't 
be expected to go through it and examine it as you do." 

A very large and important dealer nearly fainted on being told 
that his ground belladonna root was 50 per cent, olive pits, but soon 
learned, from his own investigations, that the miller to whom he 
sent his fine drugs to be ground was systematically abstracting a 
portion and substituting adulterants. 

Doubtless the most important part of the year's results is the 
demonstration that much of the adulteration of drugs is intentional 
and studied, and is a business proposition purely. The importance 
of this demonstration can hardly be overestimated. The plea of 
non-intent has been in the past the strongest defense offered. It 
should not have been regarded as a good one, even if justified, for 
responsibility is fixed, with or without good intent. In fact, however, 
this plea has been as effective as it was strenuous. Upon the presen- 
tation of conclusive evidence that a lot of drug was grossly impure, 
everybody would sit up and take notice, prepared to soundly con- 
demn the offender ; but up gets an apologist, and says, half plead- 
ingly, " I hope that the speaker does not mean to imply that there 
has been any intentional adulteration. It is certainly true that drugs 
are not always what they should be. Conditions of collection and 
commerce are such that this could not be expected, and I am very 
sure that the gentlemen concerned could never be suspected of so 



Am 'May, r i909 arm '} Crude and Powdered Drugs. 235 

serious an act as that of intentionally adulterating an article intended 
for the use of the sick. Their character is irreproachable," etc., etc. 
Everyone drops back in his seat, concluding that the condition of 
affairs, though deplorable, is inevitable. If it is true in this case, 
who knows in which other case it is also true ? The wicked adultera- 
tors who happen to be present mentally resolve that hereafter they 
will increase the 25 per cent, of adulterants to 50 per cent, and that 
they will be safe in adulterating a few more things which fear has 
previously led them to leave in the pure condition. The most 
effectual means possible has thus been employed for intrenching 
and extending the evil work. 

This claim has worked very well on many occasions, simply 
because to dispute it was impracticable. It is a very easy, safe and 
agreeable thing for men to publicly claim non-intent for each other, 
but a very disagreeable and more or less dangerous thing for one to 
publicly charge evil intent. That condition will never again exist 
in this Association, so far as this subject is concerned. It is true that 
the great majority have no positive intent to engage in flagrant 
adulteration, and that a somewhat smaller majority are heartily 
opposed to it. Yet the evidence this day presented, of a strictly 
legal character, is conclusive that there is a large amount of adultera- 
tion, pursued on a systematic and scientific basis, and with the 
employment of expert assistance. It involves conspiracy to defraud 
among foreign shippers, home importers, millers and manufac- 
turers. It is perfectly practicable to detect and criminally convict 
every one of the parties, and the evidence, both intra- and interstate, 
for doing this in the case of a considerable number, is already on 
official file. 

The question next arises " What then? " Many will insist upon 
wholesale punishment, but those who carry the responsibility for 
this great work have broad fields to overlook. Vengeance is not 
the object of law. The greatest possible good with the least possible 
harm is the motto of the real reformer. If a new entente, in which 
co-operation for the common good is general, can be brought about, 
it will be worth any sacrifice that can be made. When it appears 
that no amount of rational procedure or patient treatment can turn 
some offender, it will be time to inflict upon him a punishment so 
great that it will never be forgotten either by him who suffers or 
by those who see. 

This brief statement of the case, sustained by the evidence of 



236 



Crude and Powdered Drugs. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

May, 1909. 



the specimens exhibited, must be considered in connection with my 
paper of last year, in which I showed that most of the imperfections 
in products were due to very great, though not ultimately insuper- 
able difficulties connected with collecting and preparing supplies, 
and to incompetence and carelessness on the part of those engaged 
in the distribution of our supplies. 

I reiterate the statement then made that no man should be per- 
mitted to engage in the distribution of drugs in any way, who has 
not been compelled to undergo an examination as to his practical 
competence, and received a license ; the same as the pharmacist is 
obliged to do. His license should furthermore be subject to revoca- 
tion if it can be shown that he is abusing his privileges. 

As to the difficulties regarding collecting, there is no escape from 
the conviction that we must gradually work toward the production 
of drugs by agricultural methods. If an improvement in the quality 
of wheat, potatoes, plums and pumpkins justifies vast outlays of 
time and money, it would be silly to waste time over an argument 
that it is worth while in the case of powerful drugs. 

But I am sure that the Association is thinking of other things ; 
you are asking not how the existing conditions ought to be changed 
but what we can do in the present emergency. How can the laws 
in force be administered, or modified if necessary, so as to accom- 
plish their object? For the most part, I prefer to leave this subject 
to my official superiors, but there are several points which I feel 
like urging on the present occasion. 

The first is that our States must not take a complacent view 
of the relations of the federal government to this work. There is 
the most urgent need of strenuous work in and by every State in 
the Union. Even if no mistakes were made, our market would still 
be flooded with adulterated goods. The federal government may 
catch these articles in interstate transit, though various conditions 
render this extremely difficult. But suppose that the adulteration is 
practiced within a State and the articles are consumed there. The 
federal government is then quite powerless. In fact, a regular 
interstate business is done in the materials for adulteration, to be 
used in just this way. This statement refers more to foods than to 
drugs, but the fact of its being possible under the circumstances is 
sufficient to call for some method of control. The only basis of such 
control is careful organization within the State. Fortunately, neglect 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

May, 1909. j* 



Crude and Powdered Drugs. 



237 



of this matter will react against the neglectful community, which will 
become a dumping ground for the refuse. 

In perfecting such State organization, the States cannot expect 
to rely upon the services of the federal employees. There is no 
desire to refuse such assistance; our government has always been 
exceedingly liberal in such matters, but all the government employees 
have more than they can do and are overworked. They would 
employ more assistants but cannot find competent ones. An unreli- 
able expert may lead the government into the most serious respon- 
sibilities by his mistakes, and such must not be employed. The 
States must find their own assistants. 

One of the most important results of this situation is to show to 
pharmacists in the most remote parts of our territory the actual 
state of incompetence that exists in the matter of pharmaceutical 
testing, chemical and microscopical. Pharmaceutical education has 
been just as guilty of false pretense and fraudulent output as has 
drug purveying, and the present situation is going to show the 
necessity of the States making suitable provision for the thorough 
education of inspectors and assayers, from their preliminary educa- 
tion up to their technical training. 

Probably the next most important lesson is that of showing the 
very general incompetence of Boards of Pharmacy to pursue this 
work. The organization of these boards on the basis of political 
pull will result in failure that will become the more disgraceful 
the farther it goes. There is a great clamor at the present time to 
have this work controlled by pharmacists. The theory is correct, 
but the present conditions are not opportune. Pharmacy must fit 
itself for responsibility before the responsibility is entrusted to it. 
That it is doing this as rapidly as any one could reasonably expect 
is very gratifying, but considerable remains to be done in this direc- 
tion before even a near approach to a satisfactory condition can be 
made. 

Let us now consider some of the specimens of adulterated goods, 
taking them up in a classified order. 

Let us first consider a group of imperfections due to natural 
conditions presenting such great difficulties as to constitute an 
excuse of greater or less value. I have here a specimen of henbane 
leaves with an amount of sand caught within their folds, estimated 
at about 28 per cent, of the weight. The peculiar surface of henbane 



238 Crude and Powdered Drugs. { Am 'May r 'L9o h 9 arm ' 

is such as to cause it to catch and hold sand and other earthy matters 
with great readiness. Very often the plant or its branches become 
broken down so as to rest upon the ground, in which case large 
amounts of such impurities are likely to be deposited upon them. 
This tendency is greater when the lower leaves, existing before the 
time of flowering, are collected, since these leaves rest almost directly 
upon the ground. This, however, is not the proper time to collect 
the drug. In the present instance, the amount of sand is larger than 
even these conditions would account for and there can be little 
doubt that a considerable quantity of it has been intentionally added. 

Anise is another drug that is very apt to contain an excessive 
amount of sand, owing to the natural conditions of its production, 
and this is true of all fruits (so-called seeds) of its class. Never- 
theless an anise that contains 20 or 25 per cent, of sand has not been 
properly cleaned. 

This cumin fruit contains stems and chaff to the extent of nearly 
25 per cent. In this drug the stems are so heavy and hard to winnow 
out that an excuse may well be presented. Usually such stems can 
be sifted out, but since cumin is a very long cremocarp, many short 
pieces of stem are likely to escape the sifting process. Nevertheless, 
in spite of these palliating circumstances, it is evident that there 
must have been carelessness when 20 to 25 per cent, of such waste 
matter occurs in the drug. 

This specimen of lactucarium is mouldy through and through, 
and is unfit for use. The natural tendency of this drug to become 
mouldy in drying is very great indeed. With suitable apparatus this 
accident can be wholly avoided, but a great many small producers 
are not thus favorably situated. Mould usually exists upon the 
surface of the drug, but when it permeates the entire mass, as in 
this case, a preparation made from it becomes almost as much a 
preparation of mould as of lactucarium. 

Here are some jambul seeds which have been entirely hollowed 
out by worms and which are quite unfit for use. It is very difficult 
to exclude worms from this drug but once it has occurred the loss 
should fall at the place where it occurs, and no attempt should be 
made to pass it along upon some defenseless consumer. 

This lot of belladonna leaf consists to the extent of 50 per cent, 
of stems and fruits, while another contains 80 per cent, of stems. 
There is often an excuse for the presence of a moderate excess of 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ") 
May, 1909. { 



Crude and Powdered Drugs. 



239 



stems in this drug, but such an amount as here found must mean 
wrong intent. We know that the fruits of this drug are deficient 
in activity, but the medicinal quality of the stems is not settled. 
There is some reason to believe that all except the very large stems 
are equal to the leaves. The subject requires investigation and a 
possible broadening of our definition, but at the present time the 
definition includes only the leaves. 

The second class of cases to be considered is that of drugs regard- 
ing which errors are for one reason or another quite likely to occur. 
It is not intended, on this account, to entirely excuse the distribution 
of such drugs to consumers. It is inconceivable that somewhere 
along the line the mistake should not have been detected, even in 
the present disgraceful state of combined ignorance and carelessness 
among dealers and handlers. We may, however, in order to free 
our indictment from every possible element of undue severity, sepa- 
rate these cases from those in which wrong intent is absolutely 
certain. 

Five shipments of spurious matico have reached New York 
within the year, against, I think, four of the genuine. The simi- 
larity between these two is very close indeed and a mistake, con- 
tinued from collector to consumer, is quite excusable. I therefore 
exhibit mounted specimens of the two articles, and shall very shortly 
publish an exhaustive paper on this subject. 

Several shipments of spergula or giant spurrey seeds have arrived 
as " asparagus seeds," the case being one merely of confusion of 
similar names. It serves, however, to illustrate the carelessness of 
a system which allows the business to be conducted by people so 
lacking in education as to make and continue such an error. 

Nigella, or so-called black caraway, labelled " caraway," repre- 
sents a similar confusion of names. 

A lot of Japanese scopola is imported as " scopola " ; that is, as 
European scopola. So similar are these two plants that so high an 
authority as Holmes has questioned whether they do not represent 
a single species. Nevertheless, assay shows this particular lot to 
be very deficient in alkaloid. 

Coto is one of the rarest, if not the very rarest, of important 
drugs. Paracoto probably stands next. The only genuine shipments 
of either that have reached this market within a year were two 
one-pound samples sent over by Merck & Company as a donation 
to the New York Botanical Gardens. Five spurious shipments 



240 Crude and Pozvdered Drugs. {^'Ma^iST™* 

have been offered and, although rejected by the Department of 
Agriculture, some of them have afterward found their way into 
commerce. 

Genuine soap bark is apparently becoming scarce, and several 
sorts, apparently different, though closely similar, are coming for- 
ward. No one knows anything about their identity or value. They 
may be superior to the original. There is great need of an investi- 
gation of this subject. 

In the second class just considered, not only is the American 
dealer, and most if not all other parties concerned, freed from the 
direct charge of wrong intent, but the possibility of error is so great 
that he may be freed from all except technical responsibility, in 
most cases. 

In the third class, now to be considered, there are also strong 
possibilities of genuine error on the part either of the collector or 
the dealer, but yet the latter can claim no just freedom from respon- 
sibility. His error must have resulted from gross incompetence or 
gross carelessness, since means for detection are ample and con- 
venient and such detection is specifically called for. There is, more- 
over, good reason to believe that in most of the cases such dealers 
have had a guilty knowledge of the facts. 

The presence of henbane in stramonium and stramonium in 
henbane represents fraud on the part of the collectors. By dealers 
too careless to properly examine the drug carefully, this fraud 
might easily be overlooked. 

During the past year, shipments of winter savory and of 
Origanum onites have both been offered as " thyme." They have 
the same odor and flavor, and probably. the same composition and 
properties as thyme, but the substitution is improper and is easily 
enough detected by one who is interested. The last named plant 
has also been imported as marjoram. 

Several different species of Marrubium are imported as hore- 
hound. 

Dealers sometimes overlook the fact that tansy is defined as the 
leaves and tops, and offer the whole of the plant, entire or chopped 
up, an article that should be used only for distillation. 

The year has seen an importation of Japanese aconite under the 
name " aconite." 

Mylabris has once been imported as cantharis. All that was 
necessary was to relabel the article, in order to secure its admission. 



Am May"'i9o h 9 arm '} Crude and Powdered Drugs. 241 

This indicates the necessity of watching for this article in powdered 
cantharides. The quality of mylabris is probably rather superior 
to that of cantharis and its use should probably be authorized. 

In spite of repeated exposures, the worthless brown Strophanthus 
hispidus continues to arrive as " strophanthus." Its use in prepara- 
tions is not nearly so general as a year ago, yet the fact that it can 
be bought in any quantity in all of our drug markets shows clearly 
that many lives are continually jeopardized, and more or less of 
them doubtless lost, through this wicked fraud. 

In the same class belongs the use of the spurious jaborandi, here 
exhibited. Persistent exposure has caused this article to nearly 
disappear, but it is still obtainable. This particular lot was not only 
labelled " jaborandi," but underneath was the botanical name " Piper 
jaborandi," which was an additional act of misbranding, since the 
leaf is really a species of Pilocarpus. 

It seems incredible that any one should mistake the large woody 
rhizome, of unknown botanical origin, here submitted, for arnica 
root, but so it was offered at the Port of New York. It is very 
likely an Inula or a Doronicum. 

The three lists already given include all the cases of spurious 
importations for which an excuse can possibly be found, notwith- 
standing that most of them represent fraud at some point in their 
progress. The following long list includes only acts which must 
be classed as intentionally fraudulent, not only at the point of origin 
but on the part of all handlers upon this side of the water. To this 
statement concerning " all handlers " an exception must be made in 
regard to the powdered drugs, which will be separately considered. 
If ignorance or error could possibly be claimed in any one of these 
cases, such a claim must be regarded merely as a pleading of the 
baby act. 

Three shipments of the well-known worthless maracaibo bark 
have been imported as " cinchona," which is equivalent to calling 
them calisaya. 

Two shipments of the worthless buds of Populus monilifera have 
come in as balm of gilead buds. 

Nearly all the shipments of belladonna root of the past year 
have contained poke root, in amounts ranging from 15 per cent, to 
42 per cent. Many of them have also contained scopola, and several 
other and worthless roots have also been found. So general has 
been this adulteration of belladonna root that at one time nothing 



242 



Crude and Powdered Drugs. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1909. 



else could be found in our market, and there was danger that the 

manufacture of preparations of belladonna root would have to cease. 
The unprecedented action was then taken by the Treasury Depart- 
ment of permitting the poke root to be picked out from one large 
shipment and the belladonna to be utilized. This happy occurrence 
should never be lost sight of by American importers, since in my 
opinion it indicates a very desirable line of action for a number of 
forms of adulteration. 

Dried scammony roots have long been used in Europe for the 
extraction of their resin, notwithstanding that this resin is required 
to be collected from the living root. Recently the additional step 
has been taken by manufacturers of importing a Mexican ipomcea 
root to be used for this purpose. Three shipments of this root have 
been received at New York, one labelled " jalap," the others " scam- 
mony root." 

We have had a number of lots of benzoin in which chopped bark 
occurred in very large percentage, this and the sand present prob- 
ably representing 40 to 50 per cent, of the entire weight. It is 
unfortunate that the Pharmacopoeia does not fix a limit of impurity 
for this very important and expensive article. 

One lot of benzoin was entirely spurious, being an artificial 
mixture. 

Other artificial mixtures are commonly imported as balsam of 
Peru and occasionally as styrax. 

Adulterated saffron has been on the steady decrease, yet many 
such shipments have been offered. A much more disgusting thing 
has been two shipments of calendula, heavily coated with mineral 
matter and colored to imitate saffron. 

The offering of lycopodium has been, on the whole, surprisingly 
good, though one lot was heavily adulterated with potato starch, and 
two lots with pine pollen. 

Kamala, adulterated with sand and with ground bark and sand, 
has been rather common. More unexpected was a lot containing a 
large quantity of our now familiar acquaintance, ground olive pits. 

Broken senna, if clean and pure, is every whit as good as the 
finest whole leaf, and offers a good chance for the pharmacist to 
economize, since it can be bought much more cheaply. Senna sift- 
ings, on the other hand, are full of seeds, sand, pieces of wood and 
other impurities, and should be carefully distinguished as very 
inferior. Many lots of this latter article have this year been offered, 
labelled l( broken senna." 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
May, 1909. / 



Crude and Pozvdered Drugs. 



243 



As is known to most of you, Mexican sarsaparilla roots are 
marketed attached to a short piece of the rhizome. This rhizome 
we are directed by the Pharmacopoeia to remove before using. So 
removed it is known as the " sarsaparilla butt." Several large ship- 
ments of these butts have been received from Germany and London, 
where the roots have been removed and used. Part of this was 
done in converting the Mexican sarsaparilla into rolls to imitate and 
be sold for the higher priced Honduras sarsaparilla. There can be 
no doubt that they were intended to be used here for making sarsa- 
parilla preparations. 

Here is a shipment of quince seeds consisting quite largely of 
small fragments of very young quinces chopped up and dried, and 
possessing, of course, none of the mucilage that gives to quince 
seeds their value. 

Three lots of spurious arnica flowers, evidently the flowers of 
Inula britannica, have been offered for import. 

We have had two shipments of cannabis indica, grown in Africa, 
and several which were spoiled in curing. One other lot consisted 
largely of fruits or so-called seeds. 

Probably the most important and interesting of all the year's 
experiences has been the importation of three shipments of Hyo- 
scyamus muticus as " henbane." This is a very large plant, collected 
in Egypt so cheaply that a ton of it can probably be obtained at less 
cost than a hundred-weight of good henbane. Whereas henbane 
contains but one-twelfth of one per cent, of alkaloid, this species 
contains often more than one per cent., and even up to one and a 
quarter per cent. This alkaloid being all hyoscyamine, substitution 
is unpardonable. Remembering the difficulty of getting henbane 
that will assay up to the requirement, you will see how useful this 
article would be for the purpose of adding in suitable amount to an 
inferior henbane to make it appear to conform to the standard. 
As a matter of fact I have actually found it so employed in powdered 
henbane. 

This lot of inferior lavender flowers, dyed a beautiful blue, is of 
great interest. 

Spurious buchus have been very common, and I am led to say 
that I consider one of the most important duties of the Committee 
of Revision of the U. S. P. to be to undertake a careful investigation 
of the composition and properties of the several buchus. I have 
always regarded the evidence on which long buchu was driven out 



244 



Crude and Potvdered Drugs. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1909. 



of use as very inconclusive, and many practitioners of medicine 
specify it by preference. It is not unlikely that all the varieties are 
practically equal in value. 

The importation of buchu consisting largely of stems is a differ- 
ent matter. Very small, thin stems are perhaps as useful as the 
leaves, but 23 per cent, of thick, woody stems, which we have found 
in buchu, is entirely improper. This subject of the character and 
limitation of stems in buchu also requires treatment in the official 
definition. 

We have received one shipment of charlock seeds labelled 
u French mustard seeds." 

A lot of " cut dandelion root " was found to consist of the bark 
trimmings from chicory. Cut dandelion root containing small 
stones has already been referred to. 

The same kind of stones there found have also been used to load 
anise to the extent of 28 per cent. 

Since every form of tobacco is subject to a duty, it was very 
clever to import the large leaves of Nicotiana rustica as "Russian 
mullein leaves." 

Rhubarb is sometimes subject, for reasons unknown to me, to 
being soft, spongy, and of inky blackness in the interior, rendering 
it apparently almost worthless. I have seen a large shipment of 
155 cases consisting of half of this, the rest of good roots, the two 
being perfectly intermixed. Since the external appearance was 
about the same in both, there was no way of separating them with 
certainty except by chopping every piece in two. 

My account of the entire drugs will close with reference to a 
large shipment of nux vomica, consisting largely of small worthless 
seeds which had been rolled in some mixture of clay, probably clay 
mixed with the pulp of the nux vomica fruit, so that it adhered in 
layers and finally brought the seeds up to the average size and 
weight ; a very clever sort- of adulteration that would have passed 
undetected except by such very careful inspectors as are employed 
in New York. 

Regarding the powdered drugs, there is little to be said beyond 
submitting the list, and allowing the members to form their own 
conclusions. In the case of anise containing 25 per cent, of sand, 
belladonna containing poke root, and digitalis containing stramo- 
nium, the defect in the powder was probably inherited from the whole 
drug, and the miller may have been guilty only of carelessness ; but 



Am 'May r 'i909 arm "} Crude and Powdered Drugs. 245 

when we find three cases in which gentian contained 50 per cent, 
of fibre, and another in which it contains a large percentage of 
olive pits, two lots of turmeric containing wheat starch, three lots 
of colocynth having the seeds ground with the pulp, henbane con- 
taining hyoscyamus muticus, five lots of belladonna root containing 
from 30 per cent, to 50 per cent, of olive pits, ipecac with the same 
amount of the same adulterant, white agaric, euphorbium and 
gamboge with 25 per cent, of cornstarch, sage with 50 per cent, of 
the same, conium, asafetida, and santonica heavily adulterated with 
exhausted birch-bark, and licorice, consisting of the bark peelings 
from Russian licorice, there is but one statement that fits the case; 
each and every one of the drug millers represented by these goods 
deserves to be put behind the bars for a good long term of years. 

I need hardly add that it is among the State boards and State 
commissioners that the principal work in the examination of pow- 
dered drugs is to be performed, for it is this form of the drug which 
comes closest to the consumer. 

In conclusion, I have two questions to submit to the good judg- 
ment of the members of the Association. 

First. — Should not every member of a Board of Pharmacy and 
every food and drug commissioner, State as well as federal, be 
compelled to undergo a special and searching examination, far 
broader and more searching than that for the license of pharmacists, 
and be specially licensed for the work, and then receive a salary 
commensurate with the responsible position that he has to fill, and 
with the time and expense involved in fitting himself for it? 

Second. — How much confidence should be reposed in the repre- 
sentatives of commerce in the establishment and emendation of drug 
standards, in view of the showing made by these importations of 
the past year. There has recently been a strenuous demand from 
various directions that commercial men should be given a strong 
influence in the framing of the definition and standards of our next 
Pharmacopoeia. Surely, advice and assistance from such sources 
should be earnestly sought, but that authority should be vested in 
them, in view of present trade conditions, appears to me to be a 
monstrous suggestion. For many years past a few of us have 
labored strenuously in this Association to bring to the members a 
knowledge of the evil conditions actually existing in the wholesale 
drug trade. As you all know, we have been met by repeated, per- 
sistent and strenuous denial, much of it taking a form that was 



246 



Correspondence. 



f Am. Jour, Pharm. 
1 ilav, 1909. 



anything but complimentary to the knowledge and judgment of those 
presenting the facts. To awaken an interest on the part of the 
members of the association, to secure the establishment of conditions 
that would lead to investigation and determination of the facts, to 
gradually promote a general knowledge of those facts, and to finally 
submit such conclusive and even indisputable evidence as that upon 
this table, has been not only a gradual but a very painstaking process, 
in the face of the commercial opposition to which I have referred. 
This commercial opposition has laid great stress upon the claim that 
it and it alone occupied a position of thorough knowledge of the 
case, and that opposition to its statements should not be trusted. If 
this claim as to knowledge is well founded, then this commercial 
opposition must have been one of guilty knowledge. If, on the 
other hand, it could so greatly err in reaching just conclusions, in 
spite of its vantage ground of superior opportunity, it is thereby 
condemned as unfit to be trusted with the guidance of drug standards 
and their administration. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

UNITED STATES PHARMACOPCEIAL CONVENTION. 

(Incorporated 1900.) 

Philadelphia, Pa., May 1, 1909. 

In accordance with the provisions of Article VIII, Chapter 1. 
of the By-Laws of the U. S. Pharmacopceial Convention, the Presi- 
dent of the Convention hereby invites the several bodies, entitled 
under the Constitution to representation therein, to appoint dele- 
gates to the First Decennial Meeting of the said Convention to be 
held in the City of Washington, May 10, 1910. 

The attention of all concerned is invited to the following extract 
from the Constitution : 

Article II. 
Membership. 

Section i. The members of the United States Pharmacopceial 
Convention, in addition to the Incorporators and their associates, 
shall be delegates elected by the following organizations in the 
manner they shall respectively provide : Incorporated Medical Col- 
leges, and Medical Schools connected with Incorporated Colleges 



Am. Jour. Pharm. I 
May, 1909. f 



Correspondence. 



247 



and Universities ; Incorporated Colleges of Pharmacy, and Pharma- 
ceutical Schools connected with Incorporated Universities ; Incor 
porated State Medical Associations ; Incorporated State Pharmaceu- 
tical Associations ; the American Medical Association, the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, and the American Chemical Society; 
provided that no such organization shall be entitled to representation 
unless it shall have been incorporated within and shall have been 
in continuous operation in the United States for at least five years 
before the time fixed for the decennial meeting of this corporation. 

Section 2. Delegates appointed by the Surgeon-General of the 
United States Army, the Surgeon-General of the United States 
Navy, and the Surgeon-General of the United States Marine Hospital 
Service, and by the organizations not hereinbefore named which were 
admitted to representation in the Convention of 1900, shall also be 
members of the corporation. Each body and each branch of the 
United States Government above mentioned shall be entitled to send 
three delegates to the meetings of this corporation. But no such 
delegates as are provided for in this article shall be members until 
their credentials shall have been examined and acted upon as pro- 
vided for by the By-Laws. Delegates admitted as members at any 
decennial meeting shall continue to be members of the United States 
Pharmacopceial Convention until their successors shall have been 
appointed and admitted as delegates to the ensuing Convention and 
no longer. 

Notification of the appointment of delegates, accompanied by 
the necessary certification of eligibility as required by Article II, 
Section 1, of the Constitution above quoted, should be forwarded as 
soon as practicable to the Secretary of the Board of Trustees. 

Horatio C Wood, M.D., 

President. 

Murray Galt Motter, M.D., 

Secretary of the Board of Trustees, 

1841 Summit Place, Washington, D. C. 

THE SPANISH TRANSLATION OF THE PHARMACOPOEIA OF THE 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. EIGHTH REVISION. 

The close and friendly relations existing between the United 
States and Spanish-speaking countries will be further cemented by 
the appearance of this book, which has been three years in actual 



248 



Book Reviews. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1909. 



preparation. Some delay has been experienced in the completion of 
the translation, due mainly to the passage of the United States 
Food and Drugs Act, June 30, 1906, making necessary some addi- 
tions and changes in the chemical tests and standards. 

The Spanish translation is from the latest revised text and it is 
confidently hoped that it may prove a potent factor in elevating the 
professions of medicine and pharmacy by furnishing a guide to the 
preparation of medicines accurately from drugs of the highest 
quality. 

The Committee of Revision and the editor of the Spanish edition 
have labored earnestly to produce a standard work which will merit 
the approbation of scientific men, and science knows no language 
and no country. 

Joseph P. Remington, 
Chairman of the Committee of Revision of the Pharmacopoeia 
of the United States of America (8th Rev.). 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

The National Standard Dispensatory — Containing the 
National History, Chemistry, Pharmacy, Actions and Uses of Medi- 
cines, including those recognized in the Pharmacopoeias of the United 
States, Great Britain, and Germany, with many references to other 
Foreign Pharmacopoeias. By Hobart Amory Hare, B.Sc, M.D., 
Professor of Therapeutics and Materia Medica in Jefferson Medical 
College, Philadelphia; Charles Caspari, Jr., Ph.G., Phar.D., Pro- 
fessor of Theoretical and Applied Pharmacy in the Maryland College 
of Pharmacy, Baltimore ; and Henry H. Rusby, M.D., Professor of 
Botany and Materia Medica in the College of Pharmacy of the 
City of New York ; Expert in Drug Products, Bureau of Chemistry, 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. ; Members of the 
Committee of Revision of the U. S. P. ; with valuable assistance 
from Edward Kremers, Ph.D., Daniel Base, Ph.D., and Joseph F. 
Geisler, Ph.C. New (2d) edition, thoroughly revised. Magnificent 
imperial octavo, 2050 pages, with 478 engravings. Cloth, $6.00 net ; 
full leather, $7.00 net. Thumb-letter index 50 cents extra. Lea & 
Febiger, publishers, Philadelphia and New York. 

A favorable review of the National Standard Dispensatory has 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1909. J 



Book Reviews. 



249 



already been published in this Journal (vol. 77, p. 539). In addi- 
tion to a revision of the text of the first edition, at least two hundred 
new articles have been introduced. Other new features are found 
in the addition of The National Formulary in abstract, as well as a 
formulary of unofficial preparations widely used, and the United 
States Pure Food and Drugs Law, together with the decisions 
necessary for its interpretation. The General Index, of 120 three- 
columned pages, contains in one alphabet the names of drugs in 
English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Latin, rendering it 
easy to find the article on any substance used in medicine by civilized 
nations. This applies to the minor as well as the major drugs of 
the world. The Therapeutic Index, of 20 three-columned pages, 
arranged under Diseases, brings most suggestively to the mind 
of the physician every drug of value, and guides him to the direc- 
tions for its use. 

It is impossible to review a work of this character in detail. All 
that can be done is to give one's impression after going carefully 
over the pages of some of the articles. While some criticisms 
might be made, one cannot but feel that the work on the whole has 
been well done and is creditable to the authors. It is a particularly 
valuable reference work for pharmacists, botanists, chemists, and 
physicians. The inclusion of more references to the literature would 
have made it of greater value to the research worker. The editing 
has been well done, the information given being very useful and 
carefully selected. 

Squire's Companion to the Latest Edition of the British 
Pharmacopoeia, comparing the strength of its various preparations 
with those of the United States and other foreign Pharmacopoeias, 
to which are added not official preparations and practical hints on 
prescribing. By Peter Wyatt Squire. Eighteenth edition. London : 
J. & A. Churchill, 7 Great Marlborough Street, 1908. 

This is an exceedingly valuable book. The more it is used the 
more one finds what a wealth of material it contains. It contains 
considerable information that the pharmacist and physician will 
doubtless not readily find in any other book on his shelf. While 
it is a book of some 1 500 pages it seems small compared to some of 
the other reference books for the reason that it can be handled 
more easily. 

Substances official in the British Pharmacopoeia appear in large 



250 



Book Reviews. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

May, 1909. 



type, those which are unofficial in small. A short description of 
the substance is given immediately following the title and the main 
headings then follow: solubility, medicinal properties, dose, pre- 
scribing notes, incompatibles, official preparations, not official, anti- 
dotes, foreign Pharmacopoeias, descriptive notes and tests. 

The subject of solubility has been a particular feature of the 
Companion since 1864. In the present edition the subject has 
received the closest attention and innumerable figures have been 
included. Following the suggestion conveyed in one of the principal 
medical journals, in those instances where a substance is very soluble 
in a menstruum, the increase in volume caused by its solution has 
been given; thus ammonium bromide, 1 in 1^ of water and meas- 
ures 2 ; ammonium phosphate, 1 in 2 of water and measures 2^2 ; 
potassium iodide, 4 in 3 of water and measures 4; and quinine 
bihydrochloride, 2 in iy 2 of water and measures 3. A special article 
on the subject has been written for the book and appears on pages 
1 1 36 and 1 137. 

The doses given are those in which the prescribed medicament 
is usually given. In the cases of potent chemicals, drugs, or prepa- 
rations, the doses are compared with the maximum single and daily 
doses of one or other of the more important foreign Pharmacopoeias, 
or where such is not available, with a text-book of recognized foreign 
standing, such as Hager. 

The paragraphs on foreign Pharmacopoeias have been very 
largely extended, and the strengths of all the more important prepa- 
rations of seventeen foreign Pharmacopoeias are compared. The 
French, German, Italian, and Spanish names are given under all 
the important headings. 

Descriptive notes of vegetable drugs have been specially written 
for the book by Mr. E. Morell Holmes, who is generally recognized 
as one of the leading authorities on this particular subject. They 
deal with the principal distinguishing features of the drugs, their 
commercial varieties, and probable contaminations and sophisti- 
cations. 

The chapter on Therapeutic Agents of Microbial Origin has 
been revised and partly rewritten by Dr. R. Tanner Hewlett, and 
gives the medical practitioner a clear idea of modern treatment by 
antitoxins, and sera. 

A chapter on Volumetric Analysis has been specially written 
for the Companion, giving first those solutions which have been 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 

• May, 1909. / 



Book Reviews. 



251 



found of particular service in the author's laboratory, and then a 
comparison of those in use in the British, German, and United 
States Pharmacopoeias. 

Practical Physiological Chemistry. — A Book Designed for 
Use in Courses in Practical Physiological Chemistry in Schools of 
Medicine and of Science. By Philip B. Hawk, M.S., Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor of Physiological Chemistry in the University of Illinois. 
Second edition, revised and enlarged. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's 
Son & Co., 1012 Walnut St., 1909. $2.50 net. 

Hawk's text-book on physiological chemistry is one of the most 
valuable books on this subject. It contains a large amount of 
information representing the most recent researches in this line 
of investigation. The illustrations are numerous, frequently in 
colors, well selected, and will prove of great advantage to the 
student. Subjects treated by the author include : enzymes and their 
action ; carbohydrates ; salivary digestion ; proteins ; gastric diges- 
tion ; fats ; pancreatic digestion ; bile ; putrefaction products ; faeces ; 
blood ; milk ; epithelial and connective tissues ; muscular tissue ; 
nervous tissue; urine; and quantitative analysis of milk, gastric 
juice, and blood. 

The work will be found of inestimable value, not only to the 
student of physiological chemistry but also to the analyst of patho- 
logical products. In fact it might be said that a course as outlined 
in this work should always precede the course in urinalysis, blood 
examination, and toxicological analysis, etc., whether given in med- 
ical or pharmaceutical colleges. 

The Urine, the Gastric Contents, the Common Poisons, 
and the Milk. By J. W. Holland, M.D., Professor of Medical 
Chemistry and Toxicology, Jefferson Medical College of Philadel- 
phia. Philadelphia : P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 

This, the eighth edition of Holland's well-known work, has been 
revised and enlarged, and is too well known to require an extended 
review. It is a very popular book among students and is frequently 
purchased by them even when it is not the prescribed text-book fol- 
lowed in the course of instruction. 

An Aid to Materia Medica. By Robert H. M. Dawbarn, M.D. 
Fourth edition; revised and enlarged by Eden V. Delphey. New 
York: The Macmillan Company, 1908. $1.75 net. 



252 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am, M J a °y r 'wo h 9 arm ' 

This is a compilation of the strength and dosage of official prepa- 
rations ; prescription writing ; an easy method of writing prescrip- 
tions in the metric system ; incompatibility ; some dangerous abbre- 
viations; table of solubility of chemicals in water and in alcohol; 
list of the newer unofficial drugs and remedial agents, etc. 

While this book contains much useful information, it might be 
criticized as reminding one of the arrangement and treatment of 
subjects in a dictionary. It is expected to " prove useful for ready 
reference, both to the student preparing for examination and to the 
practitioner." 

A Course in Qualitative Analysis of Inorganic Sub- 
stances, with Explanatory Notes. By Olin F. Tower, Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry in Adelbert College of Western Reserve Uni- 
versity. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1909. $1.00 net. 

Nearly every teacher in qualitative analysis seems to find that 
the books already published on this subject are not quite suited to 
his courses. The result is that we have very many text-books on 
qualitative analysis. So long as these books are inexpensive and 
contain the teacher's carefully revised notes there is good reason 
for their publication, notwithstanding certain criticisms that might 
be made. It is very desirable for teachers to develop the subject 
independently as the discipline is good for them, and this must react 
to the benefit of the student also. 

Tower's qualitative analysis has much to commend it, the student 
being expected to consult certain standard books in connection with 
his work, skeleton outlines of procedure usually seen in works of 
this kind not being given. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

minutes of the annual meeting. 

The annual meeting of the members of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy was held on Monday, March 29, at 4 o'clock p.m., in 
the library. The President, Howard B. French, presided. Twenty- 
four members were present. The minutes of the quarterly meeting 
held December 28, 1908, were read and approved. The minutes of 
the Board of Trustees for December 1, 1908, January 5, and Feb- 
ruary 2, 1909, were read by the Registrar, Jacob S. Beetem, and 
approved. 



Am 'May r 'i909 arm "} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 253 

The President delivered his annual address, from which the 
following items are abstracted : 

president's address. 

" As reported one year ago the dynamo was carrying an excessive 
load, to relieve which the Committee on Property decided to reduce 
the candle power of the filament lamps in use by a readjustment of 
the lights, and with care on the part of those connected with the 
College the consumption of electricity has been regulated, so that 
the supply is now adequate to the demand, although the lighting of 
the Annex Laboratory has been added to the present system. 

" The increased facilities provided for the department of Botany 
and Pharmacognosy have been of great benefit to the students, who 
have taken much greater interest in the work than was anticipated. 
Forty-three students have taken special instruction in one or more 
of the following subjects: bacteriology, microscopic examination 
of blood, systematic botany, and in special investigation as embodied 
in their theses. 

" The Professor of Botany has established on the roof of the 
Annex Laboratory a botanical garden, which has proven of much 
use to the students in enabling them to consult authentic material 
and to make observations of medicinal plants as they grow. In 
order to increase the facilities of this department the Committee on 
Property has arranged through subscriptions generously sent to 
the College for the purpose to erect a moderate sized hot-house so 
as to preserve plants during the winter months for observation and 
benefit of the students. 

" During the past summer the facilities for instruction in the 
Microscopical Laboratory have been enlarged by the making of 
twelve thousand microscopical slides of drugs and pathological 
specimens. 

" The new Annex Laboratory has been completed since the last 
annual meeting and is fully equipped for instruction. This addi- 
tion has added greatly to the facilities accorded the students, and has 
brought the laboratories up to a standard equalled by few and 
excelled by none. A personal visit to the laboratories is suggested 
to the members as it will fully repay them for the time thus spent. 

" The College buildings are generally in a fair condition, but 
will need more or less repairs during the coming year. 

" Four hundred and forty-one students are in attendance at this 



254 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am May?i9o h 9 arm ' 

session. They are doing excellent work and as graduates no doubt 
will be a credit to the College. 

" There is a slight increase in the number of members of the 
College over last year. Two members have resigned, and one has 
died. 

" The College has always taken an active interest in the revision 
of the United States Pharmacopoeia, and for many years a perma- 
nent committee have had charge of the work in this direction. This 
committee, composed of fifteen members, it is hoped will be in posi- 
tion to render material assistance when the convention assembles in 
1910 to revise the Pharmacopoeia. The reports previously sub- 
mitted by this committee have always been appreciated and con- 
sidered of material importance. 

" The Alumni Association has, as usual, been most active in 
behalf of its Alma Mater and with its strong and aggressive methods 
it means continued success for the College. 

" In closing, the President expresses his appreciation of the 
kindly co-operation of all his associates and hopes that unity of 
action and earnest effort on the part of all the membership and the 
faculty will be extended to him and his fellow officers in promoting 
the continued prosperity of the College." 

REPORTS OF COMMITTEES. 

Publication Committee. — A detailed report of the receipts and 
expenses of the committee was given, the balance on hand being 
slightly increased over that of last year. The advertising pages of 
the Journal continue to maintain the high standard as for years 
past and have received very favorable commendation. The usual 
appropriation was made to cover the cost of copies furnished to 
members and for exchanges. 

Editor's Report. — The editor gave a summary of the contents 
of the Journal. Sixty-two* papers have been published, forty-four 
of which were original contributions to the Journal. These papers 
were contributed by forty-four authors, some of whom contributed 
more than one paper. Full reports of the annual meetings of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, the British Pharmaceutical 
Conference, and the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, 
together with abstracts of papers presented at these meetings, have 
1 een published, as also reports of the annual meeting of the Ameri- 
can Medical Association, National Wholesale Druggists' Associa- 
tion, and items relating to the N. A. R. D. and W. O. N. A. R. D. 



Am May"'i909 arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 255 

The Quarterly Review of the advances in pharmacy and allied 
branches by M. I. Wilbert constitutes a valuable feature of the 
Journal, giving among other things an abstract of the work abroad, 
besides the meetings of the College and Board of Trustees and the 
pharmaceutical meetings, have been regularly recorded. 

Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings. — This report was 
read by William Mclntyre, in which it was stated that eight meet- 
ings were held during the year and that a large number of papers 
were contributed by members as well as some non-members. The 
meetings have been well attended and the interest well maintained 
by discussions on the various papers presented. A variety of 
subjects were considered, ranging all the way from the work of the 
Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical 
Association to ampuls and the cultivation of medicinal plants. The 
October meeting was especially interesting because of the fine dis- 
play of objects of historical interest belonging to the College. Legis- 
lative matters were largely discussed at the November and December 
meetings. The minutes of the meetings have been regularly pub- 
lished in the American Journal of Pharmacy and reports of 
them have been given in the leading pharmaceutical periodicals. 

Curator's Report. — Joseph W. England stated that the Museum 
was in excellent condition and has received a number of accessions 
during the year. Additional case room in the gallery of the Museum 
is needed for the display of the historical collection, and also for the 
general collections of the Museum. The various collections of the 
College were utilized for exhibition purposes at the City Hall during 
Founders' Week in October last and excited very general interest. 

Librarian's Report. — Thomas S. Wiegand stated that two 
hundred bound volumes were added during the year, and a large 
number of pamphlets. The cases in the library, have been numbered 
and the contents of each case noted. The library has been much 
more used the past year than formerly, both by students and mem- 
bers as well as those not associated with us. This is probably due to 
the fact that the index to the various libraries in the city has been 
circulated, enabling those who wish to refer to different periodicals 
to know where to find them. 

The Committee on Nominations presented their report con- 
taining the names of the various nominees for offices, trustees, and 
committees. 

The Committee on Legislation.- — M. N. Kline reported that 



256 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am " May"'i9o h 9 arm ' 

the committee was co-operating with the Committee on Legislation 
of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association and had intro- 
duced into the State Legislature two bills, — first, a bill still further 
to regulate and restrict the sale of cocaine, amending the law of 
1903 so that a strict account of all transactions by wholesalers 
should be made, and a quarterly report made to the State Pharma- 
ceutical Board, also imposing a penalty upon all who had cocaine 
or any of its preparations in their possession unless procured upon 
the prescription of a physician, dentist, or veterinarian. Also, a bill 
regulating the sale of drugs and medicines, conforming largely to 
the provisions of the Federal Act except that U.S. P. and N.F. prepa- 
rations do not require statements on the label as to contents of 
alcohol and narcotics provided for in the Federal Law, and also 
provided that the official preparations of opium, iodine, peppermint, 
camphor, ginger, and ethyl nitrite shall not be permitted to be 
sold of any different standard, or strength, quality, or purity than 
that given in the U. S. P. This bill has passed the House, and is 
now in the Senate. Both of these bills have been held back because 
of the disposition not to grant an appropriation to the Pharmacy 
Board in order to carry out the provision of the law. A bill had 
been introduced through a member of the Pharmaceutical Examining 
Board providing for a fifteen hundred dollar per annum salary for 
each member of the Examining Board, and providing for a license 
fee of two dollars per annum for each drug store in the State, and 
providing for a revocation of that license upon conviction of a 
druggist by the Court of the violation of any pharmacy law now in 
existence or to be passed in the future. This bill is so sweeping 
in its provisions, and introduced at so late a day in the session, that 
it is not likely to be passed, and some of its provisions will cer- 
tainly be strongly objected to by druggists of this State when it 
becomes known. 

Donations were received from the following: Paul B. 
Anspach, of Easton, Pa., gave twenty-eight bound volumes of the 
American Journal of Pharmacy, and twenty-two volumes of 
the Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association; 
J. C. De LaCour, of Camden, N. J., gave sixty volumes consisting 
mainly of books on chemical and pharmaceutical subjects; William 
M. Morrison, of Roxborough, gave a copy of an old English work 
published in London in 1693, called Salmon's English Physician or 
the Druggist's Open Shop, a copy of Parrish's Practical Pharmacy 



Am M^m nn '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 257 

(5th Edition), and an ancient prescription balance and weights; 
and the American Filter and Cooler Company of Shamokin, Pa., 
gave a large combined Montanye's Filter, Cooler and Sterilizer. 
The thanks of the College were voted to all the donors. 

Professor Remington reported that some of the former students 
and friends of the late Professor Edward Parrish desired to present 
a portrait of him to the College, and suggested that an appropriate 
time would be at the coming commencement in May. 

Acknowledgments of having received the certificates of ttonorary 
Membership to which they had been elected September 28, 1908, 
have been received from Henry Greenish, B. T. Galloway, W. A. 
Noyes, Edward Strasburger, William Trelease, and Henry G. Smith. 

The President made the following appointments : Delegates to 
the meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association meet- 
ing at Bedford Springs, C. B. Lowe, M. N. Kline, William Mclntyre, 
Charles H. La Wall, H. L. Stiles, Joseph P. Remington, and Charles 
Leedom; delegates to the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association 
meeting at Lake Hopatcong, George M. Beringer, C. B. Lowe, 
Henry Kraemer, Joseph P. Remington, and H. L. Stiles ; and reap- 
pointed the Committee on By-Laws, George M. Beringer, Joseph W. 
England, C. A. Weidemann. 

The election of officers, trustees, and committees being now in 
order, Messrs. E. Fullerton Cook and Jacob S. Beetem were ap- 
pointed tellers, who, after a ballot was taken, reported the re-election 
of Howard B. French, President; Mahlon N. Kline, First Vice- 
President; Richard V. Mattison, Second Vice-President; Richard 
M. Shoemaker, Treasurer ; A. W. Miller, Corresponding Secretary ; 
C. A. Weidemann, Recording Secretary ; Joseph W. England, Cura- 
tor; Thomas S. Wiegand, Librarian; Henry Kraemer, Editor. 
Trustees for three years: Walter A. Rumsey, Warren H. Poley, 
and Jacob M. Baer. Publication Committee: Samuel P. Sadtler, 
Henry Kraemer, Joseph W. England, Martin I. Wilbert, Joseph P. 
Remington, Miss Florence Yaple, and Charles H. La Wall. Com- 
mittee on Pharmaceutical Meetings : Joseph P. Remington, C. B. 
Lowe, Henry Kraemer, W. L. Cliffe, and William Mclntyre. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 

ABSTRACT FROM THE MINUTES OF BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

December first, 1908. — Fourteen members present. Committee 
on Property submitted a design for a bronze sign to be placed on 



258 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am Ma^"wo h 9 arm ' 

the front of the building. The Chairman, Mr. French, also reported 
that he has received six hundred and ninety-one dollars from friends 
of the College as a contribution towards erecting a hot-house on the 
roof of the new laboratory building. The committee was then 
authorized to have a hot-house erected for the use of the botanical 
department. The question of students' issuing elaborate invitations 
to Commencement exercises was brought to the attention of the 
Board, and it was suggested that a uniform invitation be issued by 
the College. A committee, consisting of the President and Dean, 
was appointed to have a plate engraved for that purpose. W. L. 
Schwartz was elected an active member of the College and Feliciano 
Paterno as an associate member. 

January fifth, 1909. — Eleven members present. Regrets were 
received from Messrs. Lemberger, Meyer, Rumsey, and Pile. Com- 
mittee on Examination reported that David J. Jones had satisfac- 
torily passed his examination and a certificate of proficiency in 
chemistry was ordered issued to him. Committee on Property sub- 
mitted another design for a bronze sign to be placed on the front 
of the building. After a general discussion, the matter was referred 
to the committee with the power to act. Professor Remington 
reported that he had received a communication from Mrs. Emma N. 
Shinn and her daughter, Mrs. Anna Shinn Maier, offering the 
College $200 in lieu of a scholarship. The offer was accepted as a 
memorial to our late Treasurer, James T. Shinn, and the thanks 
of the Board was extended to the donors. Dr. Francis E. Stewart 
was elected to active membership and John J. Bridgeman as an 
associate member. 

February second, 1909. — Twelve members present. The E. T. 
Dobbins Scholarship was awarded after a competitive examination 
to Walter L. Bischoff. Committee on Alumni drew to the attention 
of the Board a recent article in the Alumni Report in regard to fur- 
nishing the lecture room in the Annex Laboratory and stated that 
$131 had been received and that the active co-operation of the 
friends of the College, particularly the efforts made by Mrs. F. X. 
Moerk and the ladies associated with her, had proved of material 
benefit to the College. A sketch for the Commencement invitation 
was submitted and after general discussion accepted. Professor 
Remington stated that the Class Committee was working in hearty 
accord with the Board in adopting an engraved invitation. It was 
ordered that each graduate be given ten invitations and those who 



Am '£"'i9<» arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 259 

wanted more could obtain same at cost. Manuel Zamora, professor 
in the School of Pharmacy at Manila, was elected to associate 
membership. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 

APRIL PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The stated pharmaceutical meeting of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy was held Tuesday, April 20, at 3 o'clock, with Warren 
H. Poley, a member of the Board of Trustees, in the chair. 

William G. Toplis, a pharmacist of Germantown, who was 
formerly employed by the Bureau of Filtration of Philadelphia, read 
a paper on " The Progress in the Purification of the Drinking Water 
in Philadelphia" (see page 220). After presenting the paper Mr. 
Toplis exhibited a chart showing the marked decrease in the number 
of typhoid cases in the Thirty-third Ward since it began to be sup- 
plied with filtered water, on July 15, 1907, as compared with the 
number of cases during the corresponding weeks in 1906 and 1907. 
The chart showed that at no time since this Ward began to be sup- 
plied with filtered water did the typhoid cases exceed four in number. 

Mr. Smith, a chemist employed at the Belmont Filter, spoke of 
the methods used in determining the purity of the water, and stated 
that the raw water is examined once a day, and that daily bac- 
teriological examinations and weekly chemical examinations of the 
filtered water are made. Mr. Smith also stated that there is con- 
siderable difference in the working of the preliminary filters owing 
to the character of the sediment in the water from the different 
sources, those for the Delaware water working better on account of 
the coarseness of the sediment. Professor Kraemer stated that 
when the College Course in Bacteriology was organized some ten 
years ago the source of the chromogenic and intestinal bacteria as 
well as other micro-organisms which were studied was the tap water, 
and that the number was frequently very large, whereas now the 
whole number of organisms is frequently as low as 25 per c.c. Mr. 
Toplis stated that these figures corroborated those given by the city 
bacteriologists. 

George M. Beringer read a paper on (i Barbados Aloes, a Mis- 
nomer," which he said had been prepared by Messrs. Lehn & Fink 
for publication in their " Notes on New Remedies," and that an 
advance copy had been sent to him as chairman of the Committee on 



260 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am •££i3£ rm 

Pharmacopoeia of the American Pharmaceutical Association, and 
probably also as he had touched upon the subject at the meeting of 
the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association last year (see page 227). 

In discussing the paper, Professor Remington said that he had 
received a copy of the same communication, and that it appeared to 
contain a misconception, as the word " Barbados " does not appear 
in either the official definition or description of aloes. He said that 
the words (Aloe Barbadensis, Aloe Socotrina, Pharm., 1890) are 
used in the Eighth Revision of the Pharmacopoeia merely as a 
synonym, showing what varieties of aloes were official in the 1890 
edition. He then went on to say that the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, 
Eighth Revision, recognizes every variety of aloes answering the 
official tests for identity and purity, and that while specifying Aloe 
vera as one of the plants yielding the drug it does not specify the 
geographical source of the drug. 

Professor Kraemer said that papers of this kind serve the pur- 
pose of calling attention to the difficulties which are experienced in 
trying to harmonize commercial and trade names with the scientific 
names given in the Pharmacopoeia, and that in the next revision of 
the Pharmacopoeia the commercial varieties should be given in con- 
nection with the definition. Professor Kraemer then said that there 
were several fine specimens of aloes plants in the cactus house at 
Horticultural Hall, Fairmount Park, some of which were in bloom, 
including Aloe vera, and he also called attention to the aloes plants in 
the College collection. 

In bringing the dis' ussion to a close, Mr. . . s er said that 
Aloe vera, w ich is given in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia as one of the 
plants from which aloes is derived, is not mentioned by the other 
Pharmacopoeias, while other species, such as the African, are recog- 
nized by them but not mentioned in our own Pharmacopoeia. He 
held that the paper reflected the market conditions of the day. 

Prof. Charles H. La Wall read a brief paper on " A Method for 
the Detection of Small Quantities of Capsicum in Ginger Ale and 
other Preparations of Ginger" (see page 218). In replying to a 
question Professor LaWall stated that all of the samples of ginger 
ale examined by him, both imported and domestic, contained 
capsicum. 

Florence Yaple, 
Secretary, pro tern. 




JACOB HENRY REDSECKER 
i 83 9- i 909 



THE AMERICAN- 




JOURNAL OF PHAEM^( 



JUNE, i 9 o 9 SP 



JACOB HENRY REDSECKE 



Jacob Henry Redsecker died in Lebanon, Pennsylvania, on 



April 20, 1909, aged 70 years, 2 months, 5 days. After a few 
years of declining health under the loving ministrations of kin and 
friends, his well-rounded life came to a close. He was the son of 
Jacob and Harriet Redsecker and was born at Elizabethtown, Lan- 
caster County, February 15, 1839. The common schools of his native 
town provided all the preliminary educational equipment possible 
for him. His native energy, zeal, and ambition made possible the 
self-made man of whom we write. At the age of 18 years — in 
1857 — he entered the drug store of Dr. George Ross, of Lebanon, 
who was his cousin. With the assistance that was afforded him in 
this family, as he became a member of the household, books and 
the opportunity of using them were his ; it is noted of him that 
after the day's work was over, for most persons, he was found in 
his room pursuing studies with energy, perseverance, and we may 
well deduce systematic application. It was not his privilege to 
receive the benefit of College of Pharmacy training, but under the 
tutorship of Dr. George Ross, his preceptor, he became well 
equipped, and having attained the qualifications satisfactory, he was 
admitted as a partner in the business in 1873 under the firm name 
of Dr. George Ross & Co., and, after the death of the senior partner 
in 1880, he became the manager of the well-established business. 

By the death of Mr. Redsecker the city of Lebanon has lost 
one of its best citizens, and while he was much interested in its 
growth and possibilities, and a man of strong convictions, political 
and otherwise, he repeatedly declined political favors that might 



(261) 



262 



Jacob Henry Redsecker. 



Am. Jour. Pharui. 
June, 1909. 



have been his for the acceptance. He was a useful citizen, kindly 
disposed, charitable, with free hand and tender heart, and the 
deserving found him ever ready to relieve. 

He was one of the founders of the Lebanon County Historical 
Society and was a frequent contributor of papers, valuable in per- 
petuating the history of this part of Pennsylvania. 

He was also one of the founders of the Pennsylvania Chautauqua 
and at the time of his death was a member of the Board of Managers, 
for many years occupying the chairmanship of one of its most 
important committees, and was most helpful in establishing this 
very interesting and useful summer school at Mt. Gretna. 

He took much interest also in the Pennsylvania German Society 
and generally attended its annual meetings, taking a part in the 
discussion of papers and assisting that society in its historic 
endeavor. 

As may be supposed he was a leading member of the Lebanon 
County Drug Association, active in the support of every measure 
that would advance its interests, liberal in affiliation with his fel- 
lows in the drug business, and his counsel and co-operation were 
a valuable asset to this body. So high was their appreciation of 
him as a friend that on the day of his sepulture during the 
funeral service the drug stores were all closed, business was sus- 
pended for several hours, and the members of the association and 
their employees attended the services and became the escort from the 
home to the funeral train which conveyed his body to Elizabeth- 
town for burial among his kin. 

In 1881 he became a member of both the American Pharmaceu- 
tical and the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Associations ; with the 
latter body he soon became an indispensable factor. In 1884 he 
was appointed a member of the important Committee on Legisla- 
tion and in 1885 became its chairman and served almost continuously 
as a member of, or its chairman, until within a few years of his 
departure, with a lapse only of the year 1897-98 when he was 
elected President of the association ; too much cannot well be spoken 
of the valued service he rendered. He was indefatigable in his 
work in the interest of the pharmacy laws now upon the statute 
books of the State, his great personality won the attention of mem- 
bers of the legislative body, and he became an influential factor in 
preventing vicious legislation and helping along on lines that pro- 
duced the best we could obtain. From the memoriam passed by 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1909. 



Jacob Henry Redsecker. 



263 



the local association of druggists of Lebanon we cull the following 
as a feeling and appropriate expression : (i We hereby testify to the 
valued sendee he has always willingly rendered in season and out 
of season for the advancement of the interests of the profession 
throughout the State of Pennsylvania, and we are not unmindful 
of his great activity and intelligent ability in the service of the 
Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association as a member of the 
Legislative Committee in the formulating and the enactment of 
pharmacy laws now upon the statute books of the State." Honest 
and fearless, he was bold and brave in pursuing his convictions with 
courage. As a member of and continual attendant upon the annual 
meetings of the association, his companionship and genial disposi- 
tion always won the fellowship of the body. His contributions of 
a scientific character as well as the original poems he so freely 
injected into the annual meetings are a pleasing memory. The 
writer quotes as apropos from the Druggists' Circular's recent 
obituary : " Mr. Redsecker was a large man with a bright wit and 
a keen sense of fun and made friends where he went. His talent 
for versification was considerable and on various occasions he turned 
out impromptu verses of merit." 

Mr. Redsecker felt a deep interest in the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy and for 25 years was the contributor of the Maisch 
Prize of $20 to the student that qualified in accord with the re- 
quirements. The College honored him in 1897 by conferring upon 
him the degree of Ph. M., Master in Pharmacy, the distinguished 
honor he very highly appreciated. 

Mr. Redsecker held positions of trust. He was for several 
years a Director of one of the banks ; Director and Treasurer of 
the Fidelity Building and Loan Association. For quite a number of 
years he held the position of the President and Director of the 
Farmers' Encampment that assembled at Mt. Gretna Park, holding 
exhibitions or bazaars of farming implements and machinery of 
all kinds ; as a Director in the Cornwall & Lebanon Railroad he 
possessed privileges and information that materially aided him in 
the assumption of the important trust. 

His patriotic impulses led him to join the Army for the sup- 
pression of the Rebellion and he was a comrade in arms with the 
writer enlisted in the 26th Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers. 
He had the rank of Corporal in Company E and was in service 
at the Gettysburg campaign, having enlisted for the war. 



264 



The Druggist and Tuberculosis. 



jAnS. Jour. Phafm. 
( June, 1909. 



For a number of years after his entrance into the drug business 
he edited a Sunday School paper of the denomination to which 
he belonged — " The Sunday School Gem." 

After a busy and varied life nigh unto three score years he 
has been called to the higher realization and the possible reward 
promised to him that was " faithful over a few things." 

Jos. L. Lemberger. 



THE DRUGGIST: HOW GAX HE AID IN THE CRUSADE 
AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS ? * 

By Prof. Joseph P. Remington, Ph.M. 

The druggist, or more properly, the pharmacist can give most 
material aid in the wiping out of the " white plague." His influence 
is far greater than that of the layman, and indeed in many cases he 
can do more good than can the doctor or medical practitioner. In 
the poorer and more thickly settled parts of the country, the drug- 
gist is sought as a first help. If an accident occurs in the street or 
a person is seized with apoplexy or epilepsy, the first thought is, 
" Get a doctor," but what almost invariably happens is the carrying 
of the disabled person into the nearest drug store. 

The vast movement throughout the world to obliterate tuber- 
culosis and the special education now being given through this 
splendid exhibition show that the people are in earnest, and the 
effective work of the noble men of the medical profession who are 
now giving the best service of their lives to the study of this 
problem entitles them to the everlasting gratitude of the entire 
community. 

The microscopic researches of the great leaders in bacteriology 
and the practical work of the physicians who are reducing the 
results of the research workers to the concrete and providing the 
weapons to fight most effectively this scourge, all point infallibly 
in the direction of reducing the deaths to a minimum, with the 
ultimate hope that tuberculosis may perish from off the face of 
the earth. 

The physician and the pharmacist are friends and co-workers in 

* Chairman's address on " Druggists' Day " at the International Tuber- 
culosis Exhibition at Philadelphia, March n, 1909. 



Am "jun u e r "i909 ari11 '-} The Druggist and Tuberculosis. 265 

every movement for the stamping out of disease, and if through 
circumstances the druggist must necessarily open a store where the 
public may purchase medicines and other means of affording relief 
from disease, this does not prevent his living up to the highest 
ideals and joining hands in this crusade. 

It is a mistake on the part of the public to look upon the drug- 
gist merely as a business man having the sole idea of selling goods, 
without any concern for the higher motives of combating disease. 

The clergyman, the physician, and the druggist must live : the 
clergyman is paid a salary and the doctor his fee. The pharmacist 
is equally a professional man, even if he owns a store. The ques- 
tion as to how each is paid for services is more a matter of form 
than of principle. One takes money from the public by a check, 
the other in small amounts paid over the counter. 

The public is prone to regard the daily services of the druggist 
as trivial, because he has accustomed the people to the idea that 
they can demand services from him without pay or profit, and he 
has suffered in the public esteem from selling postage stamps, 
keeping a directory, answering inquiries, and furnishing informa- 
tion about nearly every subject under the sun. If ever there was 
a citizen who contributed valuable services day and night for the 
comfort of his fellows, the druggist on the corner is entitled to 
first place. If a baker, or grocer, or plumber is asked in his place 
of business whether Mr. Smith-Robinson has moved, or if the crape 
on No. 2308 One hundred and fifty-second Street means that old 
Mrs. Black is dead, and a gruff answer like, " I don't know any- 
thing about it " is given, nothing is thought of it, but woe betide 
the druggist on the corner if he does not know everything that goe? 
on in the neighborhood. It is true that in a way this is a great 
compliment to the druggist. He must be alert, intelligent, amiable, 
and kind-hearted, and withal willing to suffer from a lack of appre- 
ciation of some of the best qualities that go to make up a good 
citizen. 

But to be specific, how can the druggist aid in this crusade? 
In the first place, he must understand the underlying principles of 
bacteriology and he must study the elusive germ ; he must learn 
that there are good and bad germs; he must be acquainted with 
the life history of the tubercle bacillus, and, having thoroughly 
mastered the main facts, he must apply them intelligently every 
hour that he is upon duty. 



266 



The Druggist and Tuberculosis. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1909. 



There are some druggists who will take the view that fresh 
air, pure water, milk, and such things have nothing to do with 
his business, and that he can make more profit in selling consump- 
tion cures and proprietary medicines than he can by joining in this 
new movement; but the alert, up-to-date pharmacist must read the 
handwriting on the wall, " Mene, Mene, Tekel, Uphfcrsin." Let 
him take out of his windows the exhibition of consumption cures 
and clear out the closet devoted to these preparations. He will 
have to keep such things in stock, of course, for he must sell what 
the public demands, provided always that they are honest goods, 
but he need not and should not encourage their sale. Would it not 
be wise and business-like to show in his bulk window sputum cups, 
napkins, sanitary appliances, paper blankets, hoods, and mits, and 
might he not look forward to the time when he could become the 
agent for compressed air in cylinders, obtained from the mountain 
heights and the sea-shore, guaranteed under the Food and Drugs 
Act to be free from tuberculosis germs ? He already sells cylinders 
holding compressed oxygen, and here in Philadelphia where we 
have suffered so long from impure water, containing typhoid germs, 
has he not established himself as headquarters for pure water in 
bottles, guaranteed to be aseptic and chemically clean? 

Dirt has been defined scientifically by a trite saying as matter 
out of place, and this aforesaid dirt is closely associated with dis- 
ease. Cleanliness, therefore, is one of the first requisites in the 
proper treatment of tuberculosis. It would hardly seem necessary 
to impress upon the minds of druggists the necessity for cleanliness. 
One of the means which has tended in the past to spread infection 
has been the employment of old bottles. It is often false economy 
to send any old bottle which may be lying around the house to 
the drug store to have a prescription filled. 

The habit which many patients have of taking a dose of medi- 
cine from a bottle by removing the cork and taking what they think 
is about a teaspoonful by applying the lip of the bottle to their 
own lips is one which is more honored in the breach than in the 
observance, because in the first place it is a careless, inaccurate 
habit, the patients sometimes getting more than a teaspoonful 
and sometimes less, on account of their inability to judge how- 
much they are taking, and it can readily be seen that a patient 
suffering from tuberculosis may contaminate the bottle through the 
sputa and saliva filled with germs, and another person following 



Am. Jour Pharm.) file £) ru agist and Tltb CV Clllosis . 267 

June, 1909. | <b<b / 

after, taking the liquid in the same way, would be very likely to 
swallow some of the germs. 

Then again, if the thrifty housekeeper sends a bottle so con- 
taminated to the drug store to be filled with another prescription 
for a non-infected patient, and the apothecary fails to thoroughly 
clean su- 'i ^a bottle, tuberculosis is passed on to the unfortunate 
victim. The housekeeper should carefully destroy or completely 
sterilize bottles used by patients having tuberculosis or any con- 
tagious or infectious disease, and the apothecary should never 
trust an old bottle, but should make assurance doubly sure by 
washing thoroughly every bottle that has been used. 

In fact, the habit of drinking whiskey or other liquid by passing 
the bottle around, as is often witnessed on railroad trains, is a 
bad habit which should be discontinued, if for no other reason than 
the possibility of transferring the tuberculosis germ from one 
person to another. 

The pasting of a new label on top of an old one, possibly 
reeking with germs, a practice quite common in some neighbor- 
hoods, should be discontinued, and the public should refuse to 
accept medicine dispensed in this way. The act of washing off the 
old label will be pretty sure to result in the washing of the bottle 
and the disposing of the germs. 

In conclusion, it might be stated briefly that the druggist might 
aid in this crusade by keeping in mind the possibility of contagion 
and the spreading of the source, as has been pointed out, and 
that he can serve the public and get at least some financial return 
by becoming an agent for the sale of sanitary appliances, particu- 
larly those recommended by experts. He should certainly dis- 
courage the sale of proprietary remedies, which are now known 
to be not only worthless, but, by raising false hopes of cure on 
extravagant claims, delay or prevent the patient from procuring 
relief through the sources which are now known to be most 
effective in combating the " white plague." 



268 



Food and Drug Adulteration. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

t June, 1909. 



FOOD AND DRUG ADULTERATION AS A FACTOR IN 
THE PREVENTION AND CURE OF TUBERCULOSIS * 

By Charles H. La Wall, Ph.M., 
Associate Professor of Pharmacy at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
and Chemist of the Pennsylvania Dairy and Food Department. 

I have been asked to say a few words this evening- upon a 
subject which a few years ago would not have been considered as 
a factor in the prevention and cure of tuberculosis. It is recognized 
at the present time, however, that no greater factor exists than that 
which takes into account the quality, nutritive value, and palatability 
of the food which we eat. The recent advancement in what is now 
known as preventive medicine is due to a recognition of conditions 
of the human organism which in a state of health is enabled to ward 
off attacks of certain diseases by virtue of the activity of particular 
cells in the blood, known as white corpuscles or phagocytes. The 
duty of these cells is to destroy all invading germs, and the health 
of the individual and his capability of resisting disease are found 
to be directly proportional to the activity of these minute cells, 
which have appropriately been termed the li policemen of the blood," 
on account of the manner in which they attack and destroy the 
harmful germs. 

As the activity of these important cells is directly proportional 
to the state of health of the body, and as one of the most im- 
portant functions of food is to furnish the tissues with a supply of 
healthy blood, it will be seen that the influence of nourishing food 
in proper amounts as a factor in warding off impending disease, 
as well as in aiding in the recovery from disease which has already 
obtained a foothold, is not to be underestimated. It therefore 
logically follows that food products which have been debased in 
any way, either by the substitution of inferior materials or the 
addition of preservatives that retard or destroy the activity of 
certain bodily functions, more particularly the digestive processes, 
are detrimental to the health and normal condition of the individual 
and are therefore to be suppressed as far as possible. 

Medical science has made such rapid strides in the perfection 
of precise methods of diagnosis and recognition of abnormal con- 

* An address delivered at the International Tuberculosis Exhibition at 
Philadelphia, 1909. 



Am 'ju^e r 'i909 arm '} Food an d Drug Adulteration. 269 

ditions, that it has seemed to outstrip the commercial enterprises 
which have to do with the preparation and sale of food stuffs, but 
a closer examination of the facts clearly shows that this lack of 
progress is apparent and not real. When we compare existing 
conditions in our own city and State along the general line of 
food and drug adulteration with those of only five years ago, we 
will seem to have stepped from darkness into light, so marked 
has been the actual progress to those who have been in a position 
to closely observe it. From the numerous instances which have 
come under my observation during the past five years I propose 
to briefly consider a few of those which are more important. 

The title " olive oil " has always been understood by the con- 
suming public to mean the oil expressed from olives, but a few 
years ago the material which was sold as olive oil in the majority 
of cases consisted of cotton-seed or some other inferior vegetable 
oil. Now olive oil in its pure state has a recognized food value, 
and is frequently prescribed as an addition to the dietary of poorly 
nourished persons, particularly those suffering from so-called wast- 
ing diseases, such as tuberculosis. While it is true that a prime 
or first-class variety of cotton-seed, peanut, or sesame oil also 
possesses food value, it is also a fact that the substituted oil in 
most cases was found to be of very inferior quality, often slightly 
rancid, and the substitution was therefore prejudicial to the health 
of the consumer as well as to his pocketbook. The deception in 
the case of olive oil was all the more flagrant on account of the 
fact that the style of the packages was intended to convey the im- 
pression that they were original, as imported, being close imitations 
of genuine original packages, and, as a rule, the degree of adul- 
teration was in direct ratio to the number of medals pictured on 
the label and the claims for purity of the product. This nefarious 
practice has been almost entirely wiped out, and the payment of 
fines in no less than twenty-five or thirty cases brought by the 
Pennsylvania Dairy and Food Department was undoubtedly the 
main factor in bringing about the observance of the law with re- 
gard to this product which is so marked at the present time. 

Milk is a food product second in importance to no other, and 
as it is almost the sole article of diet of a large proportion of our 
population, and has an important place in feeding tuberculosis 
patients, its purity should be unwaveringly maintained. Strict and 
careful supervision by municipal authorities has been supplemented 



270 



Food and Drug Adulteration. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1909. 



on numerous occasions by investigations conducted by the Dairy 
and Food Department of the State, and while the use of injurious 
preservatives has been almost discontinued in consequence of cer- 
tain prosecutions brought by the latter authorities, in which im- 
prisonment was the punishment inflicted upon the violator, there 
is still much room for improvement as regards the enforcement 
of a law prohibiting the watering and skimming of milk. The 
Dairy and Food Department has been hampered in this particular 
direction by the fact that the only legislation applicable to the 
subject provides that the penalty shall be inflicted only upon those 
who " knowingly " violate the law. As it is practically impossible 
to obtain a conviction under such conditions, the fact that watered 
or skimmed milk is not more frequently found is due to the honesty 
of the large majority of milk dealers. It is particularly unfortunate, 
however, that most of the instances of watered or skimmed milk 
observed in the work of the Department have been in the con- 
gested or so-called " slum " sections of the city, where the struggle 
for life is already so great that the supplying of milk which has 
had its nourishing constituents either partly removed or diluted 
must be a contributing factor in the high mortality of these sections 
of our city. 

Cake is not a necessary article of food, but is a frequent addi- 
tion to the dietary of a large proportion of our population. The 
substitution of artificial yellow coloring matter in order to give 
the appearance of richness due to eggs, in imitation of the home 
baked product, was for a time almost stamped out, but is again 
being practiced to a greater or less extent. In a number of prose- 
cutions brought by the Department several years ago, the article in 
question was chocolate coated cake in which the yellow color was 
due to coal-tar color and the chocolate was imitated by adding 
burnt umber to the icing — an addition of a mineral substance which 
was not only a deleterious ingredient, but one that replaced choco- 
late, a substance having a high and recognized food value. In 
this same connection might be mentioned the fact that instances 
have been frequently found in which chocolate has been substituted 
in great part by starchy materials of much less nutritive value. 

The recognized food value of sugar has led to its increased 
use in recent years, but there has also arisen a class of synthetic 
or purely chemical substances whose high sweetening power has 
led to their employment as substitutes for sugar in certain articles 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1909. 



Food and Drug Adulteration. 



271 



of food and drink. These sweetening substances are known to the 
trade under various names, the most frequently used being saccha- 
rin. The fact that saccharin has absolutely no food value and 
is used to replace sugar, which has a high food value, should alone 
be sufficient reason for its prohibition in general food products, 
such as canned goods and soft drinks, but when we take into 
account that the investigations of foreign authorities have so em- 
phatically placed the ban upon it as to prohibit even its importation 
into such countries as France and Italy, there should be no further 
hesitation in refusing to countenance its use. 

Gluten flour is a term used to designate a flour which is especially 
high in the constituent known as gluten and in which the proportion 
of starch has been correspondingly reduced. Such a product is 
frequently recommended as an article of diet where starchy foods 
are to be avoided as far as possible. Several years ago nearly 
every sample of gluten flour was found to be of little more value 
than ordinary flour, but at the present time there is more general 
conformity with the standard of 35 per cent., which has been set as 
the minimum limit for the amount of gluten that this product 
should contain. 

The subject of meat extracts, which are used so frequently by 
those who are in an enfeebled state of health, is another one in 
which great improvement has been noticed. The absence of definite 
standards led to the manufacture and sale of numerous products 
of variable value, some of which were made by the concentration 
of corned beef liquor and which therefore contained saltpetre in 
appreciable amounts. While there is still room for considerable 
improvement in this direction, I believe that all of the second 
grade brands are now correctly labelled, so that the purchaser may 
know the quality of the article supplied and may be forewarned 
of the presence of substances foreign to a high-grade product. It 
would be well if it were a more generally recognized fact that meat 
extracts, as a rule, possess very little actual food value, but are 
principally useful for their stimulating properties, and that some of 
them contain as much as one-fourth of their weight of salt. The 
price at which they are sold averages more than $2.00 a pound, 
so that the addition of salt beyond the amount necessary to season 
is a source of added profit for the manufacturer. 

Five years ago the addition of such preservative substances as 
boric acid and sodium sulphite was of common occurrence in fresh 



272 



Food and Drug Adulteration. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1909. 



meat products, such as hamburg steak. In 1904, after a protracted 
trial of a prominent meat dealer who was prosecuted for using 
these substances in hamburg steak, a verdict of guilty was ren- 
dered by the jury. This verdict was subsequently confirmed by 
the Supreme Court and since that time but one case of adulterated 
hamburg steak has been observed in numerous samples which have 
been investigated. 

Glucose as a substitute for cane sugar in preparing certain 
articles of food has long been recognized as a legitimate addition 
to food products where its presence is not concealed. Until about 
three years ago, however, the glucose found upon the market was 
bleached by a chemical process whereby the finished product was 
contaminated with sulphurous acid, very frequently to the extent 
that candy made with such glucose was observed to leave a sulphur 
taste in the mouth and throat. The Pennsylvania Dairy and Food 
Department made an investigation of this condition of affairs, par- 
ticularly with relation to candy, although this same quality of glu- 
cose was used in table syrups, cheap preserves, and other articles 
of food as well, and after inaugurating several hundred individual 
prosecutions against retail dealers the matter was adjusted by the 
glucose manufacturers' assuming the responsibility for the payment 
of all fines and a promise of withdrawal of all bleached glucose 
from the Pennsylvania market. At the present time, therefore, 
glucose and all products into whose composition it enters are en- 
tirely free from sulphurous acid. 

The Department is now waging a relentless warfare against 
the sale and use of decaying and decayed eggs in food products. It 
seems almost incredible that an article so nauseating as a partly 
decayed egg should be used, but such has been found to be the 
case. It is stated that in baked products, particularly in some kinds 
of cakes, the odor and flavor of the partly decomposed eggs bakes 
out, and from samples which have been submitted to me this state- 
ment seems to be true. There is no doubt, however, that partly 
decomposed eggs, even if palatable food products can be prepared 
from them, must necessarily be unwholesome, and possibly the use 
of such eggs is a contributing factor in the obscure cases of 
ptomaine poisoning which are sometimes reported, and which upon 
investigation lead to no definite conclusion. The inadequacy of 
existing legislation is at present responsible for the failure to 
suppress the evil, and too much cannot be said in condemnation of 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Juue, 1909. ) 



Food and Drug Adulteration. 



273 



the efforts of those who are trying to prevent the passage of the 
bill framed to prohibit the use of unsound eggs in food products 
which is now before the Legislature at Harrisburg. So long as 
this vile business is profitable so long will certain manufacturers 
continue to use even such unwholesome, revolting products as 
rotten eggs. It has been well said that there is no such thing as 
a " pretty good " egg, and the argument of one of the dealers 
who supplies certain bakers with this class of material, that a rotten 
egg is just the same as an apple with a rotten spot in it, and that 
the removal of the rotten spot is all that is necessary, the rest of 
the egg being wholesome, is hardly tenable. 

In closing I wish to briefly refer to the question of drug prod- 
ucts, particularly nostrums, which, while they do> not come under 
the provisions of the food law, nor of any other law in this State, 
are frequently inimical to the health of the individual who uses 
them. The injustice of allowing the nostrum maker to put upon 
the market preparations, often containing powerful narcotic drugs, 
without any restrictions as to his qualifications, while the physician 
in order to prescribe these same drugs is required to study for not 
less than four years, and the pharmacist in order to dispense the 
physician's prescription is required to complete a course of not 
less than two years, has never been properly realized by the public 
at large. Both physician and pharmacist, after completing their 
respective educational courses, are required to pass examinations 
for registration before entering upon the practice of their profes- 
sions, but any citizen of the Commonwealth, no matter how little 
education or skill he may possess, may undertake the manufacture 
and sale of medicines containing powerful narcotics or habit-form- 
ing drugs, with the single exception of cocaine, without any 
restrictions whatever. 

At the present time there is almost universal conformity with 
the letter of the law as regards the labelling of drug products, 
but it will be found that the newspaper and bill board advertising 
of both food and drug products is subject to no restrictions what- 
ever. The daily papers are filled with advertisements of fake 
remedies, some of them purporting to be home prescriptions, in 
which one of the ingredients is always a secret proprietary article. 
Many of them advocate the use of whiskey or narcotics in the 
treatment of coughs and colds, and all of them, from the stand- 
point of intelligent medical criticism, are open to the objection 



274 



Pood and Drug Adulteration. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1909. 



that they are not at all suited to individual cases. This is par- 
ticularly true of many so-called cough cures and consumption 
remedies which are widely advertised and sold, and often used in 
cases of incipient tuberculosis., the great danger of these prepara- 
tions lying in the fact that many of them allay or appear to cure 
the symptoms and thus lull the patient into a false sense of 
security, while the disease is meanwhile obtaining a firm foothold 
in the system, the patient discovering too late that the remedy 
which seemed to cure has but kept him from consulting proper 
professional aid and from obtaining real and lasting benefit. 

It is a well-recognized fact that the solar plexus of the modern 
magazine and newspaper is located in its advertising columns, and 
that there is frequently a lack of harmony and close agreement 
between the advertising and editorial columns of the same publi- 
cation. The reason for such disagreement is not always due to 
wilful intention to deceive or mislead the public, but to ignorance 
or neglect of scientific and incontrovertible facts. No publisher 
would believe or permit to be printed in a reputable newspaper, 
except as a joke, the claims of an advertiser who stated that he 
had for sale a line of suits of clothes, all of the same pattern and 
size, yet guaranteed to fit any purchaser irrespective of his style 
of personal architecture ; and yet the claims of the nostrum maker 
who advertises a remedy to cure some specific disease, irrespective 
of its stage of development or personal idiosyncrasy of the patient 
toward the medicine, is just as mendacious, and still our papers 
teem with advertisements which would serve for amusement were 
the matter not so serious. The time must come when there will 
be control or censorship of all advertisements of nostrums. It 
would be very much more creditable to the journalistic press if 
this step were taken voluntarily, as has already been done to a 
limited extent by some of its members. Even at the present, 
while columns of news space are generously devoted to the dis- 
semination of information relative to the prevention and intelligent 
treatment of tuberculosis, advertisements are appearing, often in 
adjacent columns, of nostrums guaranteeing to relieve, and in 
some cases to cure, consumption. 

I would be derelict in my duty did I not have something to 
say about the labelling of both food and drug products at the 
present time. In the dark ages, when the alchemists sought in 
vain for the philosopher's stone and the elixir of life, and by 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 
June, 1909. 



Food and Drug Adulteration. 



^75 



their labors laid the foundations for many of our modern sciences, 
the use of meaningless expressions and the clothing of ideas in 
language which was unintelligible to the masses and often probably 
to the writer himself was considered a mark of erudition. There 
are some arts which are not to be considered lost. Some manu- 
facturers emulate this characteristic of the alchemists with a similar 
end in view — to confuse and befool the masses. The use of lan- 
guage which is within the letter of the law as to its applicability, 
and yet which is obscure to a large proportion of purchasers, is 
frequently seen. The use of the word " artificial " for " imitation " 
or " substitute " is a case in point, as is also the use of the word 
" simulated " for " imitated." One instance recently came under 
my observation where a bottle of lime juice was labelled to the 
effect that "each reputed pint" contained a certain amount of 
preservative. The capacity of the bottle was found to be about 
eleven and one-half ounces, or less than three-quarters of a pint. 

The laws covering the misbranding of products are so well 
enforced that deliberate misstatements are now confined to bill 
board and newspaper advertisements, and obscurity is relied upon 
to keep the purchaser in ignorance so far as the label is concerned. 
The average housewife has not yet acquired the habit of closely 
scrutinizing the labels of the foods she buys, or of discriminating 
between the foods which are pure and those which have been 
debased by the addition of some cheaper material. If half the 
interest were displayed in intelligently selecting foods of unques- 
tioned quality as is shown in buying dress goods, ribbons, and 
laces, many manufacturers would either have to improve the quality 
of their goods or go out of business. 

When these facts are once properly realized by the public 
whose health is at stake, and when proper education is disseminated 
as to the necessity of carefully criticizing every label of every 
article purchased, there will be a fulfilment of the expectations 
held forth in our modern food and drug legislation. 



276 Drugs and Druggist in Tuberculosis. j Am 'june r "i909 arm ' 

DRUGS AND THE DRUGGIST IN RELATION TO 
TUBERCULOSIS.* 

By Henry Kraemer, Ph.D. 

Notwithstanding the maddening rate at which we Western 
peoples are moving through time as well as space, producing there- 
by a long train of nervous disorders, and sometimes even instant 
death from the snapping of the v.tal cord, we are at the same 
time growing optimistic in regard to the question of the prolonga- 
tion of human life. For this there is ample justification, as on 
the one hand we have the facts to show that the average length 
of life is on the increase, and, again, we see, as never before, the 
beneficial results which follow from the use of good food and from 
hygienic and congenial surroundings. Still more do we see the 
positive results which have been accomplished by medical science 
in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, so striking 
in the case of smallpox, as also by modern surgery through the 
application of the principles of asepsis and antisepsis. 

Thus it follows that we are beginning to form hundred-year 
clubs, in which it is held to be a disgrace for the members to die 
before having attained the age of one hundred years. 

All of these movements are but the signs of the advancement 
that is being made by education and science, and all of them are 
intimately connected with our social progress and ideas of citizen- 
ship. I cannot illustrate this better than by giving Senator 
Chandler's idea of a citizen. He was visited by a delegation who 
were desirous of having him assist them in the selection of a mayor 
of Concord. Name after name was offered to the Senator only to 
be rejected. Finally one of the delegates asked, " Well, who in 
thunder do you want anyway, Mr. Senator? How are we going 
to know when a man does possess the qualities that will entitle him 
to your approval?" The Senator replied in a quiet way, " When 
you find a man who isn't ashamed to show respect for women, 
love for children and animals, and who will walk to the edge of 
the sidewalk at midnight, when no one is watching, to< do his ex- 
pectorating into the street, you may be sure that he possesses all 



* Address delivered to pharmacists at the International Tuberculosis 
Exhibition at Philadelphia, March 11, 1909. 



Am 'jun^'i909 ftrm '} Drugs and Druggist in Tuberculosis. 277 

the civic virtues and is fully worthy of any office you may be able 
to give him/' 

Tuberculosis, as all of us know, has proved to be one of the 
greatest scourges with which mankind have been afflicted, not only 
on account of its not yielding to medical treatment, but also be- 
cause of the insidious and at the same time infectious character of 
the disease. In the case of the other infectious diseases, as scarlet 
fever, typhoid fever, and smallpox, the victims have been carried 
off by hundreds and even thousands in the course of a few weeks 
or months, and thus mankind have been appalled at their ravages, 
while with tuberculosis the victims pass away one by one, and the 
people in general do not realize the large number of victims claimed 
annually by this disease in the very heart of civilization. In other 
words, we are still frightened when we hear of a case of smallpox 
and more or less indifferent when we hear of a death from con- 
sumption, and yet in the State of New York in 1907, to mention 
one example, ten persons died of smallpox to over fourteen thousand 
of consumption. This simply means that the victory in the battle 
against smallpox has been won, while in the case of tuberculosis 
the battle has only fairly begun. 

In the former group of diseases, according to modern methods, 
the patients are isolated, and danger of others' contracting the dis- 
ease is reduced to a minimum, but with tuberculous patients no 
such general methods of isolation have been adopted, and the 
patient may go on spreading the infection for months and years 
by handling money, books, and other objects that are handled by 
other people, by spitting and coughing in their presence, or by 
expectorating on sidewalks and in other public places. 

I fancy that if the material expectorated on our streets were 
by any process to become petrified and thus preserved for the 
inspection of future generations, we would be looked upon as 
barbarians. As it is, it is inconceivable that any one of ordinary 
knowledge or decency would spit directly on the sidewalks where 
others have to walk ; and so we are led to infer that it must be 
either the ignorant or vicious who habitually indulge in this prac- 
tice. But granting that it is the latter class who are thus guilty, 
it is almost equally inconceivable that such a practice should be 
tolerated in any enlightened community. 

It is known to all of us that whatever has been said about the 
hereditary transmission of tuberculosis and its contagious character, 



278 Drugs and Druggist in Tuberculosis. { Am ' J ^ 1 u e r ' 1 g ll 9 arnj ' 

the microscopic organism which causes the disease, namely, the 
Bacillus tuberculosis, is present in the sputum, or expectorated 
matter, and is also found in the spray-like ejections accompanying 
the coughing and sneezing of tuberculous patients. Hence, these 
matters furnish direct sources of the disease. 

For this reason, I wish to point out, before taking up the role 
which drugs have played in the treatment of this disease, that 
druggists should use the utmost care and cleanliness in handling 
the prescriptions, bottles, and other objects brought into their stores 
by those suffering from tuberculosis. And, if I were to recommend 
what I really believe to be desirable, I would say that the bottles 
should not be accepted for refilling or else should be sterilized, 
and that some means should also be devised for receiving and 
handling such prescriptions. Of course, unless practices like this 
are intelligently carried out, many oversights and inconsistencies 
arise which throw discredit on the work. You all know the story 
of Pasteur, who, after having washed some cherries in a tumbler 
of water, absent-mindedly drank the water. However this may 
be, the question should receive our thoughtful consideration. 

DRUGS USED IN TUBERCULOSIS. 

To the casual observer at this Exhibition three things are 
brought to his attention : ( 1 ) the conditions of life that tend to 
the development of tuberculosis; (2) pathogenic effects produced 
in various tissues and organs, and (3) illustrations of the hygienic 
methods used in the treatment of tuberculosis. It would therefore 
appear that at the present time drugs and druggists play a very 
minor part in the movement for the eradication of consumption, 
and yet it can be shown that the druggist has a genuine and 
distinct part to play in this crusade. 

The number of remedies and methods which has "been proposed 
and used in the treatment of tuberculosis is legion. If we go 
back to the middle of the eighteenth century we find in a medical 
work written by John Wesley 1 that the methods of treatment were 
somewhat as follows : One in a deep consumption was advised to 
drink nothing but water, and to eat nothing but water-gruel, with- 
out salt or sugar; or to take a pint of skimmed milk, with half a 
pint of small beer, and boil in this whey about twenty ivy leaves 
and two or three sprigs of hyssop, and to drink one-half of the 
liquid over night and the rest in the morning. It may be pointed 



Am 'jm" r 'i9u9 arIn '} Drugs and Druggist in Tuberculosis. 279 

out that the principal difference between this and the modern 
method is that beer and alcoholic liquors are now forbidden. 
Another remedy combined a cow-heel from the tripe house ready 
dressed, two quarts of new milk, two ounces of isinglass, a quarter 
of a pound of sugar candy, and a trace of ginger. The benefits 
of fresh air were apparently recognized. The patient was directed 
to cut up a little turf of fresh earth every morning, and lying 
down to breathe into the hole for a quarter of an hour. Blood- 
letting was advised for a patient who was so weak he could not 
stand, and this was to be kept up for a fortnight if he lived so 
long. Inhalation methods were also used. 

Coming to the middle of the nineteenth century 2 and later we 
find that in addition to the teas, syrups, and other cough remedies 
and inhalations, the patients were often advised to take twenty or 
twenty-five drops of laudanum every night, and if this did not 
give relief they were advised to take an emetic of ipecac every day 
until relieved. For pain and great soreness of chest it was advised 
that " a blister should be drawn and repeated, if necessary or ser- 
viceable." Pitch plasters were also recommended. Tartar emetic 
was likewise directed to be used as a counter-irritant, being applied 
where a blister had been previously applied, thus keeping up the 
soreness. However, the patients were advised against strong medi- 
cines and to use proper food and frequent exercise in the open air ; 
and the beneficial effects of these latter agents were emphasized, 
showing that whatever were the theories in regard to the cause of 
the disease, the treatment was quite rational in some respects. 

Following the discovery of the tubercle bacillus by Koch, in 
1882, antiseptics and disinfectants had quite a vogue in the treat- 
ment of tuberculosis. Some of the most powerful gases, including 
chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen sulphide, sulphurous acid, 
formaldehyde, and hydrofluoric acid gases, have been used as in- 
halations. The gases were generated in special chambers or in the 
sick room, and it was claimed that the bacilli were destroyed, and 
the toxins oxidized and finally eliminated. Some of the antiseptics 
were administered internally with the idea of their being eliminated 
through the lungs and thus having a direct action on the bacilli, 
as iodoform and creosote. Even injections into the pulmonary 
cavities of mixtures of eucalyptus oil and iodoform have been re- 
sorted to, which method Stifle says is more remarkable for its 
boldness than for its reasonableness or success. 



280 Drugs and Druggist in Tuberculosis. { Am- J f l i" r ' 1 9 h 9 arm - 

A few years ago in an address before the British Medical 
Association Dr. Goodhart 3 summed up medical opinion in regard 
to this class of agents in the following words : " Antiseptics in lung 
diseases from all the many inhalations up to iodoform, and finally 
creosote internally, have had a good inning and have not been 
without their minor successes; but it was very mete and right 
that the comparative inefficacy of such nauseous medicaments should 
drive us back into the arms of the great original antiseptic — 
fresh air." 

The drugs which are used at the present time in the treatment 
of tuberculosis may be grouped under the following heads: (i) 
the so-called tonics, including preparations of iron, and the hypo- 
phosphites ; (2) foods, as cacao butter, cod-liver oil, olive oil, and 
koumiss; (3) medicines tending to aid digestion, as pepsin, pan- 
creatin, with or without hydrochloric or phosphoric acid; (4) ex- 
pectorants, as balsam of tolu, wood tar, and cocillana ; (5) inunc- 
tions, as of iodoform or europhen; (6) simple home remedies, as 
colt's-foot, comfrey, lungwort, Iceland moss, scarlet pimpernel, 
and water hemlock. Over a hundred synthetics and other chemicals 
have come into use in the treatment of tuberculosis probably within 
the past twenty or twenty-five years, including the salts of guaiacol, 
heroin, thiocol, and europhen. 

In going through the literature relating to the medicines used 
in the treatment for tuberculosis, one feels that apart from those 
prescribed for certain special symptoms or conditions, as of hemor- 
rhage or coughing, they seem to be used more or less at random, 
or in other words the treatment seems to be more or less experi- 
mental. Yet notwithstanding this apparent latitude in the selection 
of remedies, there are some writers who appear to have reduced 
the treatment to a rational system, in which certain remedies are 
given with a view of producing a definite effect. Sajous 4 has 
elaborated a very attractive theory in regard to the nature of 
tuberculosis, and the remedies to be used in stimulating the patient 
to destroy the tubercle bacillus and its toxin. According to Sajous 
the following drugs when administered internally have the property 
of destroying the tubercle bacillus and its toxin (endotoxin) : 
potassium iodide, thyroid extract, and salts of mercury. In addi- 
tion to out-door life as a means of increasing nutrition and thereby 
the protective efficiency of the lungs, he recommends creosote car- 
bonate, strychnine, and digitalis. Among the agents which are 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) DrUgS and Dfllggist ill TllbCY CllloSXS. 28 1 

June, 1909. j e> 00 

considered to have a specific action by indirectly destroying the 
tubercle bacillus are the tuberculins. According to one theory the 
tuberculins increase the amount of certain constituents (opsonins) 
in the blood, which in turn affect the bacilli in such a way that 
they are taken up and destroyed by the white blood-corpuscles. 
There is a tendency in tuberculosis for the alkalinity of the blood 
to be reduced, and this is maintained by the use of sodium chloride 
and combinations of salts as in sea-water. Although there may 
be no one remedy thus far discovered which can be relied upon as 
a cure for tuberculosis, there are certain medicines which are very 
useful in the treatment of the special symptoms and conditions 
which arise during the course of the disease, as bromide of sodium, 
oil of sandalwood, oil of eucalyptus, hydrastis, and chloroform for 
coughing; morphine, veratrum viride, potassium bromide, and cer- 
tain auxiliary measures for the hemorrhage (haemoptysis) ; atropine, 
camphoric acid for the night sweats ; and saline solutions for the 
fever. 

Thus it is seen that the list of medicines that have been or are 
used in the treatment of tuberculosis is a long one, and while a 
moderate number of them are beneficial under certain conditions, 
it is generally admitted that among the ordinary forms of medicine 
no specific for the disease exists. Besides, it should be emphasized 
that the disease is of such a serious character that it should always 
be treated by the skilled physician, even by the specialist. More- 
over, if the disease is not properly diagnosed and treated in the 
early stages, a cure can rarely be effected. 

The common saying that if a remedy don't do any good it 
won't do any harm is one of the most harmful pertaining to the 
use of medicines. Such a rule does harm in two ways : In the first 
instance, proper treatment may be delayed and the disease may 
gain such a headway that cure is difficult or impossible. In the 
second instance, supposedly simple or commonly used remedies 
might be used in cases where certain complications exist and have 
just the opposite effect from that desired. It is well recognized, 
for instance, that iron 5 is useful in anaemic conditions, but if 
given in case of tuberculosis where the number of red blood-cor- 
puscles is normal, it might induce the hemorrhage or haemoptysis, or 
hasten the progress of the disease. To indicate still further to the 
public as well as the druggist the caution which should be exercised 
with reference to self-medication or in advising others. Dr. Sajous 



282 Drugs and Druggist in Tuberculosis. { Am 'j^ u e r 'i909 arm ' 

states that even in the case of coughs of obscure origin, especially 
those ascribed to colds, he treats them as if he were dealing with 
incipient cases of tuberculosis. It is true that in some cases the 
patient is able to overcome the disease by attention to his general 
health, but again I would emphasize that the responsibility is too 
great for the druggist to make any attempt at its treatment, and 
for the sake of the general community as well as the patient him- 
self he should be strongly advised to consult a physician or to go 
to a dispensary. Here is where the druggist can render a great 
amount of assistance to the patient as well as to the community. 
It is probably true that the majority of persons having tuberculosis 
go to the druggist in the early stages of the disease for cough 
medicines and simple remedies, and probably for advice. Thus it 
follows that the druggist has an opportunity for properly directing 
this class of persons, and he should fully realize the responsibility 
which rests upon him. 

There is another phase of this question upon which the drug- 
gist should take a - positive stand, namely, in his opposition to the 
sale and use of patent medicines which are advised as cures for 
tuberculosis. In some cases they may be harmful ; in other cases 
they may be harmless, but at any rate they require the patient's 
money and delay proper treatment in the early stages of the disease 
when, if ever, a cure can be effected, and in this way are decidedly 
harmful and therefore should be condemned by the druggist. This 
is the responsibility which he should assume. 

This question is of so much moment that last year the Committee 
on the Prevention of Tuberculosis of the Charity Organization 
Society of the City of New York passed the following resolution: 

"Whereas, In our opinion there is no specific medicine for 
this disease known and the so-called cures and specifics and special 
methods of treatment (by electricity, X-rays, electric light treat- 
ment, "diet" cures, plasters, serums, etc.) widely advertised in 
the daily papers are, in the opinion of the Committee, without value 
and do not at all justify the extravagant claims made for them, 
and serve chiefly to enrich their promoters at the expense of the 
poor and frequently ignorant or credulous person suffering from 
tuberculosis ; therefore, 

"Resolved, That a public announcement be made that it is the 
unanimous opinion of the members of this Committee that there 



Am "jiney'i9M arm '} Drugs and Druggist in Tuberculosis. 283 

exists no specific medicine for the treatment of pulmonary tuber- 
culosis, and that no cure can be expected from any kind of adver- 
tised medicine or method, but only from a sufficient supply of pure 
air, nourishing food, needed rest, attention to the hygiene of the 
skin, and such medicine as appears from time to time required, in 
the judgment of a physician." 

To give still more authority to this part of the argument, I 
wish to make one quotation from the Journal of the American 
Medical Association. It is as follows: " The patient had wasted 
nearly eight months of precious time, closely housed and depending 
on the restorative virtues of Manola, instead of consulting a physi- 
cian at a time when a properly regulated out-of-door life might 
have saved him." 

I therefore hope that the time is at hand when no druggist 
worthy of the name will sell, even when asked to do so, a so-called 
consumption cure. Probably in no other way would the physician 
have a better means of judging of the professional character of 
the druggist than by his attitude on this question, and probably in 
no other way could the druggist show to better advantage those 
positive principles which should actuate him than by refusing to 
sell these remedies. 

I have ascertained that there are at the present time about 
one hundred patent or proprietary consumption cures on the mar- 
ket, and some of them are advertised with remarkable ingeniousness 
and effrontery, their proprietors taking advantage of nearly all 
the arguments known to science and ethics. As if to steer clear 
of all objections that might come from an authoritative source, 
one of these concerns distinctly states in their circular that their 
remedy contains none of the drugs required to be mentioned on the 
label under the Section on Misbranding of the Food and Drugs 
Act, such as morphine, cocaine, and acetanilide, and no coal-tar 
derivative or any poisonous drug; and then goes on to state that 
it is " guaranteed by the makers to conform to all the provisions 
of the Food and Drugs Act, June 30, 1906, No. 1242." There 
are one or two features about these statements which show the 
degree of advancement to which this firm has attained. In the 
first instance it may be mentioned that coal-tar derivatives do not 
find favor with therapeutists in the treatment of tuberculosis, and 
therefore this firm has found it desirable to state that their prepara- 
tion does not contain them. Again, as another evidence of their 



284 Drugs and Druggist in Tuberculosis. { Am ' J J°e r, l ^ arn1, 

strict honesty, they do not claim that their preparation is guaranteed 
by the Government, as some less far-sighted have done, but claim 
only that it is guaranteed by the makers to conform to all the 
provisions of the Food and Drugs Act. " A few pointed truths " 
are given for " those who may be inclined to consumption," in this 
circular, following which is some matter that we are asked to 
read carefully. This I did, and find that their's " is a remedy that 
destroys the tubercle bacilli " and that " this has been proven by 
microscopical examination." As if this would not silence or satisfy 
the most sceptical or critical, we learn further on that " several 
hundred clergymen are using and endorsing the remedy, and that 
it is not advertised in the newspapers and never has been." Then 
coining to the fourth cover page of this remarkable booklet, we 
find among other things that the patient is directed to ask his drug- 
gist for the remedy, and that the price is two dollars a bottle, all 
of which should lead to a favorable impression of its value and 
respectability. 

Without unduly enlarging upon the subject of patent medicines, 
I merely wish to repeat the words of Samuel Hopkins Adams : 
" One and all, the men who advertise medicines to cure consump- 
tion deliberately traffic in human life." 

A NEW FIELD FOR THE PHARMACIST. 

There is still another line of work in which the druggist can 
engage in co-operating with the physician and health authorities 
in dealing with tuberculosis. In some of the other lines in which 
the druggist is called upon to take a definite stand, as already 
indicated, the questions that he has to consider involve purely 
ethical and economical principles, such as moralists or students of 
social science might consider, but in this other field of work which 
should claim his attention his ability as a scientific and practical 
worker will be called into play. Next to the discovery that tuber- 
culosis is a germ disease, probably the most important fact to be 
recognized is that it is a communicable or contagious disease. The 
knowledge of the former enables the physician to treat the disease 
in a rational manner, and of the latter to devise and practice meas- 
ures which will limit and prevent its spread. This means eternal 
vigilance on the part of all of those having the care of tuberculous 
patients. Moreover, the actual amount of practical scientific work 
to be done in caring for and treating this class of patients in this 



^'ji O n U e^'i909 arm '} Drugs and Druggist in Tuberculosis. 285 

country is so large that, notwithstanding- the number of hospitals, 
dispensaries, sanitaria, and private laboratories, we learn from good 
authority that the force is not by any means adequate to carry it 
on properly. In a paper on " The Crusade against Tuberculosis," 
read before the Third Maryland State Conference of Charities and 
Corrections (1907) by Dr. Lawrence F. Flick 6 he said: "Inas- 
much as disinfection of places and things which have been con- 
taminated by disease is a very large, extensive project, it might 
be well for governments to lay down general principles, and in 
many instances permit individuals to carry out the disinfection upon 
these principles. In this way every druggist in the land, for 
instance, might be made an agent of preventive medicine, and a 
useful field of activity for the druggist might be thus established." 
This suggestion of Dr. Flick's seems to me to be a very timely 
one, and I feel sure that if druggists were to announce their willing- 
ness and readiness to carry on the work of disinfection, the effort 
would prove a fruitful one to them. They might not only be able 
to co-operate with boards of health in disinfecting houses and 
various contaminated articles where provision is made for defray- 
ing the expenses by the municipal and State authorities, but also 
might be able to carry on the work of disinfection for that class 
of persons who are able to pay for such services, and might perhaps 
prefer to have it done in this way. The methods used in disinfec- 
tion are very simple so far as the pharmacist is concerned, he having 
a thorough knowledge of the processes used and the properties of 
the chemicals employed. The methods directed by the boards of 
health require no expensive apparatus, and thus practically the 
whole expense would be in the time consumed and for the chemicals 
employed. 

In this same line of work may also be included certain micro- 
scopical and chemical examinations, which the pharmacist is able 
to carry on, or should be able to. carry on with very little additional 
training and practice, as in the examination of the urine, sputum, 
and blood in the diagnosis and prognostication of the disease. In 
the early stages of the disease it appears to be somewhat difficult 
to diagnose it, and it is stated that it is frequently mistaken for 
malaria. In instances of this kind examination of the blood would 
show whether the disease is malaria. In diagnosing tuberculosis a 
bacteriologic examination of the sputum is now commonly made. 
It being true that in the very early stages of the disease the specific 



286 Drugs and Druggist in Tuberculosis. { Am " j'in U e r "i9oy arm " 

organism causing the disease may not at first be found in the 
sputum, it is necessary to examine a number of samples before 
positive results are obtained. In the more or less local affections 
of tuberculosis, as of the kidneys, chemical and microscopical ex- 
aminations of the urine and faeces are also resorted to. 

Biologic examinations of this kind are sure to come more and 
more into use in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis, and 
while the boards of health are ready to do this work, as they arc 
that of disinfection of dwellings and clothing, there are many 
physicians who, for their private practice, prefer to have the work 
done by pharmacists. In New York City there is an arrange- 
ment whereby certain druggists act as the agents for the board of 
health in receiving samples of sputum and for distributing certain 
articles that are given to tuberculosis patients, as paper spit cups, 
etc., and their stores are also depots for the antitoxin and vaccine 
used by the Department. 

If the pharmacist shows himself alert and capable of carrying 
on this class of work, I see no reason why it should not open up an 
interesting and profitable field for him, and one which ought to 
give him far more satisfaction than that of acting as the agent of 
patent medicine concerns. The sooner the pharmacist can establish 
himself on those broad humanitarian principles which lie at the 
foundation of medical practice, the sooner he will come into his 
own, not only as regards his relation with the physician but also 
in his estimation by the public. He needs that faith which will 
enable him gladly to let go of some of the petty merchandise which 
he handles, and to branch out into wider scientific fields. Only 
by being true to the highest traditions of his calling can he hope to 
hold his place in this great forward movement of science, education, 
and humanitarianism. 

It is gratifying to reflect in this connection that away back 
in 1 82 1 the pharmacists of this city took up the subject of secret 
and quack medicines, and ever since have done what they could 
" to strip quackery of some of its mystery and borrowed plumes, 
and expose, in naked deformity, its shallow and wicked foundation.'' 
Later this first step against quackery and fraud had its fruition in 
the founding of the American Pharmaceutical Association in 1852, 
which was primarily established with the object of preventing the 
adulteration and sophistication of drugs, and whose work during 
all these years largely paved the way for the enactment in 1906 



Am jin U e r 'i909 arm ' } Drugs and Druggist in Tuberculosis. 287 

of the National Pure Food and Drugs Law. And with the present 
educational and professional awakening we are justified in looking 
forward to the centenary of this first upward step in this country 
with confidence and hope. 

HEALTH OF THE PHARMACIST. 

While we see in the post-graduate courses of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association an evidence that American pharmacy 
is steadily advancing, and while the pharmacist undoubtedly recog- 
nizes that health is a social product, to use the language of Presi- 
dent Eliot, he has in the past failed to consider himself sufficiently, 
and by his attention to his duties and indoor life has been sacrificing 
his own health. That this is true is shown by statistics. We find 
that in the list of death-rates from consumption among men in fifty- 
three occupations in the United States, in 1900, apothecaries and 
pharmacists are thirty-seventh on the list beginning with those 
who are least affected, namely, bankers and brokers, while teachers 
who are also more or less confined are only eleventh, and physicians 
only fourteenth on the list. 

The American Federation of Labor in beginning its war on 
consumption recommends among other things, ( 1 ) continued agita- 
tion -for a shorter work-day to a maximum of eight hours; (2) 
release from work at least one full day in seven; (3) a Saturday 
half-holiday at least during the summer months. It can hardly be 
gainsaid that pharmacists should make a similar advance. While 
there are some pharmacists in this city and in other parts of the 
country who close their stores a portion of the day on Sunday, and 
close them comparatively early in the evening on other days, still 
their day is a very long one, and it is therefore to be hoped that 
for the sake of their health as well as the advantage to be gained 
in other ways all of the pharmacists of this city will join in a 
renewed and concerted effort to reduce the number of their working 
hours. In addition, they should pay strict attention to the cleanli- 
ness of their stores, keeping them as free from dust as possible, 
and also well ventilated. Furthermore, it seems to me that they 
should be particular not to employ persons suffering from tuber- 
culosis, and, lastly, should endeavor to get into the open air for 
a short time at least every day. In other words, while helping to 
take care of other people, we must not forget to take care of 
ourselves. 



288 Drugs and Druggist in Tuberculosis. ] Am 'j^ r 'i909 arm ' 

SUMMARY. 

In summarizing my remarks, I may say that I endeavored to 
show that drugs, in the hands of the physician, play an important 
and necessary part in the treatment of the conditions accompany- 
ing tuberculosis, but that self-medication is to be at all times dis- 
couraged. It was also shown that the use and sale of patent medi- 
cines, intended as consumption cures, are wholly to be condemned, 
and in my opinion should be as much prohibited by law as the 
traffic in cocaine. 

The claim was made that as a scientific and professional man 
the pharmacist has a very important part to play in the crusade 
against tuberculosis, and that the services which he can render in 
this capacity are not only recognized but desired by all those having 
a genuine interest in this movement. Three ways were suggested 
in which the pharmacist can co-operate with physicians and the 
health authorities: (a) by properly directing persons having or 
suspected of having tuberculosis and who come to him for medicine 
or advice; (b) engaging in the disinfection of rooms, dwellings, 
and articles used by consumptives; and (c) by the examination of 
samples of sputum, blood, etc. 

It was pointed out that pharmacists are more or less prone to 
tuberculosis, and that they should take measures to protect their 
own health. 

I desire in addition to suggest that the pharmacist should use 
his influence and the special knowledge which he possesses in 
furthering the general educational campaign against promiscuous 
spitting in public places, and in various other ways and as a citizen 
and professional man in urging the establishment of parks and 
open-air spaces, and other improvements tending to the promotion 
of the general health of the community. 

Finally, I trust that in giving this address on this occasion I 
have said something that will tend to the elevation of our calling 
and help us to continue to move forward in co-operating with 
physicians and boards of health in their work for the benefit of 
mankind ; and that will enable those who are not members of our 
calling, who may be here, to see in our work a human interest and 
a helping hand in " not only ameliorating the condition or prolong- 
ing the life of the suffering individual, but also of exterminating or 
closely limiting the preventable diseases." 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1909. J 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



289 



LITERATURE. 

1 Popular Medicines in the Eighteenth Century: By Eben C. Hill. Johns 

Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, 17 (1906), p. 312. 
2 John C. Gunn: "New Domestic Physician or Home Book of Health," 

1861, pp. 293-308. 

3 James F. Goodhart : Address in medicine read before the annual meeting 

(1901) of the British Medical Association. 

4 Charles E. de M. Sajous: "The Internal Secretions and the Principles of 

Medicine," Vol. II (1907), pp. 1755-1769. 

5 Alfred Stille in The National Dispensatory, 5th Edition (1894), p. 747. 

6 The Crusade against Tuberculosis: By Laurence F. Flick, Johns Hopkins 

Hospital Bulletin, 18 (1907), p. 308. 



PROGRESS IN PHARMACY. 

A QUARTERLY REVIEW OF SOME OF THE MORE INTERESTING LITERA- 
TURE RELATING TO PHARMACY AND MATERIA MEDIC A. 

By M. I. Wilbert, Washington, D. C. 

With the advent of the summer months and the vacation period, 
we naturally look ahead to the annual meetings of the national 
and State associations devoted more particularly to the fostering 
of the scientific development of medicine and pharmacy. 

The American Medical Association will hold its sixth annual 
session at Atlantic City, June 8-1 1, 1909. The preliminary program 
published in the Journal of the A. M. A. for May 1, 1909, gives 
promise of an unusually interesting meeting. The program that 
has been provided for the Section on Pharmacology and Thera- 
peutics is particularly promising and should prove to be of interest 
to pharmacists as well as physicians. — /. Amer. Med. Assoc., 1909, 
v. 52, pp. 1408-1427. 

The Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation promises to hold a meeting at Atlantic City during the week 
of June 7 in connection with the exhibition of U. S. P. articles, 
and has issued invitations to members of other branches to be 
present and take part in the proceedings. 

With the well-merited reputation of the Philadelphia Branch 
for presenting programs of unusual merit and the wide-spread in- 
terest in matters relating to the science of pharmacy, on the part 
of the medical practitioners, there should be no difficulty in making 



290 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1909.J] 



this the most successful of all of the many meetings held to bring 
about a better understanding between members of the two 
professions. 

National Formulary. — From a more purely pharmaceutical 
point of view few happenings in recent years are more promising 
or more indicative of real progress in the sciences relating to 
pharmacy than the many successful meetings of local branches of 
the A. Ph. A. at which the National Formulary and the formulas 
it contains were discussed and suggestions for improving the same 
made. 

Practically all of the more active branches have contributed in 
this direction, and the Committee on the National Formulary is to 
be congratulated on the amount of material that is being offered 
them for consideration, and, more particularly, on the demonstra- 
tion that the National Formulary is a really valuable book of 
reference for every-day use in the up-to-date pharmacy. 

National Formulary Nomenclature. — Kebler, Lyman F., dis- 
cusses the relation of the nomenclature of the National Formulary to 
the Pure Food and Drugs Law and points out a number of short- 
comings and objectionable features of the titles in the N. F. — /. 
Amer. Med. Assoc., 1909, v. 52, pp. 1393-1397. 

New and Non-official Remedies, 1909. — This now 7 well-estab- 
lished annual publication comes to us in enlarged form. It contains 
upwards of 167 pages of descriptions of articles which have been 
accepted by the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the A. M. 
A., prior to January 1, 1909. The review of this book in the 
Journal of the American Chemical Society (1909, v. 31, p. 609) 
says : " Every chemist whose work touches upon these substances 
should give his support to the Council though he may not always 
be able to agree with their dictum. A proper spirit and the 
manifestation of good will on all sides will, no doubt, accomplish 
much in dealing with this important problem of pharmaceutical 
chemistry." 

Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the A. M. A. — An 
editorial discussing the progress of the work of the Council asserts 
that one of the most encouraging things connected with the advance 
of therapeutic reforms is the spontaneity with which men, already 
laboring under diverse and burdensome daily work, accept as a 
duty the further tasks which membership in or volunteer work 
for the Council imposes on them. A list of names of well-known 



Am. Jour. Phariii. ) 
Juue, 1909. j 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



291 



scientific investigators, who have co-operated in the work of the 
Council during the past year, includes a number of prominent 
members of the pharmaceutical profession. — /. Amcr. Med. Assoc., 
1909, v. 52, p. 708 and 716. 

Practical Methods of Revising the Pharmacopoeia. — An editorial 
calls attention to a possible application of the work of the Council 
on Pharmacy and Chemistry in the revision of the U. S. P., and 
more directly to an excellent method of interesting physicians in 
the Pharmacopoeia and the improvement of the content. As a 
practical experiment the Section on Ophthalmology of the A. M. A. 
has selected from fifty of the best known drugs in " New and 
Non-official Remedies " fourteen that were thought to have a suffi- 
ciently wide employment by ophthalmic surgeons to justify 
official recognition. A list of these fourteen drugs has been sent 
on a return postal card to each of the 935 members of the Section, 
with instructions to mark six deemed most useful. The replies 
will be tabulated. Those receiving the largest number of votes 
will be recommended for inclusion in the next revision of the Phar- 
macopoeia. — J. Amer. Med. Assoc., 1909, v. 52, p. 1430. 

Physiological Testing of Drugs. — At a meeting of the City of 
Washington Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
the general need for developing the physiologic control of active 
medicaments was demonstrated to be not alone desirable but also 
necessary. Few abuses are more thoroughly objectionable than the 
commercial exploitation of pharmacology in the interest of phar- 
maceutical manufacturers. That there is a wide and growing field 
for scientific work in this connection is amply shown by the nature 
of the communications presented at this meeting. — /. Amer. Med. 
Assoc., 1909, v. 52, p. 784. 

Digitalis. — A comprehensive review of the efforts that have been 
made to standardize and control digitalis is presented in Hygienic 
Laboratory Bulletin No. 48 entitled il The Physiological Standardi- 
zation of Digitalis," by Edmunds and Hale. The bulletin is a 
pamphlet of sixty-one pages and includes a consideration of the 
chemistry of digitalis, the relationship of digitoxin content to 
physiological activity, the variability of digitalis preparations, liter- 
ature relating to standardization methods, and summary of stand- 
ardization literature. It also includes a report of experiments 
conducted to determine the comparative activity of a number of 
commercial preparations. Every pharmacist should become familiar 



292 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



[ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ June, 1909. 



with the contents of this bulletin, which may be obtained at a 
minimum price from the Superintendent of Documents, Govern- 
ment Printing Office. Washington, D. C. 

Digitalis Preparations. — A general article on digitalis prepara- 
tions has been accepted for " New and Non-official Remedies " 
and should do much to bring about a better understanding of the 
several commercial preparations that are being marketed as active 
principles of digitalis. The chemistry of digitalis is far from being 
satisfactorily worked out, and the term digitalin is applied indis- 
criminately to various active substances that have been isolated from 
digitalis. In the article for N. N. R. they are classified as Digitalin 
True, Digitalin " French," and Digitalin German. In addition to 
the three digitalins the article also describes Digitonin and Digitoxin. 
— /. Amer. Med. Assoc., 1909, v. 52, p. 1498. 

Pharmacologic Fetishisms. — In an interesting and readable 
article Wilfred M. Barton calls attention to the development of 
pharmacology as a recognized study in the science of medicine 
and enumerates a number of still existing and wide-spread misbeliefs 
that he is pleased to term " pharmacologic fetishisms." Among 
the misleading or at least doubtful practices he includes the belief 
that: olive oil cures cholelithiasis; valerian cures hysteria; tannic 
acid cures internal hemorrhage ; colchicum cures gout ; potassium 
iodide cures neurasthenia, and that lithium salts are a never failing 
remedy in uric acid diathesis. — /. Amer. Med. Assoc., 1909, v. 52, 
PP- 1 557-1 560. 

The Bracers. — An abstract from the report of the Committee 
on Social Betterment contains a partial list of the " patent medi- 
cines " which have been classed as " compound liquors," by the 
Internal Revenue Department and which the druggist is not per- 
mitted to sell unless he has paid the special tax as a retail liquor 
dealer. — /. Amer. Med. Assoc., 1909, v. 52, p. 1272. 

Proposed National Bureau of Public Health. — President Taft 
has requested the Surgeon-General of the Public Health and Marine 
Hospital Service to present a plan for the organization of a National 
Bureau of Public Health. This step is considered as being a 
business-like initiative that indicates the general belief that the 
proposed public health bureau should be an evolution and not a 
de novo creation. — /. Amer. Med. Assoc., 1909, v. 52, p. 1186. 

What is Whiskey? — At the request of a number of distillers 
and importers of spirits and whiskey President Taft has arranged 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1909. 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



293 



that testimony be taken by the Solicitor-General of the United 
States for the purpose of determining what is and has been under- 
stood by the term " whiskey." — Barrels and Bottles, April 20. 1909, 
p. 4. 

Definition for Distilled Spirits. — T. E. Thorpe, principal of the 
Government Laboratory, Great Britain, is quoted as defining whis- 
key as spirit distilled from a fermented liquor obtained from cereal 
grains, brandy as spirit distilled from fermented grape juice or 
" must," rum as spirit distilled from fermented liquor prepared from 
cane sugar, molasses, and sugar cane residues. He doubts the 
utility of definitions imposing further limitations. — Pharm. Jo urn., 
London, v. 28, p. 489. 

Determination of Melting Points. — Sidney W. Bunker outlines 
a new method for determining melting points and gives a simple 
piece of apparatus which overcomes the difficulty of shaking many 
substances into the capillary tube usually employed. The new 
apparatus consists of two comparatively heavy brass rings designed 
to clamp two microscopic cover-glasses with the necessary disk and 
washers to make the apparatus water- or oil-proof. — Pharm. Journ., 
Lond., 1909, v. 28, p. 324. 

Sterilization in Pharmacy. — In a paper on sterilization and the 
preparation and sterilization of ampullas, Bennett and Woolcock 
present a number of interesting suggestions, with illustrations, on 
ready methods of applying sterilization in pharmacy. — -fPharm. 
Journ., Lond., 1909, v. 28, pp. 419-420. 

New Remedies. — F. Zernik, in discussing the more important 
new remedies of the year 1908, points out that the pharmacist is 
responsible for the condition of the substances he dispenses and 
must therefore be in possession of the required data to be able to 
apply the necessary tests. He also points out that it is not unusual 
for manufacturers to make false declarations regarding their prod- 
ucts and that the pharmacist, owing to his ignorance of the true 
composition of the substance he dispenses, is not in position to 
correct the resulting abuses. — Ber. d. dent. Pharm. Ges., 1909. v. 19, 

P . 89. 

False Claims for Medicines. — H. Thorns, in a recent address 
before the German Pharmaceutical Association, calls renewed atten- 
tion to the false claims made for a number of widely advertised 
German proprietaries. Among them are : Arhovin, Citrocoll, 
Eston. Formerol. Iodofan. Iod-Yasogn. Xew Sidonal, Phagocytin, 
Pyrenol. — /. Amer. Med. Assoc., 1909, v. 52, p. 1273. 



294 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1909. 



Collar gol. — A special committee appointed to inquire into the 
claims made by the American agents of collargol find that the 
advertising matter relating to collargol contains exaggerated and 
misleading statements and typifies the all too wide-spread practice 
of advertising proprietary articles by putting forth the biased views 
or wishes of the owners as scientific facts. — /. Amer. Med. Assoc., 
1909, v. 52, pp. 862-876. 

Mercol. — An interesting phase of the deception that has been and 
is being practiced, willingly and unwillingly, by and on the medical 
profession, is well illustrated in a recent number of the Journal of 
the American Medical Association. A very capable and widely 
known physician took issue with the report of the Council on Phar- 
macy and Chemistry on mercol, a supposedly 1 per cent, solution 
of mercuric iodide in a bland neutral oil and apparently a mineral 
oil in which a minute trace of mercuric iodide was dissolved. The 
physician actually saw the mercuric iodide weighed out, placed in 
the requisite amount of the oil, dissolved by means of heat, and 
a portion of the solution bottled, sealed, and forwarded to the 
Journal of the American Medical Association. Chemical examina- 
tion showed this latter sample to be practically identical with the 
first ; mineral oil with only a trace of mercuric iodide. Evidently 
the physician and, possibly, the manufacturer himself have been 
misled by the shortcomings or faults of the " process." The writer 
of the article points out that in the making of remedial agents 
sins of omission may be as potent for harm as sins of commission ; 
ignorance or incapacity may be as deadly as dishonesty or fraud, 
and concludes that it is the duty as well as the business of a drug 
manufacturer to base his claims on his finished products rather 
than on the component parts used in their manufacture. — /. Amer. 
Med. Assoc., 1909, v. 52, p. 1595. 

Ungueniine. — Puckner and Clark report an examination of un- 
guentine that indicates the uncertainty of proprietary remedies. The 
claims made by the manufacturers, from time to time, are contrasted 
with the analysis which indicates that unguentine contains not alum 
but aluminum acetate, zinc oxide, or, more probably, zinc carbonate, 
practically no ichthyol, and about 1 per cent, of phenol. The oint- 
ment base is in the main petrolatum. — /. Amer. Med. Assoc., 1909, 
v. 52, pp. 1047-1048. 

Arterenol chlorhydrate occurs as a white fine-grained, odorless, 
crystalline powder that is slightly anaesthetic to the tongue, readily 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1909. j 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



29S 



soluble in water, but only slightly soluble in alcohol. It has a 
melting point of 141 C. and gives with ferric chloride solution the 
characteristic green coloration produced by suprarenal substances. 
The base, when dried, has a melting point of 191 C. It is claimed 
to be quantitatively as well as qualitatively analogous to the active 
principle separated from the suprarenal gland. — Ber. d. dent. 
Pharm. Ges., 1909, v. 19, p. 96. 

Aspirin, Acidum Acetylosalicylicum. — E. Host, Madsen, reports 
a comparative study of aspirin and acetyl salicylic acid and reviews 
the history of acetyl salicylic acid. Gerhart, in 1853, first produced 
acetyl salicylic acid from chloracetyl and sodium salicylate, v. 
Gilm, 1859, applied the name acetylized salicylic acid, and Kraut, 
1869, who studied the compound more closely, first designated it 
as acetylosalicylic acid. — Pharm. Ztg., 1909, v. 54, p. 209. 

Brovalol is described as the bromisovaleric acid ester of borneol, 
obtained by the esterification of borneol with bromisovaleric acid or 
its derivatives. Brovalol is a colorless oily liquid having a slight 
aromatic odor. It is insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol, chloro- 
form, and ether. Given in doses of from 0.25 to 0.75 gramme. — 
/. Amer. Med. Assoc., 1909, v. 52, p. 1258. 

Diethylbarbituric acid is being exploited in a number of forms 
and bids well to develop a multiplicity of names that promise to 
be annoying if not positively objectionable. A recent number of 
the Journal of the Amer. Med. Assoc. (April 17, 1909, v. 52, p. 
1258) enumerates in addition to veronal, a name applied to diethyl- 
barbituric acid, sodium diethylbarbiturate, the monosodium salt of 
diethylbarbituric acid ; medinal sodium, a name applied to sodium 
diethylbarbiturate, veronal sodium, a name applied to the same by 
other manufacturers. 

Formosa Camphor. — A review of the Formosa camphor trade by 
Consul Carl F. Deichman, of Tamsui, shows 1,000,000 pounds less 
exported in 1908 than in the previous year. This decrease is 
attributed largely to increased activity in the camphor districts of 
China and Japan and to the growing use of synthetic camphor-like 
substances in various manufactures. The total exportation of cam- 
phor from Formosa amounted to 3,255,507 pounds, of which 1,365,- 
910 was exported to the United States. — /. hid. and Eng. Chem., 
1909, v. 1, p. 324. 

Homorenon hydrochloride occurs as a white crystalline powder, 
or well formed, colorless needle shape crystals that melt at 260° 



296 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Phaim 
June, 1909. 



C. It is readily soluble in water, less soluble in alcohol, and gives 
the characteristic reactions of pyrocatechin. Homorenon is said 
to be less toxic than the active principle of the suprarenal 
gland and to be devoid of the harmful influence on the heart. Used 
in 5 per cent, solution in place of adrenalin. — Ber. d. dent. Pharm. 
Ges.j 1909, v. 19, p. 97. 

Hyoscyamns. — Hanausek, T. R, presents a comparative study 
of Hyoscyamits muticus and Hyoscyamus niger, figures the struct- 
ural characteristics, and reviews some of the literature. He also 
points out the readiness with which the two leaves may be dis- 
tinguished by means of the microscope. — Pharm. Post., 1909, v. 52, 
p. 269. 

Iodomenin is the name given to an iodine preparation in which 
the iodine is combined with bismuth and albumin. It has been 
recommended by Friedmann as an efficient substitute for iodine 
and iodides. — Pharm. Ztg., 1909, v. 54, p. 291. 

Volatile Oils. — V. Soden, in a communication on the official 
volatile oils, makes some suggestions on the need for improving 
the Ph. Germ. IV descriptions of these articles. He proposes that 
the general subject be discussed apart from fixed oils and outlines 
a general description that might be included. He does not approve 
of applying the name of the oil to one of its constituents as is done 
in the German Pharmacopoeia. He suggests that the solubility test 
be made with a 70 per cent, volume of alcohol, and points out that 
the determination of the optical property is important. — Pharm. 
Ztg., 1909, v. 54, p. 249. 

Olive Oil. — F. Dietze asserts that the raspberry-red color pro- 
duced by nitric acid and an ethereal solution of phloroglucin is not 
uniformly reliable as a test for the presence of peanut or sesame oil 
in olive oil* He reports a number of experiments and points out 
that care must be exercised in the application of the test, as the 
heat produced may be sufficient to violently expel a portion of 
the liquid from the test-tube. — Pharm. Ztg., 1909, v. 54, p. 260. 

Pills of Perrons Carbonate. — H. Serger reports examining six 
samples of pills of ferrous carbonate. Three of the samples were 
deficient in iron and one contained too much. The two samples that 
were approximately correct in iron content were also most satis- 
factory in other respects. — Ber. d. dent. Pharm. Ges., 1909, v. 19, 
p. 128. 

Quinine, Use of, in Malaria. — Nocht (D. med. Wchnschr., 1909, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1909. J 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



297 



v. 12) discusses the use of quinine in malaria. He prefers the 
alkaloid because of its comparative insolubility and corresponding 
tastelessness, and because it is readily dissolved in the stomach. 
Of the salts he prefers the hydrochloride given in pills or gelatine 
capsules. — Pharm. Ztg., 1909, v. 54, p. 269. 

Quinine. — The annual consumption of quinine is estimated to 
be approximately 1,000,000 pounds. The maximum individual con- 
sumption is in the tropics though the maximum total is in sub- 
tropical and temperate regions, as the consumption in the tropics is 
practically confined to the white inhabitants. — Pharm. Post., 1909, 
v. 52, p. 236. 

Sodium Nitrate. — Charles E. Munroe, in reviewing the con 
sumption of sodium nitrate in the United States, presents some 
features taken from the statistics for chemical manufacturers com- 
piled by the Bureau of the Census which indicate that the total 
consumption of sodium nitrate in the United States, during 1905, 
amounted to 254,772 short tons against 182,431 short tons con- 
sumed in 1900. The greater portion of this amount, 100,985 short 
tons, was used in the manufacture of explosives, while 50,301 short 
tons were used in the manufacture of nitric acid, 18,467 in the 
manufacture of sulphuric acid, and 31,324 in the making of general 
chemicals. — /. Ind. and Eng. Chem., 1909, v. 1, pp. 297-299. 

Strophanthin Thorns is described as a crystalline glucoside ob- 
tained from Strophanthus gratus. It is identical with ouabain 
obtained from Ouabaio wood by Aruand and is distinctly different 
from the official strophanthin which is methyl ouabain. Stro- 
phanthin Thorns is used in place of strophanthin as a substitute 
for digitalis. It has been given in doses of 0.003 to 0.025 gramme. 
— /. Amer. Med. Assoc., 1909, v. 52, p. 1499. 

Zinc Permanganate. — The Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry 
of the A. M. A. publishes a description of zinc permanganate which 
provides that it should contain not less than 90 per cent, of 
Zn(Mn0 4 ) 2 -j- 6H s O. It should be almost completely soluble in 
water. — /. Amer. Med. Assoc., 1909, v. 52, p. 1258. 



298 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 



A m. Jour. Pharm 
June, 1909. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

The eighty-eighth annual commencement of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy was held in the American Academy of Music 
on Thursday evening, May 20. After prayer by Rev. Floyd W. 
Tomkins, D.D., the degrees were conferred by President Howard 
B. French. 

The following are the names of those who received the degree of 
Doctor in Pharmacy (P.D.), together with the subjects of their 
theses : 



Name. 
Allan, James Hugh, 
Andrew, William Earnest, 
Beaman, Humphrey 

Mosher, 
Beck, Frederick Cowden, 
Bell, Howard Homer 

(P.C), 
Bernstein, Mitchell, 
Black, Fred Lewis, 
Block, (Miss) Jennie, 

Bolin, Zera Exley, 
Bonnell, Frank Sumner 

(P.C), 
Bossert, Myron Adam, 

Brown, Ernest G., 
Bush, Russell Luther, 

Cady, Murch Robinson, 

Cantor, Phillip, 

Carr, Harry Ivan, 

Coleman, George Joseph, 

Cramer, William Frank- 
lin, Jr., 

Curtis, Luther Barker 
(P.C), 

Cuthbert, Richard Will- 
iams, Jr., 

Dapp, Gustave Adolph, 
Davidowitch, Jacob, 
Davis, Harry Cardeza, 



Thesis . 
Caryophyllus, 
Atropa Belladonna, 

Manna, 
Linum, 



State or Country. 

Maryland 

Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania 
New Jersey 



Digitalis, Pennsylvania 
Liquor Sodii Phosphatis Compositus,Pennsylvania 
Olive Oil, Pennsylvania 
Incompatibilities and How to Deal 

with Them, Russia 
Tinctura Arnicse, Pennsylvania 

Liquor Antisepticus, U. S. P., Iowa 
Methods of Manufacture of Unguen- 

tum Aquae Rosse, Pennsylvania 
Cataplasma Kaolini, Pennsylvania 
Test, Adulteration of Oil of Pepper- 
mint, Pennsylvania 
The Cultivation of Hydrastis, New York 

Goulard's Extract, Russia 
Linimentum Camphorae, New Jersey 

Belladonna, Scopola, and Phytolacca, W. Virginia 



Pancreatin, 



New Jersey 



Commercial Production of Turpen- 
tine, Florida 

A Pill Machine. A Plate for Cut- 
ting a Plaster Model, Pennsylvania 
Antitoxin and Opsonins, Pennsylvania 
Sarsaparilla, Pennsylvania 
Calcii Sulphas Exsiccatus, Pennsylvania 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1909. 



[ Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



299 



Name. 

Davis, Percy Mason, 
Dettrey, John Franklin, 
Dosch, Philip Christ, 
Dunbar, Guy Sinclair, 

Eakle, Homer Willis, 

Ebner, Frank Gannon, 
English, LaVerne, 
Evans, Chester, 
Ferron, William Euart, 
Fulton, J. Robert, 
Gallant, Clifton Brown, 

Gallinger, George Roy, 

Godshall, Henry Stites, 

Gorry, John Ambrose, 
Greim, Howard Milton, 



Hage, Doane Herring, 
Haines, Brooks Collins, 
Haines, Kirk Faust, 
Hall, Arthur Monroe, 
Haller, Donald Eckel, 

Harner, Jeremiah Ralph, 
Harvey, George C, 
Herron, Charles Selburn, 

Hersh, Clifford Seltzer, 

Hoffman, Charles Elbert, 
Houck, David Lee, 
Hughes, Jesse Thornley, 
Hunter, Ralph Thomas, 
Jr., 

Hutson, Albert, 

Jones, Elisha Roy (P.C.), 

Keim, Allen Christian, 

Keim, Frederick John, Jr., 
Kelly, Earl Leslie, 



Thesis. 
Calx Sulphurata, 
Liquor Magnesii Citratis, 
Zinc Stearate, 
Tinctura Arnicae, 



State or Country. 
Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 
New Jersey 



Stramonium and the Alkaloidal 

Strength of Various Tinctures,Maryland 
Syrups from the Fluidextracts, Ohio 
Paraffin, Ohio 
Kola, Pennsylvania 
Study of Smelting of Lead, Utah 
Suppositories, Pennsylvania 
Nux Vomica and Alkaloid Strych- 
nine, No. Carolina 
The Industrial and Preservative 

Uses of Formaldehyde, New York 

A Study of Gaultheria Procumbens 

and its Volatile Oil, Pennsylvania 
Vanillinum, Ohio 
The Economic Trend of Business 
and its Relation to Individual 
Proprietorship of Pharmacy, Pennsylvania 
Prescription Difficulties, No. Carolina 

Oleum Ricini, Pennsylvania 
Liquor Calcis, Pennsylvania 
Unguentum Resorcini Compositum, Pennsylvania 
Preparations of Crude Carbolic 

Acid, Pennsylvania 
Syrupus Ferri Saccharati Solubilis, Pennsylvania 
Manufacture of Tincture of Vanilla,Pennsylvania 
Elixir Ferri, Quininse et Strych- 

ninae Phosphatum, Pennsylvania 
The Active Principle of the Supra- 
renal Glands, Pennsylvania 
Zinci Stearas, Pennsylvania 
Sassafras, Pennsylvania 
Gossypium Purificatum, New Jersey 

Anatomy of Stem of Phoradendron 

Flavescens, Pennsylvania 

Tablet Making for Retail Pharma- 
cists, New York 

Examination of Substances for 

Poison, Texas 

Natural Salicylic Acid and Sodium 

Salicylate, Pennsylvania 

Benzinum Purificatum, Pennsylvania 

Armoraciae Radix, New York 



300 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1909. 



Name. 

Kinnear, William Ken- 
neth, 

Kleckner, Solomon, 
Klopp, William Raymond, 
Krum, Harry James, 
LeVan, Arthur Walter, 
Levan, George Monroe, 
Lichtenstein, Ivan, 
Loughlin, (Miss) Helen 

Frances, 
McCann, Jos. Augustus, 
McMahon, John Leo, 
Mandelbaum, (Mrs.) 

Lena Levien, 
Mahony, Joseph Robert, 

Mathewson, Wm. (P.C.), 
May, Edward Anslem, 
Michael, John Earnest, 

Moeschlin, Reinhart 

Julius, 
Mooney, Robert Henry, 
Moser, John, Jr., 

Mundhenk, Russell 

Lowell, 
Murray, Edw. Anthony, 

Noedel, Ernest Amiel, 
Obergh, Walter Herman, 
Ott, Harold William, 

Pearson, Sam'l Appleton, 
Perzin, (Miss) Leah, 

Pfeiffer, Fred'k August, 
Piatt, Addison Atkins, 
Pond, William Henry, 
Quering, Rudolph Henry, 
Reudelhuber, Ludwig 

William, 
Riegner, Fred. Eli, 
Rigg, John (P.C), 
Schlenker, Claude Edw., 
Seidell, Warren Reuben, 
Siemon, Wm. Herman, 



Thes.s. State or Country. 

Stearic Acid, Kentucky 

Hydrogen Dioxide, Pennsylvania 

Tincture of Nut Gall, Pennsylvania 

Tinctura Gentianae Composita, Pennsylvania 

Hydrastis, Pennsylvania 

Saffron, Pennsylvania 
The Difficulties of Tablet Making, Maryland 

Tincture of Cinchona, U.S. P., Pennsylvania 
The Manufacture of Linen Thread, New York 
Emulsions, New York 

Ceratum Cantharidis, Russia 
Microscopical Examination of Massa 

Hydrargyri, Mass'ch'setts 
Desiccated Suprarenal Gland, Pennsylvania 
Caffeine, Pennsylvania 
Elixir Ferri, Quininae et Strych- 

ninse of U.S. P. and N.F., Pennsylvania 



Yeast Culture, Pennsylvania 
Bee's Wax, Pennsylvania 
The Commercial Varieties of Pilo- 
carpus, W. Virginia 



Ricinus Communis, Ohio 
Ash Determination of Cloves and 

Allspice, Pennsylvania 
Tinctura Iodi, Pennsylvania 
Color Reaction of Synthetics, Pennsylvania 
Methods of Making Unguentum 

Hydrargyri Nitratis, Pennsylvania 
Percolation in Pharmacy, Pennsylvania 
Mercury and its Compounds Used in 

Medicines, Russia 
A Few Alkaloids of Cinchona, Pennsylvania 
Diluted Nitrohydrochloric Acid, Pennsylvania 
Tincture of Ferric Chloride, Connecticut 
Hydrastis, New Jersey 

Oleum Olivse, Pennsylvania 

Liquor Magnesii Citratis, Pennsylvania 

Phenol, New Jersey 

Pancreatin, Ohio 

Benzoin, Pennsylvania 

Elixir of the Phosphates of Iron, 

Quinine and Strychnine, Pennsylvania 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1909. 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



Name. 

Simpers, Jay Scott, 
Smith, John William, 

Starr, (Miss) Mabel 
Charlotte, 

Steiner, Benjamin, 

Stofflet, Raymond Arthur, 

Stoner, Clarence, 

Strauss, Herbert Eman- 
uel, 

Tregellas, Guy Smith, 
Tripple, John Franklin, 
Trout, Maurice Elmer, 
Vink, John Alexander 

Logan, 
Wissler, Raymond B. 

Abbott, 
Wotring, Roland Jacob, 
Wright, Joseph Edward, 
Yeakle, Walter Atwood, 
Young, Howard Eakle, 
Zahn, Herman Stanley 

(P.C.), 



Thesis. 

Tincture of Opium, 
Determination of Boric Acid in Tal- 
cum Powders, 

Hamamelis, 

Antimonii et Potassii Tartras, 
Linimentum Saponis, 
Glycerin, 



30I 

State or Country. 

Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania 

Connecticut 
Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 
Pennsylvania 



Combination Rolling Pin for Making 

Lozenges, Pennsylvania 

Chloralum Hydratum, Pennsylvania 

Pepsin, Pennsylvania 

Antitoxin, Pennsylvania 

Semen Carduus Morianas, Pennsylvania 

Coal Analysis, Pennsylvania 

Phenylis Salicylas, Pennsylvania 

Hydrastis Canadensis, Ohio 

Apocynum Cannabinum, Pennsylvania 

Cinchona and its Bast Fibres, Maryland 

Fluid Glycerite of Krameria, New Jersey 



The following are the names of those who received the degree of 
Pharmaceutical Chemist (P.C.), together with the subjects of their 
theses : 



Name. 

Bigart, (Miss) Anna 

Elizabeth, 
Feinstein, (Miss) Anna, 

Grom, Roland Bismarck, 
Guerra, Arthur Louis, 
Hicks, John Elias Faison, 
Jacobs, Sinclair Sartorius, 

Kresge, Harry Daniel, 
Pittsinger, Roland Chapin, 
Prickitt, John Kandle, 
Rosenberg, Samuel, 
Sollenberger, Norman W., 

Van Inwegen, Frank P., 



Thesis. 



State or Country. 



Rhus Glabra and Rhus Hirta Pennsylvania 
Microscopical Examination of Pow- 
dered Rhubarb, Russia 
Evolution in Pharmacy, New Jersey 

The Examination of Chemicals, Mexico 
Quinine, No. Carolina 

Some Points of Difference between 

Gum and Wood Turpentine, Georgia 
Official and Unofficial Troches, Pennsylvania 
Arsenic Trioxide, Mass'ch'setts 
Aqua Hydrogenii Dioxidi, New Jersey 

Camphor Cream, Pennsylvania 
Notes on Pharmaceutical Prepara- 
tions and Apparatus, New Jersey 
Hamamelis Folia, New York 



302 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am ji n " r "i9o h 9 arm ' 

The following were awarded the certificate of Proficiency in 
Chemistry: William Henderson Free (P.D.), Pennsylvania; Horace 
James Hallowell, Pennsylvania ; Martin Luther Hartwig, Connecti- 
cut ; David James Jones, Pennsylvania ; Charles Daniel Klingen- 
smith, Pennsylvania ; Louis W. Walz, Pennsylvania. 

The following were awarded certificates in the Pure Food and 
Drug Course: Maxwell Montifiore Becker (P.D.), Pennsylvania; 
Edward Spangler Rose (Ph.G.), Oregon. 

There were 128 candidates for the degrees in course, coming from 
the various States and countries as follows : Connecticut, 3 ; Florida, 
1 ; Georgia, 1 ; Iowa, 1 ; Kentucky, 1 ; Maryland, 4 ; Massachusetts, 
2 ; Mexico, 1 ; New Jersey, 1 1 ; New York, 7 ; North Carolina, 3 ; 
Ohio, 6; Oregon, 1 ; Pennsylvania, 77; Russia, 5 ; Utah,-i ; West Vir- 
ginia, 2 ; Texas, 1. 

The valedictory address was delivered by Hon. Washington 
Gardner, of Michigan. The subject of the address was " Does Edu- 
cation Pay? " and the speaker paid an eloquent tribute to the dignity 
and value of educated labor. 



AWARD OF PRIZES. 

The following students received the grade of distinguished : 
Mitchell Bernstein, Charles S. Herron, John E. F. Hicks, David L. 
Houck, George J. Coleman, Allen C. Keim, John Moser, Jr. The 
grade of meritorious was attained by Frank G. Ebner, Henry S. 
Godshall, Howard M. Greim, Ralph T. Hunter, Jr., George M. 
Levan, Russell L. Mundhenk, Benjamin Steiner. 

The Proctor Prize, a gold medal and certificate, for the highest 
general average of the class with a meritorious thesis, was awarded 
to Mitchell Bernstein, the presentation being made by President 
French. 

The William B. Webb Memorial Prize, a gold medal and 
certificate offered for the highest general average in the branches of 
committee, operative pharmacy and specimens was awarded to Allen 
Christian Keim, the presentation being made by W. L. Clifre. The 
following graduates received honorable mention in connection there- 
with : Mitchell Bernstein, Percy M. Davis, Frank G. Ebner, Donald 
E. Haller, George C. Harvey, Charles S. Herron, John E. F. 
Hicks, Ralph T. Hunter, Jr., Albert Hutson, William R. Klopp, 
John Moser, Jr., Russell L. Mundhenk, Ernest A. Noedel, Addison 
A. Piatt, William H. Pond, Benjamin Steiner. 



Am jfm u e r i909 arm ' } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 303 

The Pharmacy Prize, a gold medal, offered by Prof. Joseph 
P. Remington, for original pharmaceutical work was awarded to 
Richard Williams Cuthbert, Jr., the presentation being made by Pro- 
fessor LaWall, in the absence of Professor Remington. Herbert 
E. Strauss received honorable mention in connection therewith. 

The Chemistry Prize, $25, offered by Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler, 
for knowledge of chemical quantitative analysis, was awarded to 
Sinclair Sartorius Jacobs. 

The Materia Medica Prize, $25, offered by Prof. Clement B. 
Lowe for the best examination in materia medica and in the recog- 
nition of materia medica specimens with a meritorious thesis, was 
awarded to Charles S. Herron. The following graduates received 
honorable mention in connection therewith : Mitchell Bernstein, 
George J. Coleman, Frank G. Ebner, Henry S. Godshall, Howard M. 
Greim, Kirk F. Haines, John E. F. Hicks, David L. Houck, William 
R. Klopp, George M. Levan, Walter H. Obergh, Miss Mabel C. 
Starr, Benjamin Steiner. 

The Microscopical Research Prize, a Zentmayer microscope, 
offered by Prof. Henry Kraemer, for the most meritorious thesis 
involving original microscopic work, was awarded to George J. 
Coleman. The following graduates received honorable mention in 
connection therewith : Miss Anna E. Bigart, Homer Willis Eakle, 
Miss Anna Feinstein, Henry S. Godshall, Arthur L. Guerra, David 
L. Houck, Jesse T. Hughes, Ralph T. Hunter, Jr., Earl L. Kelly, 
George M. Levan, Joseph R. Mahony, Reinhart J. Moeschlin, John 
Moser, Jr., Russell L. Mundhenk, Frederick A. Pfeiffer, Miss Mabel 
C. Starr, Frank P. Van Inwegen, Howard E. Young. 

Tte Analytical Chemistry Prize, $25, offered by Prof. Frank 
X. Moerk, for the best work in qualitative and quantitative analysis, 
was awarded to John Moser, Jr. The following graduates received 
honorable mention in connection therewith : George J. Coleman, 
Howard M. Greim, David L. Houck. 

The Operative Pharmacy Prize, $20 in gold, offered by Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington, for the best examination in operative phar- 
macy, was awarded to Miss Mabel C. Starr, the presentation being 
made by E. Fullerton Cook. The following graduates received 
honorable mention in connection therewith : Mitchell Bernstein, Don- 
ald E. Haller, Albert Hutson, Allen C. Keim, Russell L. Mundhenk, 
Edward A. Murray, Ernest A. Noedel, Harold W. Ott, Addison 
A. Piatt, Herbert E. Strauss. 



304 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am i^Jgg?™- 

The Maisch Prize, $20 in gold, offered by the late Mr. Jacob 
H. Redsecker, for histological knowledge of drugs, was awarded 
to William Raymond Klopp, the presentation being made by Dr. 
Adolph W. Miller. The following graduates received honorable 
mention in connection therewith : Mitchell Bernstein, George J. 
Coleman, Henry S. Godshall, Howard M. Greim, John E. F. Hicks, 
David L. Houck, Miss Mabel C. Starr, Benjamin Steiner. 

The Theoretical Pharmacy Prize, a Troemner Agate Pre- 
scription Balance, offered by Mr. Mahlon N. Kline, for the best 
examination in theory and practice of pharmacy, was awarded to 
John E. F. Hicks, the presentation being made by Warren H. Poley. 
The following graduates received honorable mention in connection 
therewith : George J. Coleman, Richard W. Cuthbert, Jr., Roland 
B. Grom, Doane H. Hage, Charles S. Herron, John Moser, Jr. 

The Commercial Training Prize, $20 in gold, offered by Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington to the graduate who passed the best examina- 
tion in commercial training at the final examination for the degree, 
was awarded to Charles Selburn Herron, the presentation being made 
by Frank G. Ryan, the first instructor in this branch in the College. 
The following graduates received honorable mention in connection 
therewith : George J. Coleman, John E. F. Hicks, David L. Houck. 

The Instructors' Prize, $20, offered by the Instructors of the 
College, for the highest term average in the branches of pharmacy, 
chemistry and materia medica, was awarded to David Lee Houck. 
The following graduates received honorable mention in connection 
therewith : James H. Allan, Mitchell Bernstein, Frank G. Ebner, 
Henry S. Godshall, Milton H. Greim, Charles S. Herron, John E. F. 
Hicks, Ralph T. Hunter, Jr., Allan C. Keim, John Moser, Jr., Miss 
Mabel C. Starr, Benjamin Steiner. 

The Pharmacy Quiz Prize, one year's membership in the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, offered by Prof. Charles H. 
LaW^all, for the best term work in theory and practice of pharmacy, 
was awarded to David Lee Houck. The following graduates re- 
ceived honorable mention in connection therewith : William E. An- 
drew, Percy M. Davis, Frank G. Ebner, Milton H. Greim, Donald 
E. Haller, Charles S. Plerron, John E. F. Hicks, Ralph T. Hunter, 
Jr., Allan C. Keim, John Moser, Jr., Benjamin Steiner. 

The Kappa Psi Fraternity Prize, a gold medal, offered by 
the Eta Chapter of the Kappa Psi Fraternity to the graduate making 
the highest general average during his or her senior year at the 



Am 'jfin U e r 'i909 arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 305 

College, was awarded to Mitchell Bernstein, the presentation being 
made by Mr. R. S. Hirst. The following graduates received honor- 
able mention in connection therewith : George J. Coleman, Frank G. 
Ebner, Henry S. Godshall, Howard M. Greim, Charles S. Herron, 
John E. F. Hicks, David L. Houck, Ralph T. Hunter, Jr., Allen C. 
Keim, George M. Levan, John Moser, Jr., Russell L. Mundhenk, 
Benjamin Steiner. 

COMPLIMENTARY SUPPER. 

On Wednesday evening, May 19, a complimentary supper was 
tendered the graduating class by the members of the Faculty. Pro- 
fessor Remington, as dean of the Faculty, acted as toastmaster, and 
brief addresses were made by the members of the Faculty, the in- 
structors, some of the members of the Board of Trustees and of the 
graduating class. This year Frank G. , Ryan, now President of 
Parke, Davis & Co., and formerly Instructor in' Pharmacy, w is pres- 
ent and made a highly appreciated address on " Tire Attainment uf 
Success." Mr. Joseph Jacobs, of Atlanta, Georgia, was, abo present 
and gave an interesting address on the drugs used by the army 
surgeons of the South during the Civil WhV. ,,,, 

BACCALAUREATE SERMON. 

The baccalaureate sermon was preached by the Rev. David M. 
Steele in the Church of St. Luke and the Epiphany on Sunday, 
May 16, at four o'clock. 

ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

The forty-fifth annual meeting was held in Alumni Hall, Monday, 
May 17, at 2.30 p.m., with the President, E. Fullerton Cook, in the 
chair. Following the annual address of the President were the 
reports of the officers and standing committees and the annual 
election of officers. 

On Tuesday evening, May 18, the annual banquet of the Alumni 
Association was held at the Hotel Walton and was attended by over 
250 members. It was the most successful banquet that the Associa- 
tion has ever given in point of members as well as in enthusiasm, 
the members coming from quite distant points. The details of the 
events of the Alumni Association will be published in the Alumni 
Report of the College. 



306 



Parrish Memorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

June, 1909. 



PHARMACEUTICAL MEETING. 

The last of the series of pharmaceutical meetings for 1908-1909 
was held on Tuesday afternoon, May 18. at 3 o'clock, with Joseph 
W. England, a member of the Board of Trustees, in the chair. 

Mr. Joseph L. Lemberger, of Lebanon, Pa., read a memoir on 
the late Mr. J. H. Redsecker (see page 261). Tributes of respect 
to the work and worth of Mr. Redsecker were also paid by William 
L. Cliflfe, Mr. England, Dr. Lowe, and Professor Kraemer. 

Prof. Charles H. La Wall presented his herbarium of local plants, 
which was accepted with a vote of thanks. 

A number of students of the graduating class gave brief resumes 
of their work with an exhibition of specimens and preparations of 
their studies, as embodied in their graduating theses. Some of these 
will be published in later issues of this Journal. H. K. 



_ _ _ , PARRISH MEMORIAL. 

M'Onday, May ic, 1-909, was the forty-third anniversary of the 
laying of the corner-stone of Swarthmore College by Professor 
'Ed\\ r arlr Parrish, its nr.=t 'President. A number of friends and 
students "of \ Professor Parrish and others spent the morning at 
Swarthmore, and as far as possible repeated " the experiences of 
May 10, 1866, when the Friends held a picnic to enjoy the natural 
beauties of the splendid site upon which Swarthmore College 
stands." Of the relatives of Professor Parrish there were present 
his son, Edward Parrish, a grandson and a great-grandson. After 
meeting Dr. Joseph Swayne, the President of Swarthmore College, 
the party went through a number of the buildings, a few plants were 
collected which were brought to the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy in the afternoon, and a picnic luncheon owing to the inclem- 
ency of the weather was had in the gymnasium. 

In the afternoon a memorial celebration in honor of Professor 
Parrish, who was formerly also a professor in the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy, was held in the museum of this institution. 
There were present the President of the College, members of the 
Board of Trustees and Faculty, and a number of former students 
and friends of Professor Parrish as well as members of the College 
and pharmacists. 

In addition to the members of the Parrish family who were 
present at Swarthmore in the morning was a sister of Professor 



Am. Jour. Pharni. \ 
June, 1909. j 



Parrish Memorial. 



307 



Parrish, Mrs. Susan D. Wharton. Swarthmore College was repre- 
sented by Mr. Isaac Clothier, Chairman of the Board of Managers 
and a friend of Professor Parrish, and Dr. Benjamin F. Battin, 
Professor of the German Language and Literature. 

The opening address was made by Professor Joseph P. Reming- 
ton, who was Professor Parrish's assistant and now dean of the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy; 

Professor James M. Good, of the St. Louis College of Pharmacy, 
presented a crayon portrait of Professor Parrish, and paid a glowing 
tribute to his sterling integrity and his conscientious devotion and 
rigid adherence to the right. He said, among other things, that 
" Professor Parrish was cultured and scholarly ; of attractive per- 
sonality ; tactful and possessed of ready wit. . . . He was a 
peer among men, who by conspicuous ability were adding to the 
enviable reputation of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and 
who were making history for it and for the American Pharmaceuti- 
cal Association." 

The portrait was received on behalf of the College by President 
Howard B. French, who, after thanking Professor Good for the 
presentation of the speaking likeness of Professor Parrish, which 
action he said was highly appreciated by the College, referred to the 
brilliancy of Professor Parrish's career and the esteem in which 
he was held, and will ever be held by the members of the Philadel- 
phia College of Pharmacy. 

Professor Henry P. Hynson, of the University of Maryland, read 
an address on " Edward Parrish and His Writings," which was an 
estimate of this leader in pharmacy and co-worker with Grahame, 
Procter, and Squibb, as revealed through his writings in the Ameri- 
can Journal of Pharmacy and the Proceedings of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association." 

Thomas D. McElhenie, of the class of 1872, P. CP., read a paper 
giving " Reminiscences of Edward Parrish," including his own recol- 
lections of him as well as those of Samuel Fairchild, Horatio N. 
Fraser, and Joseph Case. 

An address was to have been made by Clemmons Parrish, of 
Brooklyn, a son of Professor Parrish, but on account of illness he 
was unable to be present. Another son, Edward Parrish, a mining 
engineer from Newport, R. L, made a few remarks, saying that he 
was profoundly moved by the estimate of the work and character of 
his father as set forth by those who knew him in a professional way. 



3 o8 



Parrish Memorial. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1909. 



Mr. Isaac Clothier said that he knew Professor Parrish in his 
early childhood and well remembered his and his brother Dillwyn's 
drug store at Eighth and Arch Streets. Professor Parrish, he said, 
had a wonderful amount of knowledge, that all nature was open to 
him and that everything they met in rambles in the open country 
appeared to be known to him. In the founding of Swarthmore Col- 
lege Professor Parrish was among the active workers, and he was 
recognized as a leader and an inspiration in all of the activities of the 
College. He travelled about the country and gave largely of his time 
to secure the funds for its establishment, and without him it would 
have been impossible to found this College. He was unanimously 
selected its first president, and Mr. Clothier said that he well remem- 
bers his presence and the timely and wise words uttered by him at the 
laying of the corner-stone of the college building. In closing he said : 
" It is unusual, forty years after, for one's friends to gather together 
and pay such a tribute to the memory of a man." 

Mrs. Susan D. Wharton, a sister of Professor Parrish, said a 
few words in appreciation of this remembrance of her brother after 
this long lapse of years since his death. It was touching indeed to 
hear her relate one incident which gave the key-note of the person- 
ality of this leader among the eminent men in pharmacy. One day 
Professor Parrish was conversing with some of his friends of the 
Faculty of Swarthmore College when he noticed a lonely boy — a 
student at Swarthmore. He excused himself, left the group and 
walked with the lad, placing his hand on his shoulder, and thus 
brought him to a realization of the friends and the home he had at 
the College. 

Dr. Benjamin F. Battin, Secretary of the Faculty of Swarthmore 
College, gave an interesting account of the history of the institution 
from its founding until to-day, there being at the present time 343 
students, eighteen departments of study, and forty-one members of 
the corps of instructors. 

Mr. Thomas S. Wiegand, who was the editor of Parrish's " Prac- 
tice of Pharmacy " upon the death of Professor Parrish, referred 
to his magnanimity and self-sacrifice, and told of his last work as 
one of the commissioners of the government of the United States to 
settle some difficulties with certain Indian tribes, in which effort he 
practically gave up his life, falling a victim to malaria while at Fort 
Sill, Indian Territory. 

Dr. John F. Hancock, of Baltimore, related a number of incidents 



Am. Jour. Pharm. | 
June, 1909. J 



Book Review. 



309 



showing the great personal charm of Professor Parrish and illus- 
trating his power of quick perception and great ability as an 
organizer. 

The celebration was brought to a close by an incident related 
by Professor Remington while serving as assistant to Professor Par- 
rish. At the close of the exercises a collation was served in the 
museum and the friends gathered together had an opportunity of 
meeting the relatives of Professor Parrish and those who had come 
to honor his memory. H. K. 



BOOK REVIEW. 

Genealogy of the Descendants of Thomas French. Com- 
piled and published by Howard Barclay French. Vol. I. Philadel- 
phia, privately printed, 1909. 

The memory of that man is blessed who has descendants that 
are worthy of their heritage, and such descendants are fortunate 
when one of their number has that sense of family pride which 
prompts him to take of his time and means to prepare a fitting 
memorial of the deeds and works of their ancestors. 

On the title page of the volume at hand we find that this book 
is the " genealogy of the descendants of Thomas French who 
came to America from Nether Heyford, Northamptonshire, Eng- 
land, and settled in Berlington (Burlington) in the province and 
country of West New Jersey," of which he was one of the original 
proprietors, together with William Penn, Edward Byllynge, Thomas 
Ollive, Gauen Laurie, and others. Volume I contains " some account 
of the Colonial manners and doings, setting up of Friends' meetings, 
copies of old minutes and other particular writings of public inter- 
est, curious and rare papers in fac-simile, noteworthy happenings 
and places, etc." 

It will probably be news to those who have known the author as 
President of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, President of 
the Equitable Trust Company, paint and varnish manufacturer trad- 
ing as Samuel H. French & Co., member of the Board of Charities 
of the State of Pennsylvania, etc., etc., that he has been engaged 
for some 35 years in collecting and compiling the material for 
this work, which will be a lasting contribution to the literature 
and history of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. It is not too much 



3to 



Book Review. 



Am. Jour. Vharm. 
June, 1909. 



to say that no student of the history of these two Commonwealths 
will fail to consult the records contained in this book, as neither 
time nor expense has been spared in ascertaining the authenticity of 
every statement given. 

The volume is illustrated with some 150 half-tones, which are of 
unusual clearness and merit, and many of them of general historic 
interest. 

Of the illustrations and descriptions of general interest we 
mention the superb illustration of the sycamore tree in Burlington, 
N. J., which is over 300 years old ; Governor Franklin's house, 
" Franklin Park," 1770, which is located on the original estate of 
Thomas French near Rancocas, N. J. ; pages from " The Conces- 
sions and Agreements of the Proprietors, Freeholders and Inhab- 
itants of the Province of West New Jersey in America ; " sycamore 
and walnut trees, Gloucester, N. J., over 250 years old and under 
which the Council of Proprietors for Gloucester County have met 
annually since 1687; " Petticoat Bridge" built by the "sturdy 
women, wives and daughters of the Continental soldiers about 1779." 

This Genealogy is dedicated to the father of the author, Samuel 
H. French, who was well known as an active member of the whole- 
sale drug firm of French, Richards & Co. from 1852 till 1883. 
Volume I, which has just been issued, is an octavo of 500 pages. 
The paper is of excellent quality, and the cover is inscribed with 
the coat of arms and old motto of the French family, " Malo Mori 
quam Foedari" (I would rather die than be debased). 

Medical literature is graced with some charming biographical 
papers, such as those by Oliver Wendell Holmes and by Professor 
William Osier, and this division of medical history is constantly 
being enriched. It is cause for gratification when in any profession 
those may be found who are inclined to literary pursuits ; for it is 
through studies of the kind indicated that that culture is brought 
to light which characterizes true development and true progress. 
It is safe to say that no one could peruse the Genealogy of the 
descendants of Thomas French without realizing the responsibility 
of citizenship and aspiring to acquit himself as a man and as a 
worthy heir. When a work is prepared on such broad lines as the 
one under consideration it is of very great interest, not only to the 
immediate circle of relatives and friends, but to others as well, and 
we eagerly await the appearance of the second volume, which we 
understand is well under way. H. K. 



THE AMERICAN- 



JOURNAL OF PH^M A C Y 



JULY, i 9 o 9 \ : 




SOME OF THE SYRUPS OF THE U. S. PHARMACOPOEIA 



During the past year the writers have been . engaged upon a 
series of experiments upon some of the official syrups, and while 
our work on several is not yet completed it is deemed advisable 
to present and record a number of the results already obtained. 
These investigations were undertaken with several points in view. 

First, to critically examine the formulas now official and the 
products of the same. 

Second, to see if these could not be simplified and improved 
upon and formulas established by which the pharmacist can pre- 
pare all of his syrups in his own store, preferably direct from the 
drugs, without being dependent upon manufacturers. If one ex- 
amines the foreign Pharmacopoeias he will see how this point is 
continuously in mind. Under the existing laws the pharmacist is 
made responsible for the purity of the products he dispenses. The 
first effect of the food and drug laws has been largely to the benefit 
of the manufacturers, because a large number of the druggists of 
the country were not prepared to carry out the official processes 
of manufacture and assay and these have adopted a system of 
purchasing assayed fluidextracts, tinctures, etc., in place of preparing 
them themselves. The pharmacists must awaken to the fact that 



AND NATIONAL FORMULARY.* 



By George M. Beringer and George M. Beringer, Jr. 



* Presented to the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association meeting, 
Lake Hopatcong, June 10, 1909. 

(3ii) 



3 I2 



Syrups. 



Am. Jour. Phanri. 
July, 1909. 



this method will not protect them in the numerous sales in broken 
packages which they make, and must prepare themselves to assume 
the full measure of responsibility - ,, 1 v the laws. The Phar- 
macopoeia and National Formulary should give particular attention 
in the formulas to their needs and legal responsibility. 

Third, to determine if the use of fluidextracts in the prepara- 
tion of syrups cannot be eliminated. The use of fluidextracts intro- 
duces into these two sources of annoyance and imperfection. The 
alcoholic menstruum extracts from the drugs certain resinous or 
extractive matters which sooner or later form some deposit in the 
syrups, and the small amount of alcohol usually introduced by their 
use only serves to encourage fermentation. 

Fourth, experiments upon the extraction of numerous drugs 
with glycerin-water menstruums in the course of experiments upon 
the fluidglycerates 1 proved that many drugs can be so extracted 
without the use of any alcohol, and we wished to determine how far 
this method could be made available in the preparation of syrups. 
Glycerin has an inhibitive action upon several forms of decomposi- 
tion that syrups are prone to undergo ; this has already been taken 
advantage of to a moderate extent in our own Pharmacopoeia which 
directs its use in several syrups, and the recent revision of the 
Pharmacopoeia Helvetica, 1907, extends the idea and directs it in 
the following syrups : adianti, menthae, picis cum codeino, ratanhise, 
sarsaparilla compositus, turionis pini, and senegae. In the senega 
formula this Pharmacopoeia, by a roundabout process, actually pre- 
pares the fluidglycerate of senega which is then diluted 10 parts to 
90 of syrup. Attention was called to the preservative value of 
glycerin in solution and syrup of ferrous iodide forty years ago 
in a note by R. Lewellen. 2 

A number of manufacturers learned that it appeared to prevent 
the caramelization as well as other chemical changes in such syrups 
as syrup of hydriodic acid and hypophosphites, and they have been 
taking advantage of this and have increased the stability of their 
products by displacing part of the sugar w T ith ^ un. Our ex- 
periments demonstrate to our satisfaction that the addition of even 
50 c.c. of glycerin to a litre of syrup of hypophosphites or compound 



1 Proceedings Amer. Ph. Assn., 981. Amer. Journal Pharmac v 1908, 

525- 

2 Amer. Journal Pharmacy, 1868, 108. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



} 



Syrups. 



313 



syrup of hypophosphites made these clear and permanent for at 
least a year. We suggest that in the syrup of hypophosphites and 



directs its addition to the extent of not more than 100 ex. in a litre. 

Incidentally in these experiments we have tried some of the 
suggestions of other writers and these may be referred to in the 
comments and reports on the individual syrups. The formulas 
offered are the results of many experiments ; the details of those 
unsatisfactory, as a rule, are omitted, 

Syrupus Amygdala U.S. P. — The U.S. P. VIII has discarded the 
formula for syrup of almonds made from an emulsion of almonds, 
although this method is still retained in the foreign Pharmacopoeias. 
The present formula is simply a very dilute bitter almond and 
orange flower syrup and will not keep indefinitely. The small 
amount of spirit of bitter almond directed is insufficient to act as 
a preservative and is itself soon oxidized. We recommend in this 
syrup that the spirit of bitter almond be increased to 20 c.c. in the 
litre and that stronger orange flower water be used, also that 
extemporaneous preparation be directed. 

Syrupus Aurantii U.S. P. — The present official method is de- 
structive of the fine aroma of the tincture of sweet orange peel and 
leaves with the magnesium carbonate a large proportion of the flav:r, 
We recommend the following as an improvement, retaining all of 
the flavor of the tincture and not exposing this to oxidation. 

Tincture of sweet orange peel 50 c.c. 

Citric acid 5 Gms. 

Glycerin 100 c.c. 

Syrup, a sufficient quantity to make 1000 c.c. 

Dissolve the citric acid in 500 c.c. of syrup mixed with the 
glycerin. Gradually add the tincture of sweet orange peel, shaking 
after each addition, then add sufficient syrup to make 1000 c.c. The 
improvement in - flavor over the present U.S. P. formula is marked 
and the opale. c is scarcely perceptible. 

Syrupus Aurantii Florum U.S. P. — Stronger orange flower 
water should be directed in this formula. 

Syrupus Ipecacuanha U.S. P. — This syrup can be very readily 
prepared direct from the powdered drug without any deviation of 
the ofi cial strength or ingredients. The following is the improved 
formula proposed: 



the compound syrup of 



■.osphites that the Pharmacopoeia 



314 



Syrups. 



{ 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



Powdered ipecac 

Acetic acid 

Glycerin 

Sugar 



70 Gms. 
10 c.c. 
100 c.c. 
750 Gms. 



Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Percolate the ipecac with a mixture of the acetic acid, glycerin, 
and 290 c.c. of water, and then continue the percolation with water 
till 600 c.c. of percolate is obtained. In this dissolve the sugar, add 
sufficient water to make the product measure 1000 c.c. 

Syrupus Kramerije U.S. P.— The official formula illustrates the 
use of fluidextracts to the limit and despite the relatively large 
amount of alcohol present does not keep well. E. Fullerton -Cook 3 
characterizes " this syrup as pharmaceutical^ unsatisfactory. . . . 
When the fluidextract and syrup are mixed, a coagulated mass, 
almost too thick to pour, results. As this syrup stands it separates 
into two layers, a clear, dark-reddish liquid above, and a cloudy 
portion occupying about three-fourths of the bottle with a heavy- 
precipitate at the bottom." 

For this we submit the following formulas : 

Krameria (No. 20 powder) 450 Gms. 

Glycerin 225 c.c. 

Sugar 650 Gms. 

Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Mix the glycerin with 675 c.c. of water and percolate the kra- 
meria with this mixture, and then continue percolation with water 
till the drug is extracted, evaporate the percolate to 650 c.c, and 
in this while still warm dissolve the sugar. Strain the liquid and 
add sufficient distilled water to make 1000 c.c. of product. 

As an alternative formula : 

Fluidglycerate of krameria 450 c.c. 

Syrup 550 c.c. 



Either of these formulas yields a clear liquid which keeps fairly 
well without gelatinizing or precipitating. 

Syrupus Lactucarii U.S. P. — To obtain a pharmaceutically satis- 
factory product by the official method requires a perfect tincture of 
lactucarium. The latter is difficult to prepare, and not infrequently 



Mix. 



3 Proceedings Amer. Phar. Assn., 1908, p. 960. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1909. J 



Syrups. 



315 



the operator will have to exercise some judgment in modifying the 
manipulations of the official process. The petroleum benzin directed 
must be purified and free from objectionable heavy and odorous sub- 
stances or the product will persistently retain traces of a disagree- 
able and perceptible taste thereof. It is not always possible to obtain 
lactucarium that will permit of treatment on a filter as directed, and 
for this reason we have used a percolator and a largely increased 
amount of benzin until the drug is thoroughly extracted. 

The syrup of lactucarium has proved to be a pharmaceutical bug- 
bear and the unsatisfactory character of the preparation dispensed is 
largely to blame for the discredit of the remedy and its gradual 
disuse. 

When we look over the literature on this subject we are sur- 
prised at the number of essays on this preparation, the various 
solvents and extractions proposed. Benzin, ether, alcohol, alkalies, 
have been applied while we have all closed our eyes to the lesson 
that nature has taught and the way she so plainly indicates. In the 
laticiferous vessels of the lactuea the substance subsequently ob- 
tained as lactucarium is associated with a number of secretion sub- 
stances in an aqueous solution indicating that water alone is neces- 
sary for its solution. 

Then why is it necessary for the pharmacist to bother about ex- 
tracting the inert and useless substances associated with the drug? 
Why complicate the problem by preliminary extraction or the use 
of solvents which introduce inert substances and precipitates in 
the product? Why not select a solvent at once that will extract 
the desired constituents and leave the undesirable unacted on? 
Reasoning along this line our experiments led us to the following 
formula which appears to yield a very satisfactory product, miscible 
with other syrups or water or hydroalcoholic liquids, and keeping 
well and is submitted as a decided improvement. 

Lactucarium 50 Gms. 

Glycerin 250 c.c. 

Sugar 600 Gms. 

Stronger orange flower water 100 c.c. 

Distilled water, a sufficient quantity. 

Beat up the lactucarium with 400 Gms. of clean sand or 200 Gms. 
of pumice to coarse powder and place in a percolator, shaking down 
evenly but not packing, pour on sufficient of a mixture of the 



3 i6 



Syrups. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I July, 1909. 



glycerin, orange flower water, and 300 c.c. of distilled water to 
saturate and leave a layer above. Then cork up the percolator and 
cover and macerate for two days. Then percolate slowly, using the 
remainder of the mixture and then distilled water till 700 c.c. of 
percolate is obtained ; in this dissolve the sugar, using a water 
bath heat if necessary, and strain, make up the product to 1000 c.c. 
with distilled water. 

Syrupus Pruni Virginians U.S. P. — Each of the writers has 
independently made up samples of this syrup by the method of 
U.S. P., 1890, and by the present official method. One has moist- 
ened the wild cherry and packed it at once in a percolator and then 
added sufficient water to leave a layer above, tightly covered and 
corked up the percolator, macerated for twenty-four hours before 
continuing the process. The ether has followed the direction of the 
U.S. P. to pack in percolator twenty-four hours after moistening. 
Determinations made showed that the process of U.S. P., 1890. 
yielded the greater amount of astringent principle, but that the 
syrups made U.S. P., VIII, contained a greater percentage of hydro- 
cyanic acid, and from this we concluded that the presence of 
glycerin in the menstruum exerted an inhibitive action on its genera- 
tion. The experiment with immediate packing and a layer of water 
as above stated gave a higher percentage of hydrocyanic acid. In 
no case does the amount of hydrocyanic acid present in the syrup 
compare favorably with that shown to be present in the bark by 
direct distillation and determination. It is apparent that the bark 
is not entirely exhausted and we propose to make further investi- 
gations to determine the percentage of such extraction and amount 
left in the marc, and at a later date will record the analytical data. 

Our experiments warrant, however, the following recommen- 
dations : That the present official method be modified to direct that 
the moistened powder be packed and macerated in the percolator for 
twenty-four hours with sufficient water to keep it submerged, and 
that the percolation be then continued until the liquid in the re- 
ceiving vessel containing the glycerin measures at least 600 c.c. It 
is to be noted in this connection that in U.S. P., VIII, an error in 
this formula has inadvertently crept in. The 1890 Pharmacopoeia 
percolated with a menstruum containing 150 c.c. of glycerin until 
450 c.c. of percolate was obtained. The present official directions 
are that the percolation with water be continued until the liquid in 
the receiving bottle measures 450 c.c. As 150 c.c. of glycerin is 



Am vilv, r i909 arm } Syrups. 317 

first placed in this bottle it is obvious that but 300 c.c. of percolate 
would be obtained and this is not sufficient to extract the drug. 

Syrupus Rhei U.S. P. — There is no need for the use of the 
fluidextract of rhubarb in this formula, as a syrup can very readily 
be prepared from the drug. The following formula is entirely 
satisfactory : 



Rhubarb (No. 20 powder) 100 Gms. 

Potassium carbonate 10 Gms. 

Glycerin 50 c.c. 

Sugar 800 Gms. 



Cinnamon water, a sufficient quantity. 

Mix the rhubarb 4 with 250 grammes of clean sand and moisten 
with 50 c.c. of a mixture of the glycerin and 150 c.c. of cinnamon 
Avater, transfer to a percolator, and extract using the remainder of 
the menstruum and then cinnamon water till 6oo c.c. of percolate 
is obtained. To this add the potassium carbonate and then the 
sugar, using a water-bath heat to dissolve, and strain and add cin- 
namon water, if necessary, to obtain 1000 c.c. of product. 

Syrupus Ros.e U.S. P. — In this formula 10 c.c. of diluted sul- 
phuric acid is added to the fluidextract in order to fix the color. In 
most of the samples of fluidextract of rose, U.S. P., that we have seen 
the color is decidedly off and obviously for this purpose the acid 
should be added to the menstruum in the preparation of the fluid- 
extract. The following is submitted as a rational process for direct 
preparation of syrup of rose : 



Rose leaves in fine powder 125 Gms. 

Diluted sulphuric acid 10 c.c. 

Glycerin 100 c.c. 

Sugar 800 Gms. 



Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Mix the powdered rose leaves with 500 Gms. clean pure sand 5 
and moisten this with sufficient of the menstruum composed of the 
diluted sulphuric acid and glycerin and 500 c.c. of water, pack 
lightly in a percolator, macerate for one hour, and then continue the 

4 It is not advisable to use finer powdered rhubarb than Xo. 20 or a 
much larger amount of sand will be necessary. 

5 For these experiments cleanest commercial sand obtainable was boiled 
with diluted hydrochloric acid and then washed with water till no precipitate 
with silver nitrate T.S. was obtained. 



3i8 



Syrups. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



percolation slowly, using first the balance of the menstruum and then 
water till 600 c.c. of percolate is obtained. Dissolve the sugar in 
this by heat of water-bath, if necessary, strain, and add sufficient 
water to obtain 1000 c.c. of product. 

Syrupus Rubi U.S. P. — This drug is easily extracted by glycerin, 
and as a substitute for the present unsatisfactory formula the follow- 
ing is submitted : 

Rubus, in No. 20 powder 250 Gms. 

Glycerin 125 c.c. 

Sugar 800 Gms. 

Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Mix the glycerin with 375 c.c. of water and percolate the drug 
with this menstruum, and then continue with water until 600 c.c. 
of percolate is obtained. Dissolve the sugar in this by warming. 
Strain when cold and add sufficient water to obtain 1000 c.c. of 
product. 

As an alternative formula: 



Fluidglycerate of rubus 250 c.c. 

Syrup 750 c.c. 

Mix. 



Syrupus Sarsaparilla: Compositus U.S. P. — Any one who has 
followed the official instructions for the preparation of this syrup 
must have noted the decided precipitate produced on diluting the 
fluidextracts with water. A pharmacist likewise is impressed with 
the impropriety of adding the oils to the fluidextracts before dilution, 
and it is self-evident to any one examining the filter that a good 
proportion of the flavoring is retained by the precipitate. 

Our experiments had demonstrated that glycerol-water men- 
struum would satisfactorily extract both sarsaparilla 6 and licorice 
root, and while senna by itself could not be percolated with this 
menstruum, when mixed with the other ingredients in the propor- 
tion used in this syrup there was no difficulty in percolation. Tht 
sample submitted is made by the following formula : 

6 Fluidglycerate of sarsaparilla and fluidextract of sarsaparilla were pre- 
pared from the same lot of drug, at the same time, and have been kept under 
the same conditions. The former shows little or no precipitation, while the 
latter exhibits a decided deposit, and the decanted fluidextract is not equal 
to the fluidglycerate in the peculiar aroma and acridity of the drug. 



Am. Jour. Tharm. 1 
July, 1909. / 



Syrups. 



319 



Sarsaparilla (No. 20 powder) 200 Gms. 

Glycyrrhiza (No. 20 powder) 15 Gms. 

Senna (No. 20 powder) 15 Gms. 

Glycerin . 125 c.c. 

Sugar 750 Gms. 

Oil of sassafras 0.2 c.c. 

Oil of anise 0.2 c.c. 

Oil of sweet birch 0.2 c.c. 

Water, a sufficient quantity. 



Add the glycerin to 375 c.c. of water, and, having- thoroughly 
mixed the ground drugs, moisten with 225 c.c. of this menstruum 
and pack in a percolator. Allow to macerate for six hours, then 
percolate, using the remainder of the menstruum, and then water 
till 600 c.c. of percolate is obtained. In this dissolve the sugar by 
heat. Allow to cool, strain, add the oils, thoroughly incorporate by 
agitation, and then add sufficient water to obtain 1000 c.c. of product. 

Syrupus Scill^e Compositus U.S. P. — In order to critically test 
this official formula, samples of fluidextracts of squill and fluid- 
extract of senega were prepared strictly in accordance with the 
U.S.P. 

The object of evaporating the mixed extracts is probably to 
coagulate the albumin as well as to remove both alcohol and the 
part of the acetic acid that is not fixed as potassium acetate, but this 
can be accomplished only in part and only after a prolonged heating. 
The filtration of the extracts diluted with water, using talcum as a 
clarifying agent, is tedious and unsatisfactory. To prepare a litre 
required four days for this preliminary operation. The finished 
product is not satisfactory and soon after preparation precipitation 
starts and continues to increase. 

The following formula is the result of our experiments : 



Squill (No. 20 powder) 80 Gms. 

Senega (No. 20 powder) 80 Gms. 

Antimony and potassium tartrate 2 Gms. 

Acetic acid 20 c.c. 

Glycerin 100 c.c. 

Sugar 700 Gms. 

Water, a sufficient quantity. 



Mix the drugs and moisten with sufficient of a mixture of the 
glycerin, acetic acid, and 300 c.c. of water. Place loosely in a 
percolator, cover, and allow to macerate for twenty-four hours. 
Then shake down so as to pack lightly and proceed to percolate, 



I 



3 20 



Syrups. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



using the remainder of the menstruum and then water till exhausted. 
Reserve the first 500 c.c. of percolate, evaporate the remainder to 
100 c.c., in which dissolve the antimony and potassium tartrate, 
and when cold filter into the reserve and then dissolve the sugar by 
agitation. Strain if necessary and add sufficient water to obtain 
1000 c.c. of product. 

Syrupus Senega U.S. P. — Neither the fluidextract of senega 
U.S. P. nor the syrup made therefrom has in our experience proven 
satisfactory. We have obtained the best results by direct extraction 
of the drug with ammonia as the alkali present. The formula sub- 
mitted is: 



Senega (No. 20 powder) 200 Gms. 

Ammonia water 20 c.c. 

Glycerin 100 c.c. 

Sugar 750 Gms. 



Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Mix the ammonia water and glycerin with 200 c.c. of water and 
moisten the drug with sufficient menstruum. Pack lightly in a per- 
colator, macerate twenty-four hours, and then percolate into a grad- 
uated receiver in which the sugar has been placed till 800 c.c. is 
obtained, using first the remainder of the percolate and then water. 
Reserve this portion and set aside as a reserve. Continue the perco- 
lation till exhausted, evaporate this to 200 c.c. and add to the re- 
serve, agitate till the sugar is dissolved, strain the syrup, and add 
sufficient water to obtain 1000 c.c. of product. 

Syrupus Glycyrrhiz^e N.F. — A convenient and satisfactory 
formula for this is offered : 

Fluidglycerate of glycyrrhiza 250 c.c. 

Syrup 750 c.c. 

Mix. 

It is to be observed that the N.F. reverses the process by direct- 
ing that pure extract of glycyrrhiza be dissolved in water, sugar 
added, and then glycerin. With fluidglycerate directed an excellent 
preparation can be made instantly. 

Syrupus Papaveris N.F.— Solely for the preparation of this 
syrup a tincture of poppy is introduced made by infusion with 
water, concentrating, adding alcohol and glycerin. As tincture of 
poppy capsules is never prescribed, we fail to see the necessity for its 
introduction here, as the same labor of preparing the infusion and 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 



Syrups. 



321 



July, 1909. J 



concentrating it is but a preliminary step to the preparation of the 
syrup. To first prepare a tincture and then give a formula for 
syrup by which the alcohol is evaporated from this and then diluted 
with water and sugar added seems like going around Robin Hood's 
barn. If poppy capsules were not readily obtainable or did not 
keep there might be some excuse for this roundabout process. 
Poppy capsules are a common article of the drug market, and for 
making this syrup only the unripe capsules should be employed, in 
which the exterior is pale yellow, nearly white in color, and the 
seeds are white, and these should be removed. We submit a for- 
mula based on making 100 c.c. of the finished syrup represent 10 
Gms. of the drug. The German Pharmacopoeia directs 10 parts 
of the drug to be used in making 100 parts by weight of the syrup, 
but as the method there given does not fully extract the drug it is 
believed this proposed formula will yield a preparation not differing 
greatly in strength from the German : 

Poppy capsules (unripe and deprived of seed in Xo. 



Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Add the poppy capsules to 1500 c.c. boiling water. Allow the 
infusion to stand for two hours and then express. Again infuse 
the dregs with 500 c.c. boiling water and after two hours express. 
Mix the expressed liquids and evaporate to 500 c.c. Then filter and 
dissolve in the filtered liquid the sugar by heat. Add sufficient 
water to obtain 1000 c.c. of the product and strain. 

Syrupus Pixi Stroei Compositus X.F. — Compound syrup of 
white pine has been subjected to considerable criticism, largely be- 
cause it has become popular and there is a well-grounded objection 
to selling popular remedies containing morphine. In the Commit- 
tee on Revision it has even been proposed to emasculate the prep- 
aration by cutting out the morphine. This does not impress us as 
practical. It would be another case of Hamlet with Hamlet omitted. 
It will be quite as logical to advocate that the opium be eliminated 
from paregoric. The proposer of this suggestion does not realize 
that the acceptance of this suggestion would not improve conditions 
because the physician would continue to prescribe and dispense a 
preparation containing morphine. It might mean a serious matter 
indeed to the druggists throughout the country who have on hand 
many thousand bottles made up presumably with the X.F. content. 



Sugar 



20 powder ) 



100 Gms. 
800 Gms. 



322 



Syrups. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



The N.F. formula has likewise been criticized because it has 
changed the proportion of the drug constituents and also the men- 
struum used as being insufficient in alcohol. Both of these criti- 
cisms have been considered. The slight change made in the pro- 
portion of drugs from that in the preparation as originally marketed 
is, however, not material, and in our experiments we have confined 
ourselves to the drugs and active constituents in the proportions 
given in the N.F. The four samples submitted have been made up 
with different menstruums : No. i with a menstruum of alcohol 
i volume, water 7 volumes, strictly as directed by the N.F. ; No. 2 
with a menstruum of glycerin 1 volume, water 3 volumes ; No. 3, 
first menstruum for 1 litre, was alcohol 100 ex., glycerin 100 c.c, 
water 400 c.c, and percolation then continued with alcohol 1 volume, 
water 5 volumes ; No. 4, first menstruum of alcohol 100 c.c, glycerin 
100 c.c, water 200 c.c. and continuing with a mixture of alcohol, 
1 volume, water 3 volumes. 

It will be seen from the samples shown that Nos. 1 and 2 are 
perfectly clear and bright syrups, but are deficient in balsamic flavor 
of the balm of gilead buds and strength of the other drugs. No. 3 
is clear and possesses more color and flavor of the constituents but 
is not equal in flavor and strength to No! 4. Consequently we are 
constrained to endorse No. 4 as having the proper menstruum. 

To obtain a product more clearly corresponding to the best 
of those in the market we would recommend the addition of 1 Gm. 
of cudbear to the formula and 0.2 c.c oil of sassafras to improve the 
flavor, the formula being as follows: 



White pine bark 85 Gms. 

Wild cherry 85 Gms. 

Spikenard root 10 Gms. 

Balm of gilead buds 10 Gms. 

Sanguinaria 8 Gms. 

Sassafras bark 7 Gms. 

Cudbear 1 Gm. 

Morphine sulphate . . 0.5 Gms. 

Chloroform 6 c.c. 

Sugar 650 Gms. 

Glycerin 100 c.c. 

Oil of sassafras 0.2 c.c. 



Alcohol and water, of each a sufficient quantity. 

Reduce the vegetable drugs to a coarse powder and thoroughly 
mix them. Moisten the powder with a menstruum composed of the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1909. J 



Syrups. 



323 



glycerin, 100 c.c. of alcohol, and 200 c.c. of water, pack in a perco- 
lator, and macerate for twelve hours. Then percolate, using first 
the remainder of the menstruum and then a mixture of alcohol 
1 volume to water 3 volumes till 650 c.c. of percolate is obtained, in 
which dissolve the sugar and the morphine sulphate, lastly add the 
chloroform and oil of sassafras, agitate thoroughly, add sufficient 
water to obtain 1000 c.c. of product, and strain. 

Syrupus Quixidix-T. N.F. — The attempt here appears to have 
been to place before the physician a formula that would displace 
a proprietary syrup. The object has been defeated by making the 
syrup too thin by adding solution of saccharine and mucilage of 
acacia and likewise by the selection of the wrong flavoring orange 
flowers in place of orange. The consistence is such that the quini- 
dine does not stay suspended even temporarily. A formula that 
more closely simulates the proprietary and that has given satisfac- 
tion to a number of physicians is here given. . 

Quinidine, selected fine crystals 33 Gms. 

Oil of orange peel 0.2 c.c. 

Syrup, a sufficient quantity to make 1000 c.c. 

To 750 c.c. of syrup contained in suitable bottle add the oil of 
orange and the quinidine, shake vigorously to disseminate, and then 
add sufficient syrup to make 1000 c.c. 

Syrupus Rhamni Cathartics X.F. — Here the pharmacist has 
been confronted by an anomalous situation, namely, a legal standard 
and formula is given that he cannot follow. Fermented juice of 
buckthorn is directed and in a footnote we are told, " That if 
the fresh berries cannot be obtained, the imported fermented juice 
may be used in preparing the syrup." It is quite true that in 
Europe when the buckthorn is indigenous several of the Pharmaco- 
poeias direct the expressed juice of the fresh ripe berries to be fer- 
mented before making into syrup. The German and French Phar- 
macopoeias direct that fermentation be allowed to proceed in the 
expressed juice until a portion filtered off mixes clear with half of 
its volume of alcohol and the Pharmacopoeia Helvetica insures fer- 
mentation by the addition of a small amount of sugar and some 
compressed yeast. 

But as buckthorn is grown only infrequently in the United 
States as a shrub, supplies of fresh berries are not available to the 
American pharmacist and so he cannot prepare the juice. We have 



3 2 4 Syrups. j Am - J<mr - K^na. 

J c \ July, 1909. 

endeavored to obtain the imported fermented juice and have corre- 
sponded in the search with the largest drug importers in New York 
and Philadelphia. The following abstracts from their replies wil ? 
prove that fermented juice of buckthorn berries is not now an article 
of commerce in this country, if it ever was; 

" We have none in hand and do not know where we can obtain 

it." 

"We are unable to supply the article." 

" We regret the necessity of advising that we are unable to fur- 
nish fermented juice of buckthorn berries nor are we able to inform 
you where this product can be obtained." 

" We have none ourselves nor could we learn anything regarding 
it from any of the other dealers in our city." This from a very 
large New York firm. 

" After careful inquiry we have been unable to find fermented 
juice of buckthorn berries." 

" We have no article of this kind, neither is it commercially 
obtainable. We have received orders for it repeatedlv but have 
never been able to obtain a ' fermented juice of buckthorn.' " 

" There is not attainable in this country a fermented juice of 
buckthorn berries either of domestic or foreign preparation." 

" There is no imported fermented juice (as referred to in the 
N.F.)." 

This evidence was so convincing that we were compelled to give 
up the search for the juice and conclude that it was impossible to 
follow the X.F. in this syrup and that a change in the formula was 
absolutely necessary. Many of the pharmaceutical manufacturers 
supply a fluidextract of buckthorn berries and on their labels give 
formulas for preparing the syrup therefrom. Consequently, we 
concluded that the berries must be an article of commerce and have 
learned that they grow extensively in Germany. Austria, Hungary, 
and Northern Italy. Both the ripe and unripe berries are im- 
ported. The latter are brownish-green in color and quite bitter in 
taste and are used as a dyeing material. For pharmaceutical pur- 
poses only the mature ripe and carefully dried fruit are serviceable 
and these are sufficiently an article of commerce to be made official, 
as ample supplies are available from the foreign source, but the 
description should carefully discriminate against the use of immature 
or unripe berries. 

Having secured an ample supply of the ripe berries the writers 



Am. Jour. Pharra. ) 
July, 1909. J 



Syrups. 



325 



experimented on formulas for the various pharmaceutical prepara- 
tions. It was found that rluidextract could be prepared by either 
of the two following methods : 

Ground buckthorn berries 1000 Gms. 

Alcohol 250 Gms. 

Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Add the ground buckthorn berries to five litres boiling water, 
allow to infuse for two hours and then express. Again infuse the 
dregs with three litres of boiling water and express. Mix the ex- 
pressed liquids and evaporate to 750 c.c. When cold add 250 c.c. 
alcohol and allow to stand for a few days, then filter, and wash 
the filter with sufficient of a mixture of alcohol 1 volume, water 
3 volumes, to make 1000 c.c. Or a very satisfactory rluidextract 
can also be prepared by the official method, using diluted alcohol 
as the menstruum and reserving the first 850 c.c. of percolate to each 
litre of product. Percolation with weaker alcohol was not practical 
owing to the gummy character of the drug. 

Fluidglycerate of buckthorn can be prepared by the type process, 7 
but the percolation is very slow and tedious. 

Syrup of Buckthorx. — Several methods were tried for the 
making of the syrup — infusion, percolation with glycerin and water, 
rluidextract diluted with syrup, and fluidglycerate diluted with 
syrup. All of these yielded apparently good results. Buckthorn 
berries are apt to produce griping, and to prevent this an aromatic 
is usually associated as a corrective. In the formula submitted oil 
of fennel and oil of cassia are used for this purpose. 

The following formula is recommended for the revision of the 
National Formulary: 



Buckthorn berries, ground 200 Gms. 

Sugar 800 Gms. 

Oil of fennel 2 c.c. 

Oil of cassia 2 c.c. 



Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Add the ground buckthorn berries to two litres of boiling water, 
infuse for two hours, and then express. Infuse the dregs with 500 
c.c. boiling water and express when cold. 3. fix the expressed liquids, 



7 See Proceedings A. Ph. A., 1908, p. 981. Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1908, 



326 



Assay of Volatile Oils. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I July, 1909. 



filter, and evaporate to 600 c.c. ; in this dissolve the sugar by heat 
and when cold strain, add the oils, and make up to 1000 c.c. with 
water. 

As an alternative formula: 

Fluidextract buckthorn berries 200 c.c. 

Oil of fennel 2 c.c. 

Oil of cassia 2 c.c. 

Syrup, sufficient quantity to make 1000 c.c. 
Mix. 



THE USE OF THE CENTRIFUGE IN THE ASSAY OF 
VOLATILE OILS. 

By Frank X. Moerk. 

In a paper presented to the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion at the 1908 meeting, the suggestion was made that the assays 
of some of the volatile oils could be more conveniently and accurately 
made by the use of the centrifuge than by the official method of 
shaking the oils with reagents in a flask or burette, for the reason 
that in the latter method it is almost impossible to prevent adhesion 
of the oil to the container. 

The centrifuge has been in use as a laboratory apparatus since 
about 1889, when it was first applied in rapidly determining the fat 
content of milk and cream. 

A. S. Mitchell in the Journal of the Am. Chem. Society, 1889, 
page 1 132, proposed a centrifugal method for determining lemon oil 
in lemon extracts ; and C. D. Howard in the same journal, 1908, 
page 608, recommended the addition of a small quantity of chloro- 
form to assist in the centrifugal separation of oils from flavoring 
extracts. J. Hortvet and R. M. West in the Journ. Industr. and 
Engineer. Chemistry, 1909, page 84, published a very valuable paper 
upon the analysis of flavoring extracts in which, after a critical 
study of the subject, the centrifuge is recommended for certain 
extracts. The above suggestion, therefore, appears to be original 
for the examination of volatile oils for their characteristic con- 
stituents. 

From the U.S.P. assays the method using the centrifuge appeared 
to be most applicable in the assay of the oils of cloves, pimenta, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1909. / 



Assay of Volatile Oils. 



thyme, cinnamon, and turpentine ; in the first three phenolic com- 
ponents are removed by shaking with alkalies, in the fourth the 
aldehydic constituent is removed by shaking with sodium bisulphite, 
and in the last the terpene is removed by agitating with concentrated 
sulphuric acid. 

As in all cases where graduated apparatus is used, it becomes 
necessary to verify the capacity and the graduation of the bottles 
used for centrifugal work. The Babcock milk and cream bottles 
are so graduated that with an initial weight of 18 grammes the 
graduations give at once percentage by weight of the fat, therefore 
it is not to be expected that the divisions of the graduated part will 
represent simple fractional parts of a cubic centimetre. The milk 
bottles were found to hold 48.8 c.c. up to the graduated neck, the 
latter 2.32 c.c. from 0-10 with divisions into fifths, therefore the 
fifty divisions equal 2.32 c.c. or one division equals 0.046 c.c. The 
cream bottles were found to hold 46.4 c.c. up to the graduated neck, 
the latter 7.82 c.c. from 0-40 with divisions into halves, therefore 
the eighty divisions equal 7.82 c.c. or one division equals 0.09775 c.c. 

Hortvet and West describe two forms of graduated bottles, 
having a capacity of 150 c.c. to the graduated part, the latter 5 c.c. 
divided into 100 divisions, so that with an initial volume of 50 c.c. 
each division will indicate 0.1 per cent, by volume. One of these 
forms is used for oils lighter than water or the employed reagents, 
the other for oils heavier than water or the employed reagents. 
The bottles cannot be used with the ordinary Babcock apparatus, 
but are used with the Bausch and Lomb precision centrifuge. 

The following experiments were made using the Babcock cream 
bottles and calculating the undissolved oil to volume percentage. 

Oils of Cloves, Pimenta, and Thyme. — Mix the carefully meas- 
ured oil with 30-35 c.c. alkali solution, cork the bottle, shake thor- 
oughly for several minutes, add sufficient alkali solution to bring 
the mixture well up into the graduated part, cork and whirl in the 
centrifuge until the insoluble oil separates as a clear layer (3 to 10 
minutes, 800-1000 revolutions per minute). 

In some of the first experiments, the bottles were not corked 
while in the centrifuge and more or less discrepant results were 
obtained, but after corking the bottles remarkably constant results 
followed. 

Oil of Cassia. — The U.S. P. method of using solution of sodium 
bisulphite was unsatisfactory as an emulsified portion separated 



328 



Assay of V olatile Oils. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



below the insoluble oil constituent, making the reading of the latter 
almost impossible. 

By using a saturated sodium sulphite solution in presence of a 
few drops of phenolphthalein indicator and neutralizing the liberated 



Oil. 


C.c. 
taken. 


Reagent. 


Undissolved Oil. 


Volume Per Cent. 


Vol. Per Cent, 
by 
U. S. P. 
Process. 


Divisions. 


C.c. 


Insoluble 
Oil 


Phenols. 




4-9 


Wfc KOH 


8 


0.782 


15-9 


84.I 


82. 




4-9 


10J6 KOH 


8 


0.782 


15-9 


84.I 






4-9 


iofo KOH 


7 


0.68425 


13-9 


86.1 


84'. 




9.8 


io$ KOH 




1-3685 


13-9 


86.1 




4-9 


loii KOH 


44 


4.301 


87.7 


12.3 


II. 




4-9 


io# KOH 


44 


4.301 


87.7 


12.3 






4-9 


io0 NaOH 


44 


4.301 


87.7 


12.3 





sodium hydroxide with acetic acid (36 per cent.), much better 
results were obtained although the insoluble oil was dark and viscid. 

The process adopted after numerous experiments was as follows : 
Mix the carefully measured oil with an equal volume of oil of 
turpentine, add 30 c.c. saturated solution of sodium sulphite, cork 
bottle, warm in water-bath for 10-15 minutes, agitate repeatedly, 
acidify with acetic acid (36 per cent), add sufficient sodium sulphite 
solution to bring the mixture well up into the graduated part, cork 
bottle, whirl until the insoluble oil separates as a clear layer, cool, 
and read off volume of insoluble oil. Make a blank test with the 
same volume of oil of turpentine and take the difference in reading 
between the two tests. 



Oil. 


C.c. 
taken. 


Undissolved Oils. 


Volume Per Cent. 


Vol. Per Cent. 

by 
U. S. P. 
Process. 


Mixture 
Divisions 


Blank 
Divisions 


Cassia 
Divisions 


C.c. 


Insoluble 
Oil. 


Aldehyde 




2 C.C. 

3 c.c. 

2 C.C. 

each 

3 c.c 
each 


24.5 
36.5 


20.5 
30,5 
20.5 

30.5 


4- 

6. 










Cassia-Turpentine 










0.391 
0.5865 


19-55 
19-55 


80.45 
80.45 


about 75 
about 75 



Experiments are now under way to determine if other volatile 
oils can be determined by the aid of the centrifuge. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1909. J 



Examination of Urine. 



329 



CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF A SAMPLE OF URINE 
CONTAINING PENTOSE. 

By Charles H. La Wall. 

The urine, which had a specific gravity of 1.020 and a yellow 
color, first attracted attention by the abnormal reaction produced 
when heated with Fehling's solution, which was not reduced to copper 
oxide, as is the case when the ordinary carbohydrates are present, but 
which produced a characteristic greenish turbidity and eventually 
a yellow precipitate. The fermentation test gave negative results, 
while a pronounced reduction was obtained by means of Boettger's 
test with bismuth subnitrate and solution of potassium hydroxide. 
A more extended examination therefore seemed desirable and about 
a pint of the urine was furnished, with a request for an exhaustive 
investigation. 

The first test applied was the alphanaphthol test, which is a 
group test for carbohydrates in general. It is applied by adding to 
a suspected sample of urine a few drops of a 10 per cent, alcoholic 
solution of alphanaphthol and then superimposing this liquid upon 
concentrated sulphuric acid. In the presence of any carbohydrate a 
violet zone is produced. This test resulted positively. 

The Fehling test was then applied with the result as previously 
stated. The reaction showed a greenish turbidity, which was suc- 
ceeded by a yellowish precipitate wholly unlike the normal copper 
reduction. 

The Boettger test with bismuth subnitrate and solution of potas- 
sium hydroxide showed a marked reduction to the dark colored 
metallic bismuth. 

The indigo carmine test for dextrose gave negative results. 

A fermentation tube showed no evolution of C0 2 after twenty- 
four hours. 

A polariscopic examination of the sample showed that it was 
optically inactive. 

The phenylhydrazine test was then applied as follows : A clean, 
dry, six inch test-tube was filled to the depth of one-half inch with 
phenylhydrazine hydrochloride, one-half inch of dried sodium acetate 
was added, and the tube filled to half its capacity with the urine and 
immersed in a bath of boiling water for two hours. Upon cooling 
the contents of the tube a voluminous deposit of yellow crystals took 
place, which, when examined microscopically, were found to be in 



330 



Examination of Urin, 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



stellate tufts of acicular crystals, resembling somewhat the groups 
produced by dextrose or levulose, but different in the character of 
the individual crystals, which seemed to be more slender in propor- 
tion to their length. 

Several additional tubes of the crystals were prepared in a simi- 
lar manner and some of the crystals were collected and purified by 
recrystallization. During this purification it was noticed that the 
crystals were much more soluble in hot water than is the case with 
ordinary dextrosazone. The purified crystals were found to have a 
melting point of 157 C. This corresponds very closely to the melt- 
ing point of pentosazone, which was found by Salkowski and 
Tastrowitz to have a melting point of 166 C. to 168 C. when 
pure, but from 156 C. to 160 C. when obtained from urine. The 
melting point of dextrosazone (and levulosazone) is 204-205 C. 

Several subsequent experiments upon fresh samples of material 
confirmed the melting point of the crystals, and the various specific 
tests for pentose were applied. Tollen's test, which is carried out 
by heating a solution of phloroglucin in hydrochloric acid and adding 
to the hot solution a small quantity of the urine, continuing the heat 
upon a water-bath for some time, gave positive results in the shape 
of a cherry-red liquid which became cloudy upon cooling. 

As glycuronic acid also responds to this test, further confirmation 
was obtained by applying the orcin-hydrochloric acid test, which is 
carried out similarly to the one previously described, using orcin 
instead of phloroglucin. In the presence of pentose a bluish-green 
color is developed, which is dissolved out by shaking with amyl 
alcohol. Positive results being obtained by this test, thus negativing 
the presence of glycuronic acid, there seems to be no further doubt 
that there is exhibited in this sample of urine a well-developed case 
of pentosuria, as precisely the same results as above described were 
obtained in a specimen of urine from the same individual examined 
eleven months after the first sample was reported. 

A more comprehensive examination of the sample showed the 



following : 

Specific gravity 1.028 

Chlorides as sodium chloride 94 per cent. 

Total sulphates as SO*... 31 percent. 

Mineral sulphate as SO* 30 per cent. 

Ethereal sulphate by difference 01 per cent. 

Phosphates as P 2 5 30 per cent. 

Urea 3.00 per cent. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1909. | 



Pepsin. 



331 



A comprehensive clinical report of the case will appear in the 
American Medical Journal in the near future by Dr. S. Solis Cohen, 
to whom the writer is indebted for the material upon which the 
above experiments were made. 

The pentose which occurs in urine is usually one of the several 
varieties of arabinose concerning which there is some confusion, 
however, in the literature on the subject. 



THE COMPOUND POWDER OF PEPSIN AND THE 
COMPOUND ELIXIR OF PEPSIN.* 

By George M. Beringer. 

The introduction of these two preparations in the National 
Formulary has caused considerable comment and much adverse 
criticism that has been largely directed against the Elixir Diges- 
tivum Compositum. The Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of 
the American Medical Association have investigated combinations of 
the ferments, pepsin, pancreatin, diastase, etc., placed on the market 
by a number of manufacturing firms, and have reported adversely 
and have gone to the limit in their condemnation and have requested 
the American Pharmaceutical Association to omit Elixir Digestivum 
Compositum from the next edition of the N.F. 

These critics have overlooked the fact that the National Formu- 
lary was created to " obtain uniformity in dispensing and to supply 
authoritative standards for remedies frequently prescribed by physi- 
cians or demanded by the public." The responsibility for any 
" therapeutic absurdities " must rest with the prescriber and not 
with the dispenser and, as long as the physician prescribes such, the 
pharmacist is only discharging his duty in supplying. 

Despite the criticism by these high authorities upon the liquid 
preparations combining these ferments, the dispensing pharmacist 
knows that there has been little if any diminution in the use of these 
by medical practitioners. 

The writer notices that the use of this N.F. elixir and of the 
proprietary elixirs of similar composition as a vehicle for the admin- 
istration of salicylates of sodium and strontium, bismuth salts, 

* Read before the Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, May 4, 1909. 



332 



Pepsin. 



Am. Jour, Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



bromides, etc., is really increasing. Very recently, he has heard 
reputable physicians commend such elixirs of pepsin and pancreatin 
and knows that the pharmaceutical manufacturers are supplying 
these to the dispensing physicians in five- and ten-gallon containers. 

In a recent communication, Prof. C. Lewis Diehl, the Chairman 
of the N'.F. Committee, says : " Nevertheless, we are confronted 
with the fact that Compound Digestive Elixir is the most frequently 
prescribed preparation of the National Formulary, and that this 
demand comes, not from that class of physicians which some one 
has facetiously designated as c physicians who append M.D. to their 
names,' but largely from physicians who stand high in their pro- 
fession and who enjoy the confidence and respect of the community 
in which they practice. In short, even though the three component 
enzymes reciprocally nullify their individual functions ; even though, 
from the theoretical, chemical, and biochemical standpoint this prep- 
aration is a ' monstrosity ' ; it is a pertinent question whether we 
are justified in eliminating Compound Digestive Elixir from the 
Formulary, if it can be shown that reputable physicians insist on 
prescribing it, convinced that it is a desirable and efficient adjunct 
to other and more potent medicaments. For, to use a commonplace, 
' we can lead a horse to water, but we cannot make it drink ' ; and 
so, if we expunge Compound Digestive Elixir from the Formulary, 
we can rest assured that those who wish to prescribe it will have 
no difficulty to have their prescription filled — if not with a prepara- 
tion made by an authoritative formula, most likely with one or the 
other of the many proprietary preparations of the market." 

It is established beyond any controversy that these compound 
elixirs of the digestive ferments have an extensive use in medical 
practice. It is not within the province of the National Formulary 
to recommend, nor to advise, nor to question, the therapeutic action 
of remedies dispensed on physicians' prescriptions, and as long as it 
makes no claim for the product it is only filling its mission and 
keeping well within its intended scope of simply supplying approved 
formulas. 

It was a condition and not a theory that confronted the com- 
mittee who introduced the formulas in the National Formulary and 
it remains a condition that confronts the committee that are now- 
laboring on its revision. If the physicians consider these undesirable, 
they should cease prescribing them and the disuse would eliminate 
them from future revisions. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



Pepsin. 



333 



The question of the therapeutic incompatibility is one that the 
pharmacist cannot consider and, if introduced, would certainly queer 
many prescriptions. Again the views of physicians on many of 
these supposed therapeutic incompatibles are continually changing. 
Not many years ago, we were taught that opium and belladonna 
were incompatible, and pepsin and sodium bicarbonate should not 
be dispensed together. To-day, physicians know the proper modi- 
fication of medical action and how to combine remedies to secure 
the potency or modified action desired, and we consider this phase 
of responsibility as belonging entirely to the physician. 

The writer must not be understood as in the least defending 
either the therapeutic action or the chemistry of these compound 
preparations of the digestive ferments. While in no wise blamable 
for their inception he shares with his brother pharmacists only the 
responsibility of daily dispensing them and believes that he voices 
the demand of the dispensing apothecaries for accepted standard 
formulas for preparations so frequently dispensed on prescriptions. 

On the contrary, it is admitted that my own independent experi- 
ments have convinced me that pancreatin in acid solution with 
pepsin is in a condition the least advantageous for the preservation 
of its characteristic properties and actions or for its subsequent 
isolation and proper testing. On the other hand, tests made in a 
sample of Compound Elixir of Pepsin made by the formula given 
below and more than a month old, showed that the pepsin had not 
suffered any marked diminution of its digestive value. 

The compound powder of pepsin seems to be less prone to change 
and to keep fairly well for some time. We are not ready to accept 
the a priori conclusion of the chemist that pancreatin administered by 
mouth is destroyed by the acids of the stomach. Experiments by 
physiological chemists have demonstrated that after the extirpation 
of the pancreas in dogs absorption of fat is entirely abolished, 
although the fat be split up by bacterial fermentation. If, however, 
some pancreas be given to these dogs along with the fat, a portion 
of this fat is absorbed. 

Since, then, there is a necessity for these formulas to meet the 
legitimate demands on pharmacy, it becomes pertinent to inquire if 
any improvement can be made in them, and the intent of this con- 
tribution is to present several proposed improvements for consid- 
eration. 

Compound Powder of Pepsin. — It is proposed that the present 



334 



Pepsin. 



Am. Jour. Tharm. 
July, 1909. 



subtitle Pulvis Digestivus be deleted as suggesting therapeutic action, 
leaving the title only the Latin, Pulvis Pepsini Compositus, and the 
English translation Compound Powder of Pepsin. 

The quantity of pepsin in the present formula is but 15 per cent, 
of saccharated pepsin equivalent to but 1.5 per cent, of pepsin 
U.S. P., a quantity too small to obtain satisfactory digestive activity 
or possibly to comply with the regulations of the Food and Drugs 
Act. It is proposed to increase this to 15 per cent, of pepsin so as 
to maintain its proportion equivalent to the pancreatin directed. 

As the compound powder of pepsin is largely dispensed in 
powders and so becomes subjected to atmospheric exposure it is 
recommended that in this preparation the least hygroscopic form of 
pepsin be used, and it is proposed that the so-called " insoluble " 
powdered pepsin, of the official digestive value, be directed in its 
preparation, thus increasing its permanency and stability. 

The text of this modified formula would read : 

Pulvis Pepsini Compositus. 
Compound Powder of Pepsin. 

Powdered Pepsin (so-called "Insoluble" variety) 15 Gm. 

Pancreatin 15 Gm. 

Diastase 1 Gm. 

Lactic Acid 1 c.c. 

Hydrochloric acid 2 c.c. 

Sugar of milk, a sufficient quantity to obtain 100 grammes of 
finished product. 

Add the acids gradually to 60 grammes of sugar of milk and 
triturate until they are thoroughly mixed. Mix the pepsin, pan- 
creatin, and diastase, and incorporate this with the acidified sugar of 
milk. Weigh, and add sufficient sugar of milk to make the weight 
100 grammes. Triturate the mixture thoroughly and finally rub 
through a hair sieve and preserve the powder in well stoppered 
bottles. 

Compound" Elixir of Pepsin.— In this preparation it is pro- 
posed that the titles be changed by eliminating both the present 
Latin and English titles, Elixir Digestivum Compositum and Com- 
pound Digestive Elixir, as they may be possibly construed as thera- 
peutic titles, and adopting as titles Elixir Pepsini Compositum, Com- 
pound Elixir of Pepsin. This is in harmony with the following 
resolution already adopted unanimously by the Committee on N.F. : 



Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
July, 1909. ( 



Pepsin. 



335 



" The introduction of therapeutic or anatomical names in the future 
should be prohibited, and we recommend that present therapeutic 
titles be eliminated as far as is practicable." 

An examination of the present N.F. formulas shows that in the 
Compound Powder of Pepsin pancreatin is in excess and the pepsin 
is insufficient. In framing the formula for Compound Elixir of Pepsin 
the pancreatin was reduced to I gramme per litre and the pepsin 
increased to 10 Gm. The elixir bears no relation to the powder 
either in the relative proportion of the ingredients or in representing 
a definite weight of the powder in a stated volume of product. One 
of the strongest claims made by the pharmaceutical manufacturers is 
that their lactated-pepsin elixirs represent 40 or 80 grains of com- 
pound powder of pepsin to the fluidounce and this carries weight 
with the practitioner and meets his desire. Other minor defects are 
the reduction in the amount of acids directed and insufficient flavor- 
ing due to the use of aromatic elixir instead of adding the oils direct 
as flavoring in the course of preparation. Orange is the accepted 
flavor which appears to be used by all the manufacturers and should 
be retained in the Formulary. The use of tincture of cudbear as 
a coloring introduces some variability in the color of products as 
made by different druggists due to the impossibility of entirely 
exhausting cudbear in making the tincture and the varying degree 
of successful exhaustion in the preparation by different manipulators. 

In the formula submitted herewith it is proposed to have the 
elixir approximately represent one-tenth of the powder, or 100 Gm. 
of Compound Powder of Pepsin in 1 litre of elixir. The flavoring 
is orange and by the use of powdered cudbear a greater uniformity 
in product of different stores will be secured. 

The following proposed formula is submitted for 

Elixir Pepsini Compositum. 
Compound Elixir of Pepsin. 



Pepsin (soluble "scale or granular" variety) 15 Gm. 

Pancreatin 15 Gm. 

Diastase 1 Gm. 

Lactic acid 1 c.c. 

Hydrochloric acid 2 c.c. 

Glycerin 250 c.c. 

Alcohol 200 c.c. 

Oil orange 2 c.c. 

Cudbear 1 Gm. 

Water, a sufficient quantity to make 1000 c.c. 



33^ 



Importation of Drugs. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



Mix the acids with the glycerin and 500 c.c. of water, add the 
pepsin, pancreatin, and diastase, and macerate with occasional agi- 
tation until solution is effected. Then add gradually the alcohol, in 
which the oil of orange has been dissolved, agitating after each addi- 
tion. Now add the cudbear and sufficient water to make the prepa- 
ration measure 1000 c.c. Macerate for six hours with occasional 
shaking and then filter. 



SUPERVISING THE IMPORTATION OF DRUGS.*. 

By Geo. W. Hoover. 
U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The object of this paper is to convey briefly a general idea of 
the inspection of imported drugs under the Food and Drugs Act. 
Endeavor will be made to indicate some of the conditions at the 
outset of the enforcement of the law, and the changes and tendencies 
of conditions up to the present time. 

It is deemed advisable, first, to give some idea of the facilities 
for drug inspection work throughout the United States. There are 
at present twenty-one working branches of the Bureau of Chemistry 
distributed throughout the United States. The function of such 
laboratories is to inspect imported and domestic food and drug 
products and do such work along the lines of investigation as may 
assist in the enforcement of the Federal Act. Six of the above 
laboratories were established and in operation at the time the law 
was passed, June 30, 1906. These laboratories were actively engaged 
in the inspection of imported food products under the appropriation 
act for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1902, but drugs did not 
receive any consideration until the summer of 1907. It is interesting 
to note the changes which have taken place both as to quality and 
labelling of various products which are imported into the United 
States. 

Attention is now called to some of the crude drugs. As the 
work progressed, improvements were noticeable, and many of the 
old time violations no longer obtain. For example, examinations 
showed that importations of belladonna root were heavily adul- 



* Read at the meeting of the Philadelphia Branch of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association, April 6, 1909. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



Importation of Drugs. 



337 



terated with Phytolacca root. In one instance the belladonna root 
did not exceed 12 per cent, and the content of mydriatic alkaloids 
was correspondingly low. Belladonna leaf is another drug simi- 
larly adulterated and depreciated in value by being mixed with 
stems, phytolacca, scopola, and other foreign leaves. Some impor- 
tations of hyO'Scyamus contained large admixtures of scopola, stra- 
monium, and plantago leaves, and other consignments of henbane 
consisted wholly of hyoscyamus muticus, the alkaloidal value of 
which is seven to ten times greater than henbane proper, and pos- 
sesses different physiological properties. It can readily be seen 
that unreliable and dangerous preparations might result when 
manufactured from drugs of the above character. A number of 
importations were offered for cannabis indica under the title " canna- 
bis Madagascar." The purpose of this spurious product was to 
substitute cannabis indica proper. The sample seemed to resemble 
the genuine drug, but no definite information was available as to 
whether or not it possessed the same therapeutic properties. Other 
violations which may be enumerated are as follows : aconite, defi- 
cient in aconitine ; digitalis, of very inferior quality ; dandelion root, 
of poor quality and mixed with ground rock; kamala, large excess 
of added sand and dirt ; scopola, deficient in alkaloid ; coto bark, 
substituted by para coto or false coto ; simaruba, wholly spurious ; 
matico leaves, substituted by spurious products ; and in one instance, 
maracaibo supplied for cinchona bark. 

In some instances when the importer or consignee was apprised 
of the true findings and violations of the law, a desire would be 
immediately expressed to have such goods exported at once, for 
the reason that in placing the order it was specified that goods were 
to be of such quality as to fully meet the requirements of the law. 
Other importers would maintain that the findings were incorrect 
because they had handled similar products for years without any 
complaint and that such goods had been purchased from firms of 
standing and reputation. There is no doubt that in many cases the 
sincerity of the dealers was genuine, but nevertheless they had been, 
according to their own testimony, selling these spurious products, 
in some instances for thirty years or more, believing all this time 
that such articles were in harmony with the representations made. 

The saffron situation has presented some very interesting 
features and there is no doubt from the evidence and findings that 
this product has been very extensively adulterated in various ways. 



338 



Importation of Drugs. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



Numerous importations of this product have been examined and 
in some instances there has been revealed upwards of 40 per cent, 
of mineral matter, usually potassium or sodium nitrate or calcium 
sulphate. Other shipments invoiced as saffron were found to consist 
chiefly and in some instances entirely of calendula florets colored 
with aniline dye. Upon the suppression of this practice it was not 
long until calendula florets colored with coal-tar dye, invoiced calen- 
dula, appeared for entrance into the United States; this product 
was also refused entry owing to its improper importation and the 
obvious purpose for which it was intended to be used. 

The violations met under the misbranding feature of the law 
are not uncommon. In many instances the proscribed drugs such as 
morphine, cocaine, phenacetin, acetanilid, and especially alcohol, 
are not declared. This violation is prevalent always, and notably 
in case of the alcoholic preparations unwarranted claims are often 
made relative to the remedial virtue of the products. These prepa- 
rations are found usually to contain from 15 to 45 per cent, alcohol, 
with small amounts of aromatics, and occasionally such constituents 
as cinchona, gentian, etc., in sufficient quantity to impart a slightly 
bitter taste, and often colored with caramel or a coal-tar dye. Evi- 
dence is usually introduced to the effect that the product is sold as 
a beverage, or else false and misleading statements are held to be 
proper by the importers ; in other instances the consignee is a rail- 
road, express, or telegraph company, and the ultimate consignee 
cannot be located. Others request permission for relabelling so that 
same will be in harmony with the law. 

Again, some manufacturers cling to misrepresentative names 
with great tenacity. One example is a product sold extensively 
throughout the United States and, according to the company's own 
literature, throughout the world, which was being imported into the 
United States under the name of et Fruit Salt." The product was 
found to consist virtually of equal parts of tartaric acid and sodium 
bicarbonate. Such importation was justly deemed misbranded under 
the law, and it was only after many months that this question was 
finally adjusted which resulted in the manufacturers labelling their 
product " Fruit Salt Derivative Compound, containing 48 per cent, 
of fruit derivative together with about 52 per cent, of alkaline salt 
for producing effervescence." This serves only as a striking illus- 
tration of the time required and manner of concluding some of the 
questions that are constantly arising. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1909. J 



Importation of Drugs. 



339 



Another serious feature met with in imported goods is the false 
claims and misrepresentations made upon labels, cartons, and accom- 
panying literature of certain articles. A product, commonly known 
as pills of ferrous carbonate, which is beyond doubt an efficient 
remedy for various conditions and which has a worthy place as a 
remedial agent, is claimed by the manufacturers to be a positive 
cure for a number of diseases, among which are enumerated 
scrofula, consumption, locomotor ataxia, and epilepsy. In other 
cases the claims are confined to a given system as circulatory, diges- 
tive, respiratory, etc. Still others restrict themselves to special 
organs ; for example, a certain product has been met with which is 
recommended for all diseased conditions of the kidneys and all 
troubles arising from such abnormalities. Upon examination this 
particular article was found to be composed of methylene blue and 
oil of juniper. Other preparations are exploited as never-failing 
cures, or specifics for certain diseases, the pathogenic conditions 
of which are such as to preclude the successful treatment by medici- 
nal remedies alone. The most that can possibly be accomplished by 
such remedies is palliative in character. The products include the 
so-called positive cures for such diseases as diabetes, syphilis, cancer, 
asthma, epilepsy, locomotor ataxia, and the various forms and stages 
of tuberculosis. 

A product, for example, claiming to be a sure and positive cure 
for all forms of epilepsy was found upon examination to contain 
alcohol, morphine, neither of which was declared, ammonium iodide, 
and perhaps a small quantity of bromide. Another preparation 
represented to be a cure for all forms of tuberculosis con- 
sisted approximately of 95 per cent, sucrose. A product for the 
cure of syphilis claimed that the use of this preparation would cure 
the disease in a " very brief time." Among other constituents stated 
to be present in remedial quantities were strychnine, cocaine, and 
mercury. An examination showed cocaine and strychnine were 
absent and but a mere trace of mercury present, certainly not in 
sufficient quantity to produce results in the period of time referred 
to. It is represented as sui passing any and all other preparations 
for this disease. The most alluring descriptions of results achieved 
in this treatment are set forth in the accompanying literature. 

It may be said in passing that every possible care is being exer- 
cised to prevent goods bearing labels which are false and misleading 
from coming into the United States. 



34-0 



Importation of Drugs. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
| July, 1909. 



Another problem which sometimes arises in connection with 
imported drugs is the true declaration relative to the manufacturer 
or the place of production. There have been cases of this character ; 
for example, a product may be entered through the port of New 
York, and it is subsequently found that such article is an imitation 
of the genuine or for some reason there is a misrepresentation 
relative to the place of manufacture. It has been the practice to 
institute an investigation and ascertain if possible the true situation, 
and in most cases this has been successfully accomplished through 
the assistance of the foreign consul and agents in arriving at just 
and satisfactory conclusions. It may be said, however, that this 
problem is sometimes attended with difficulties. There have been 
many complaints and contentions in regard to various brands of one 
well-known remedy imported from Holland. Although there is on 
file a large mass of information from various sources, the evidence 
is not yet sufficient to indicate who is rightfully entitled to the name. 
It is, however, encouraging to note that in so far as is known the 
numerous false claims formerly made for the medicinal virtue of 
the preparation, whether genuine or not, have been changed by the 
various manufacturers and dealers. 

Some interesting features have developed in connection with 
the use of the term " for technical use " or some similar phrase, in 
a number of cases of certain products as cassia oil, balsam Peru, 
gum benzoin, etc. It appears that these are employed more or less 
in the manufacture of certain products, as perfumes and soaps. 
These goods have been imported in a large number of cases under 
names recognized in the U. S. P. and when such products are found 
not to comply with the requirements of this authority the importers 
in most cases request permission to relabel " for technical use only," 
and are perfectly willing to make affidavit to the effect that they 
themselves will not use the product for other than technical pur- 
poses, but they apparently are not willing to make themselves 
responsible for the disposition of the goods after leaving their 
hands. Consignments labelled " for technical purposes only " have 
been released in the past and such goods were found subsequently in 
the regular pharmaceutical trade. The embarrassing position in 
which such practice is liable to place certain dealers can readily be 
seen. For example, if oil of cassia, containing rosin and heavy metals, 
is permitted entry into the United States, labelled " Oil of Cassia, 
U.S. P. " or " Oil of Cassia " with no qualification, an innocent 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1909. j 



Importation of Drugs. 



341 



dealer might be placed in a very unpleasant position. Thus, the 
proper labelling and declaration are matters of the greatest 
importance. 

There are several points in connection with senna siftings and 
smilax rhizomes worthy of attention. In connection with senna sift- 
ings numerous importations have been found to contain an excessive 
quantity of mineral matter, in one instance as much as 35 per cent. 
Smilax rhizome is that part of the sarsaparilla especially directed 
by the U.S. P. to be rejected in the manufacture of sarsaparilla 
preparations. It has been maintained by some that it would be 
perfectly proper to manufacture U.S. P. products from these goods, 
and to show to what extent some of these matters are carried it 
may be said that there has been submitted only recently a product 
labelled " Fluidextract of Senna, U.S. P." made from senna siftings, 
and " Fluidextract of Sarsaparilla," made from rhizomes. There is 
no question whatever that products manufactured and labelled as 
indicated above are in violation of the law. 

There has been some question relative to the use of such words 
as " synthetic " and " artificial " in connection with such products 
as balsam Peru and oil of bitter almond ; that is, a number of impor- 
tations have been invoiced as oil of bitter almond, oil of almond, or 
bitter almond oil, artificial. These shipments upon examination 
proved to be benzaldehyde and inasmuch as both benzaldehyde and 
oil of bitter almond are recognized and defined in the U.S. P., it 
would not be proper for benzaldehyde to be imported and sold under 
the name " oil of bitter almond " or " oil of almond, artificial," but 
it should be labelled " benzaldehyde." 

The situation in connection with balsam Peru is somewhat differ- 
ent ; there have been various importations invoiced as artificial 
balsam Peru and synthetic balsam Peru. An examination of the 
products revealed the fact that the articles did not comply with the 
tests prescribed in the U.S. P. for balsam Peru. This article has 
been represented as taking precedence for medicinal use to the 
genuine product in the country of production, but it is well known 
that this imitation balsam Peru is restricted in sale in the country 
of production. It is therefore in violation of Section 11 of the law 
and, further, inasmuch as it is clearly an imitation article, it is in 
violation of Section 8 of the law, which states that an article shall 
be deemed misbranded in case of drugs first, if it be an imitation or 
offered for sale under the name of another article. 



342 



Charles Darwin. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



In a number of cases it has been represented that it was difficult 
to control the gathering or collection of certain commodities because 
of the character of the labor and nature of the materials, but this 
contention is apparently not well founded because numerous impor- 
tations of such goods are being offered which are found satisfactory. 

There is no doubt but that a certain small per cent, oppose the 
proper enforcement of the law in reference to imported goods and 
apparently do much to defeat its purpose, but it is gratifying to 
know that the vast majority of importers, manufacturers, and 
various dealers have co-operated faithfully in its enforcement. 
Upon various occasions generous support and aid have been given 
by supplying specific information upon particular points involved, 
and it is largely due to this spirit of co-operation and assistance 
that it may be said the law is becoming more effective daily. The 
evidence furthermore shows that foreign dealers recognize the fact 
that the United States is no longer the dumping ground of their 
refuse products, which have little or no sale in their own country. 



CHARLES DARWIN, AS A BOTANIST* 

By John W. Harshberger, Ph.D. 

Charles Darwin lies buried in Westminster Abbey in the north 
aisle of the nave close to the angle of the choir-screen beside the 
body of Sir John Herschel, the celebrated astronomer, and not far 
off in the central part of the nave lie David Livingstone, the African 
explorer, and Sir Isaac Newton, the philosopher and mathematician. 
Truly in this cathedral-mausoleum and in the most prominent places 
lie the mortal remains of a galaxy of great men of whom the 
English-speaking race may be justly proud. No honor too great 
can be bestowed upon men of such sterling intellectual worth. 
Darwin formulated the principles of organic evolution ; Sir Isaac 
Newton was the formulator of the law of gravitation ; Sir John 
Herschel explored the starry realm and made many discoveries of 
importance, while David Livingstone with unequalled determination 
opened up the dark continent to the knowledge of civilized men. 

* A paper read before the Association of Doctors of Philosophy, Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, on the occasion of the Darwin Centenary Memorial 
meeting held Friday, February 12, 1909, at the University. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



Charles Darwin. 



343 



Each of them made explorations into the unknown and each con- 
tributed something to dispel the ignorance and superstition which 
enshrouded the true conception of the universe. Darwin began his 
scientific career with the voyage of the H. M. S. Beagle. He is 
usually considered to be a biologist in the narrow sense in which 
that term is generally used in its application to zoologists, and yet 
some of his most important discoveries were made by him as a 
botanic investigator. We find all through the journal of his 
voyage around the world reference to his observations of the plant 
life of the countries which he visited. I cannot do better by way of 
an introduction to what follows than to make a few quotations from 
the pages of his diary where he mentions particularly his study of 
the plants in the field, while collecting them for the subsequent 
study of specialists, such as Sir Joseph Hooker, Professor Henslow, 
and Reverend M. J. Berkley. His delight and enthusiasm as a 
naturalist on seeing the Brazilian vegetation near Rio Janeiro for 
the first time are expressed thus : " Following a pathway I entered 
a noble forest, and from a height of five or six hundred feet, one of 
those splendid views was presented, which are so common on every 
side of Rio. At this elevation the landscape attains its most bril- 
liant tint, and every form, every shade, so completely surpasses in 
magnificence all that the European has ever beheld in his own coun- 
try, that he knows not how to express his feelings. The general 
effect frequently recalled to mind the gayest scenery of the Opera- 
house, or the great theatres. I never returned from these excur- 
sions empty handed." That comprehensiveness of view which char- 
acterize the writings of Darwin as a finished naturalist is exem- 
plified in the journal, while he was an apprentice on board the 
Beagle. In one paragraph he gives us in a nutshell a complete 
description of the vegetation of South America which I, as a plant 
geographer, cannot refrain from quoting in full. Darwin writes : 
" Confining our view to South America, we should certainly be 
tempted to believe that trees flourish only under a very humid 
climate ; for the limit of the forest-land follows, in a most remarkable 
manner, that of the damp winds. In the southern part of the con- 
tinent, where the western gales, charged with moisture from the 
Pacific, prevail, every island on the broken west coast, from lat. 
38 to the extreme part of Tierra del Fuego, is densely covered by 
impenetrable forests. On the eastern side of the Cordillera over the 
same extent of latitude, where a blue sky and a fine climate prove 



344 



Charles Darwin. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



that the atmosphere has been deprived of its moisture by passing 
over the mountains, the arid plains of Patagonia support a most 
scanty vegetation. In the more northern parts of the continent, 
within the limits of the constant southeastern trade-wind, the eastern 
side is ornamented by magnificent forests ; whilst the western coast, 
from lat. 4 S. to lat. 32 S. may be described as a desert; on this 
western coast northward of lat. 40 S., where the trade-wind loses 
its regularity, and heavy torrents of rain fall periodically, the shores 
of the Pacific, so utterly desert in Peru, assume near Cape Blanco 
the character of luxuriance so celebrated at Guayaquil and Panama. 
Hence in the southern and northern parts of the continent the 
forest and desert lands occupy reversed positions with respect to 
the Cordillera, and these positions are apparently determined by 
the direction of the prevalent winds. In the middle of the continent 
there is a broad intermediate band, including Central Chile and the 
provinces of La Plata, where the rain-bringing winds have not £0 
pass over lofty mountains and where the land is neither a desert nor 
covered by forests. But even the rule, if confined to South America, 
of trees flourishing only in a climate rendered humid by rain-bear- 
ing winds, has a strongly marked exception in the case of the 
Falkland Islands. These islands, situated in the same latitude with 
Tierra del Fuego and only between two and three hundred miles 
distant from it, having a nearly similar climate, with a geological 
formation almost identical, with favorable situations, and the same 
kind of peaty soil, yet can boast of few plants deserving even the 
title of bushes ; whilst in Tierra del Fuego it is impossible to find 
an acre of land not covered by the densest forest." With the same 
scrupulous care of details and in his characteristic straightforward 
style, Darwin goes on in his journal to describe the history of the 
voyage with Captain FitzRoy, together with a sketch of those obser- 
vations in natural history and geology which the young naturalist 
hoped might possess some interest for the general reader. Darwin's 
hope that his observations might prove of some interest as w r ell as 
remain of general value has had a recent exemplification. At the 
meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 
held in Baltimore during the last Christmas holidays, Prof. Roland 
Thaxter, of Harvard University, described in a very entertaining 
manner the result of a trip to the southern end of South America 
in the Straits of Magellan and by way of introduction spoke of the 
botanic observations of Charles Darwin on the beech forests of 



Am. Jour. Pharm ) 
July, 1909. J 



Charles Darwin. 



345 



that little known country, which showed the keenness with which 
every natural object was scrutinized by him. A peculiar family of 
sac fungi ( Ascomycetes) contains only one genus Cyttaria having 
the appearance of the morel (Morchella), but without a stem. All 
known species are parasitic on the evergreen beech, Xothofagus. 
The fruit bodies of this fungous parasite often grow in dense 
clusters, springing from swollen portions of the host which it par- 
tially deforms. The different species which are found in Chile, 
Patagonia, Tasmania, and Xew Zealand are edible and at one time 
formed a staple food of the natives. Specimens were collected by 
Prof. Thaxter on his recent visit and in connection with this recent 
reminder of Darwin's observations on this fungus the following 
may be mentioned appropriately. The forest commences at the line 
of high-water mark, and was so thick that it was necessary to have 
recourse to the compass to find one's way. " In the deep ravines, 
the death-like scene of desolation exceeded all description; outside 
it was blowing a gale, but in these hollows not even a breath of 
wind stirred the leaves of the tallest trees and it was gloomy, cold, 
and wet. In the valleys it was scarcely possible to crawl along, they 
were so completely barricaded by great mouldering trunks, in the 
case of the Winter's Bark (Drimys Winteri) four to six feet in 
girth and the beech seven feet in diameter, which had fallen down 
in every direction. In this forest grows one vegetable production 
deserving of notice as an article of food to the Fuegians. It is a 
globular, bright yellow fungus, which grows in vast numbers on 
the beech trees. When young it is elastic and turgid, with a smooth 
surface; but when mature it shrinks, becomes tougher, and has 
its entire surface deeply pitted or honey-combed. In Tierra del 
Fuego the fungus in its tough and mature state is collected in large 
quantities by the women and children, and it is eaten uncooked. It 
has a mucilaginous, slightly sweet taste, with a faint smell like 
that of a mushroom." So much for the botanic observations of 
Darwin as recorded in the " Journal of Researches into the Natural 
History and Geology of the Countries Visited during the Voyage of 
the H. M. S. Beagle round the World." 

Darwin's work as a botanist was many-sided. In the published 
list of 116 separate titles of books and papers contributed directly 
to science, 37 books and papers are strictly botanic, the rest are 
zoologic, geologic, and devoted to the subject of general evo- 
lution. One-third then of all the scientific contributions of Darwin 



346 



Charles Darwin. 



Am. Jour. Pharm- 

July, 1909. 



are botanic and before commenting on the character of his botanic 
studies let me briefly enumerate his most important botanic writings. 

The following important books should be mentioned : " On the 
Contrivances by which Orchids are Fertilized by Insects," 1862 ; 
" The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication," 
1868 (two volumes); " Insectivorous Plants," 1875; "The Move- 
ments and Habits of Climbing Plants," 1875 ; " The Effects of 
Cross and Self-Fertilization in the Vegetable Kingdom," 1876; 
" The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species," 
1877; "The Power of Movement in Plants," assisted by Francis 
Darwin, 1880. 

Plis minor botanic contributions I will divide for sake of treat- 
ment into the following categories : ( 1 ) papers dealing with the 
pollination of flowers; (2) papers dealing with plant distribution; 
(3) papers dealing with the movements of plants; (4) papers deal- 
ing with questions of physiologic botany. Darwin in the papers of 
the first group dealt with the agency of bees in the fertilization of 
papilionaceous flowers, on the fertilization of winter flowering plants, 
on the fertilization of the Fumariacese, but the most important con- 
tributions included in this group were those on the two forms or 
dimorphic condition of the species of Primula and their remarkable 
sexual relations, on the three remarkable sexual forms of Catasetum 
tridentatum and on the sexual relations of the three forms of 
Lythrum salicaria. Darwin retained his interest in questions of 
geographic distribution even after he had settled to the quiet life at 
Down. Two short papers are of interest in this connection. While 
on the Beagle, he had studied the problems connected with the 
origin of the vegetation of oceanic islands. To account for the 
distribution of many plants of the Pacific Islands the botanist must 
have recourse to sea currents to explain the phenomena. Darwin's 
paper on this subject in the Gardener's Chronicle deals with the 
vitality of seeds, his second paper treats of the action of sea-water 
on the germination of seeds and appeared in the Journal of the 
Linnaean Society. 

The papers dealing with the movements of plants may be dis- 
missed here without further comment, because most of the obser- 
vations recorded in them were published in his more pretentious 
works on the same subject. I can find only two papers of a purely 
physiologic character, namely, one on the action of carbonate of 
ammonia on the roots of certain plants, and another on the action 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1909. J 



Charles Darwin. 



347 



of this same chemical on the chlorophyll bodies. Having briefly 
summarized the books and papers which bear strictly upon botany, 
it is important briefly to describe the botanic work which appeals to 
the speaker as being of the greatest import to the science. Darwin's 
activity as a botanist extended over a period of about fifty years, 
from 1 83 1, when he left England on the voyage of the Beagle, until 
late in 1881, when on a call upon Mr. Romanes in London, in 
December, he was seized when on the door-step with an attack 
apparently of the same kind as those which afterwards became so 
frequent. During the fifty years of active life, he accomplished a 
tremendous amount of scientific work, notwithstanding the fact 
that he was a great sufferer and frequently was incapacitated 
altogether. 

It would be incorrect to state that all of Darwin's botanic 
work will be lasting. The experience of breeders was inadequate to 
the purposes of Darwin's theories. It was neither critic nor scien- 
tific. Laws of variation were barely conjectured ; the different types 
of variability were distinguished imperfectly. Quetelet's law of 
variation had not yet been published. Mendel's law of hybrids was 
unknown. Innumerable minor points which go to elucidate the 
breeder's experience were unknown in Darwin's time. No wonder 
that he made mistakes, and laid stress on modes of descent which 
have been proved to be of minor importance or even of doubtful 
validity. Yet with all these apparently insurmountable difficulties 
Darwin discovered the great principle which rules the evolution of 
organism, viz., natural selection. His scientific observations and 
experimental work were of the most painstaking and detailed char- 
acter. He had developed a power of sticking to a subject until he 
had mastered it to his satisfaction. He used almost to apologize 
for his patience, saying that he couldn't bear to be beaten, as if 
this were rather a sign of weakness on his part. He often quoted 
the saying, " It's dogged as does it." He laid the foundations of 
modern scientific methods of thought and as the formulator of the 
principles of organic evolution his name will go down to posterity. 
In the twenty-seven years since his death, the problems in botany 
and zoology have been attacked from many standpoints until with 
the advances that have been made in paleontology, histology, cytol- 
ogy, physiology, taxonomy, and the breeder's art, the theories of 
organic evolution have been revolutionized almost entirely, and we 
have sects of Neo-Darwinists and Ultra-Darwinists and what not. 



348 



Charles Darwin. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

July, 1909. 



The advances that have been made by the assistance of many work- 
ers have necessitated a restatement of all of the most important 
doctrines which Darwin enunciated. Take, for example, the empha- 
sis which he laid upon the principle that Nature abhors continuous 
self-fertilization. He has given us by his experiments narrated in 
" Cross and Self-Fertilization in the Vegetable Kingdom " some 
accurate data tending to show the actual effect of inbreeding for a 
great variety of species. His experiments were with some 57 species, 
belonging to 52 genera. One of his most extensive series of experi- 
ments was carried on with the common morning glory (Ipomcea 
purpurea). This species was bred, both crossed and self-fertilized, 
for ten generations. In every generation, the crossed forms were 
larger than the self-fertilized, the average being as 100 is to 77. 
Not only that, but they were more productive. In the sixth genera- 
tion, however, there appeared a specially vigorous plant that over- 
topped its own competitor by half an inch, and exceeded in height 
all but three of the series. Darwin named this plant " Hero " and 
remarks, " I was so much surprised at this fact that I resolved to 
ascertain whether this plant would transmit its powers of growth 
to its seedlings." Accordingly, he fertilized a number of flowers 
of Hero with their own pollen and planted seedlings in competition 
with inbred plants and with the cross-bred as well. The results 
obtained showed that Hero and its descendants varied from the 
common type not only in acquiring great power of growth and 
increased fertility, when subjected to self-fertilization, but in not 
profiting from a cross with distinct stock. Although Darwin was 
surprised at Hero and its descendants, yet he mentioned the case 
as obviously contrary to the usual procedure among plants. We 
now know, however, that there are many hundreds of plants which 
possess cleistogamous flowers, which are habitually self-pollinated 
without any apparent diminution in vigor or hardiness, as, for 
example, our common blue violet which produces seed more abun- 
dantly underground from cleistogamous flowers than from the 
bright blue flowers which are one of the glories of our hillsides in 
the early springtime. The same general exception has been proved 
in animal breeding, where line breeding has been found one of the 
most powerful methods of improving the race of our common 
domestic animals, and that inbreeding of the most pronounced kind 
is not always detrimental provided the breeder selects the animals 
to be bred with reference to their vigor and fertility. 



Am. Jour. Pharru. 
July, 1909. 



Charles Darwin. 



349 



Darwin established the department of biology known to-day as 
ecology. With Darwin as a botanist we are especially concerned, 
so that we may refer in particular to work which he did in plant 
ecology. The first botanic book to appear was a little treatise on 
the pollination of orchids by insects, published separately, as it 
was too large to be incorporated with any other subject, and its 
object was to show that the contrivances by which orchids are fer- 
tilized are as varied and almost as perfect as any of the most beau- 
tiful adaptations in the animal kingdom, and secondly to show that 
these contrivances have for their main object the fertilization of the 
flowers with pollen brought by insects from a distant plant. One 
of the most curious of the orchids studied by Darwin was Coryanthes 
speciosa, the flowers of which are very large and hang down. The 
distal part of the lip petal forms a large bucket over which arise 
two appendages which drop fluid into it. When the labellum bucket 
is full the fluid overflows by a spout, which is over-arched by the 
column which bears the stigma and pollen-masses in such a position 
that an insect, which has had an involuntary bath in the liquid by 
falling into it, is compelled to force its way out through a narrow 
passage so placed that the insect first brushes its back against the 
stigma and afterwards against the viscid disks of the pollen-masses 
and thus removes them, to be carried in flight to another flower. 

Darwin's ecologic observations on insectivorous plants beg'an 
after his curiosity was aroused by the common sundew. He writes : 
" During the summer of i860 I was surprised by finding how large 
a number of insects were caught by the leaves of the common sundew 
Drosera rotundifolia on a heath in Sussex. I had heard that insects 
were thus caught, but knew nothing further on the subject. I 
gathered by chance a dozen plants bearing fifty-six fully expanded 
leaves, and on thirty-one of these dead insects or remnants of them 
adhered." After the most painstaking experimental study of the 
plant Darwin concludes, " The results have proved highly remark- 
able, the more important ones being, first, the extraordinary sensi- 
tiveness of the glands to slight pressure and to minute doses of 
certain nitrogenous fluids as shown by the movements of the 
so-called hairs or tentacles ; second, the power possessed by the 
leaves of rendering soluble or digesting nitrogenous substances, and 
of afterwards absorbing them ; third, the changes which take place 
within the cells of the tentacles when the glands are excited in 
various ways." 



350 



Charles Darwin. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



During many years Professor Asa Gray of Harvard University 
maintained an active correspondence with Darwin, who was enabled 
to secure and observe a number of American plants of striking 
ecologic type. Stimulated to inquiry by a paper of Prof. Gray's 
on the movements of the tendrils of some cucurbitaceous plants, 
Darwin undertook the study of over 100 widely distinct species of 
climbing plants which presented sufficient novelty to justify him 
in publishing his book of 208 pages entitled " The Movements and 
Habits of Climbing Plants," which appeared in 1876. His study 
led him to divide them into four classes : first, those which twine 
spirally round a support, and are not aided by any other movement ; 
second, those endowed with irritable organs, which when they 
touch any object clasp it; such organs consisting of modified leaves, 
branches, or flower peduncles. Plants of the third class ascend by 
the aid of hooks, and those of the fourth by rootlets. As to the 
evolution of the climbing habit Darwin concludes that leaf climbers 
were primordially twiners and tendril bearers (when formed of 
modified leaves) were primordially leaf climbers. 

A typic flower has a pistil surrounded by a row of stamens 
so that it would seem at first sight easy for the pollen to fall on 
the stigma. Such self-pollination does happen, but in the majority 
of flowers there are three principal modes by which self-fertilization 
is presented. First, in many species the stamens and pistils are 
situated in different flowers ; such species are called diclinous, which 
is either monoecious with the distinct flowers on the same plant or 
dioecious on different plants. Second, Sprengel discovered dichog- 
amy where the pistil and stamens mature at different times so 
that, as in Arum, when the pistil matures before the anthers these 
plants are proterogynous, when the anther matures before the pistil 
proterandrous. Darwin discovered the third method in the presence 
of two or more kinds of flowers (heteromorphism) on the same 
species differing in the relative position of the stamens and the 
pistil which are so placed as to favor the transference by insects 
of the pollen from, the anther of the one form to the pistil of the 
other. Plants with two kinds of flowers are called dimorphic, those 
with three kinds trimorphic. The results of these studies were 
incorporated in a volume entitled " Different Forms of Flowers on 
Plants of the Same Species," 1877, dedicated to Professor Asa 
Gray as a small tribute of respect and affection. 

The last volume by Darwin of a botanic character was one 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



Charles Darwin. 



35i 



entitled " Power of Movement in Plants," where, with this title as 
a text, Darwin shows that apparently every growing part of every 
plant is continually circumnutating though often on a small scale, 
and in this universally present movement we have the basis for the 
acquirement of the most diversified movements. Thus, the great 
sweeps made by the stems of twining plants and by the tendrils of 
other climbers result from a mere increase in the amplitude of the 
ordinary movement of circumnutation. The leaves of various plants, 
as the clover, sleep at night, in other cases various organs show 
movements to the light or from the light, as again are equally 
prevalent movements of stems, etc., towards the zenith, and of roots 
towards the centre of the earth. Darwin laid the foundation for the 
ecologic study of these various tropisms which the use of modern 
experimental methods of research have extended and made more 
exact by the automatic recording of the movements by suitably 
designed apparatus connected with the growing plant. 

Other botanists may have exceeded Darwin in the extent and 
variety of their discoveries, but Darwin represents an era of philo- 
sophic thought, and as the centre of the intellectual maelstrom 
which his theories created, he naturally stands, as Saul did of old, 
head and shoulders above his scientific contemporaries. One of the 
greatest of these was Karl Naegeli. He was one of the first among 
German botanists to introduce a strict method of thought, but 
Naegeli's method was applied to facts which as facts were in- 
accurately observed. Darwin collected data from the literature 
in support of an idea, Naegeli applied his logic to observations 
which were in part untrustworthy, but this much must be said that 
Darwin's " Origin of Species," published in the year 1859, delivered 
us from the unlucky dogma of constancy. He removed the medise- 
vally placed shackles from the theories of the organic world and 
introduced a new philosophy more in harmony with the facts — the 
end of which is not yet. 



352 



Book Reviews. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1909. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

ArbEITEN AUS DEM PHARM AZEUTISCHEN InSTITUT DER UnJ- 

VERSitat, Berlin. Herausgegeben von Dr. H. Thorns. Vols. 4 
and 5, Berlin, 1907 and 1908. 

These two, large 8vo volumes of 340 pages respectively contain 
an account of the work done in the Pharmaceutical Institute of the 
University of Berlin. Unfortunately for American pharmacy, and 
not to the credit of American pharmacists, it must be said that 
these annuals, and the work that is recorded in them, are as yet 
comparatively unknown in this country, and the precedent that is 
being established, in Germany, for pharmaceutical schools and 
pharmaceutical associations has, as yet, not been followed by a single 
institution in this country. It is doubtful indeed if any appreciable 
number of even the teachers in schools and colleges of pharmacy 
in this country know of the existence of the Pharmaceutical Insti- 
tute of Berlin, to say nothing of their having any definite knowledge 
of the work that is being done by the teachers, scientists, and inves- 
tigators that are taking such an active part in the various activities 
of that institute. 

The Pharmaceutical Institute of the University of Berlin, essen- 
tially a pharmaceutical school, was opened on the 27th of October, 
1902, under the direction of Dr. H. Thorns. The attendance of 
students during the semester 1902-1903 was 101, and during the 
corresponding semester of 1905- 1906 the recorded attendance 
reached 212. 

In addition to being a school for students, the institute has also 
undertaken original investigations in a number of branches relating 
to pharmacy. 

Perhaps the work that is of more direct interest to pharmacists, 
certainly the work that has proven itself to be of most immediate 
importance, is the investigations undertaken in 1903, at the instiga- 
tion and with the pecuniary assistance of the German Society of 
Apothecaries, bearing on the composition and testing of new medici- 
nal compounds, pharmaceutical specialties, and secret remedies. 
The reports of the work done in this connection are published from 
time to time in the " Apotheker Zeitung Berlin," and many, if not 
all, are subsequently reprinted in the annual reports of the institute, 
of which, up to the present time, five volumes have been published. 

This particular branch of the work of the institute early assumed 



Am. Jour. Pharm. j 
July, 1909. f 



Book Reviews. 



353 



international importance, and in 1906 the director of the institute, 
Dr. H. Thorns, was elected a corresponding member of the Council 
on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical Association. 
In addition to this evidence of appreciation of the activities of the 
institute, by American physicians, individuals, associations, and even 
government officials in all parts of Europe have followed the work 
with interest and are beginning to look to the Pharmaceutical Insti- 
tute as a source of reliable information regarding the composition 
and properties of new remedies of all kinds. 

As might be expected, the institute and the men engaged in 
the work have been vigorously attacked and maligned by the manu- 
facturers of the secret or fake remedies that have been exposed. 
These exposures that, as has been pointed out before, have been 
made at the instance of the German Apothecaries Society, have again 
demonstrated that the composition of many of the proprietary 
articles now on the market is quite different from that indicated by 
the claims made for them by the manufacturers, and have also 
served to show anew that manufacturers of nostrums not infre- 
quently vary the composition of their preparations at will. 

In addition to the chemical work that has been done in connection 
with new remedies and the investigation of various chemical prob- 
lems, comprehensive experiments in drug cultivation have been 
instituted. For several years experiments have been conducted in 
the cultivation of the poppy plant, for the production of opium and 
opium alkaloids. In this connection Turkish and Persian, as well as 
a number of hybrid German, poppy plants were experimented with. 
The effect of various nitrogen-containing fertilizers on the alkaloidal 
content of the poppy plant has also been studied, and the completed 
studies, to appear in a future annual, will no doubt prove interesting 
and valuable as a contribution to our knowledge of alkaloid yielding 
drugs. 

The experimental grounds include a total of 5000 square metres 
largely, if not entirely, devoted to the cultivation of medicinal plants 
and the study of the effect of various fertilizers on the composition 
of these plants. 

With such a variety of activities it might well be expected that 
the annual reports of the work should be unusually interesting. 
The two volumes now before us contain 81 and 89 contributions 
respectively, and the material presented covers a variety of subjects 
varying from an elaboration of identity tests for legitimate new 



354 



Book Reviews. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



remedies to the exposure of the composition of suspicious prepara- 
tions and secret remedies, and from original investigations on per- 
plexing problems in organic chemistry to more or less routine 
examinations of the products of German colonies. 

Taking Volume 5 as reflecting the scientific activities of the 
institute, we find that it contains reports on twenty-five new reme- 
dies, records the investigations on forty-six proprietary and secret 
remedies, and includes eighteen additional contributions on studies 
in organic chemistry and the chemical investigation of foods and 
technical products originating in the German colonies. 

Altogether it may be said that these annual reports are well worth 
bringing to the attention of American pharmacists, and the work 
that is being done in the Pharmaceutical Institute of the University 
of Berlin should serve as an incentive for schools of pharmacy and 
pharmaceutical associations, in this country, to engage in the same 
line of investigation and thus demonstrate, in a practical way, that 
they are really willing to live up to the ideals that have been set 
by the early followers of pharmacy in this country. 

M. I. Wilbert. 

Rudiments of Latin. With special reference to the nomen- 
clature of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, the National Formulary, and the 
text-books in materia medica and botany. By Julius William 
Stunner, Ph.G., Professor of Pharmacy, Purdue University, Lafay- 
ette, Ind. 

This book will impress the teacher of pharmaceutical or medical 
Latin as an eminently practical one. As the author states in his 
preface, a knowledge of certain fragments of Latin grammar is 
indispensable to the mastering of the nomenclature of pharmacy and 
medicine and their allied sciences. The student of these subjects 
does not need to concern himself with many grammatical forms, 
nor to any great extent with the principles of Latin syntax, but a 
knowledge of the terminology is absolutely essential for correct 
work. It is upon this fact that Professor Sturmer lays especial 
emphasis and it is this feature which differentiates the book from 
other works on the Latin of pharmacy and medicine. The formation 
of Latin titles and their use in prescription work occupy a large 
portion of the book, and the subject is presented in such a clear and 
systematic manner that the student must be dull indeed who does 
not understand the principles involved. The exercises for practical 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1909. j" 



Book Reviezvs. 



355 



work by the student are very helpful and the number of these might 
have been increased with profit. 

Professor Stunner's arrangement in presenting first the nomina- 
tive and genitive cases as the forms most used in the nomenclature, 
while the full declension is deferred until these forms have been 
mastered, is also to be commended. In fact, the book shows that 
it is the work of an experienced teacher, who places stress at the 
proper points and who< presents the essential facts with force and 
clearness. W. S. Truesdell. 

The Study of Nature. By Samuel C. Schmucker, A.M., 
Ph.D., Professor of Biological Sciences in the West Chester (Pa.) 
State Normal School. With illustrations by Katharine E. Schmucker. 
J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia and London, 1908. 

This book is one of Lippincott's Educational Series edited by 
Martin G. Brumbaugh, Superintendent of Schools, Philadelphia, 
and, having in addition been written by a teacher of biology in a 
State normal school, we would expect that the rules given for guid- 
ing the pupils would be models of their kind, and indeed this appears 
to be the case. The key-note of the book is given in the very first 
paragraph, where the author says, " Nature study is the study of 
nature." 

The book comprises 315 pages, including index, and is divided 
into three sections, the first being devoted to theoretical considera- 
tions ; the second, to the materials which are typical and available 
for study, including seven chapters on animals, two on plants, and 
one on " The Heavens " ; and the third, to suggestions on a course 
of nature study covering the first, second, third, and fourth grades. 
In this latter section a list of nature study books is given, together 
with comments on each. F. Y. 

Experimental Pharmacology. By Charles W. Greene, Uni- 
versity of Missouri. Third edition, revised, with 37 new illustra- 
tions. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co. $1.00. 

Professor Greene's work is intended as a laboratory guide for 
the study of the physiological action of drugs. The action of a 
number of drugs is considered ; as on the frog, on the ventricular 
muscle, on the frog's heart, on the isolated mammalian heart, on 
the frog's gastrocnemius muscle, human muscle, circulatory and 
respiratory system of the mammal, and as influencing the reaction 



356 



Book Reviews. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1909. 



time of the reflex frog. The following drugs are used: 'alcohol, 
ether, chloroform, chloral hydrate, the opium alkaloids, caffeine, 
strychnine, cocaine, quinine, atropine, scopolamine, nicotine, curare, 
pilocarpine, physostigmine, aconite, veratrine, digitalis, ergot, supra- 
renal gland, nitroglycerine and the nitrites, phenol, potassium, cal- 
cium, and barium salts. 

The principles involved in carrying on the various experiments 
are discussed, and descriptions of apparatus together with special 
methods are given in the last twelve pages. 

It is a timely book but has not been developed along the prac- 
tical lines of testing of drugs, such as are given in Cushny's labora- 
tory book. 

Les Produits Pharmaceutiques Industriels. Par P. Carre, 
Docteur es Sciences, Preparateur a lTnstitut de chemie appliquee 
de Paris, Tome I et II. Paris : Octave Doin et Fils, Editeurs. 
8, Place de L'Odeon, 8. 1909. 

This is a valuable laboratory book for the preparation of pharma- 
ceutical products. Volume I is devoted to the consideration of 
inorganic compounds, while Volume II is devoted to organic 
products. It has been developed along the lines of many of the 
books on the making of organic preparations which are used in 
colleges and universities. To attempt to enumerate the substances 
which are considered would be to mention every important product 
that is used in pharmacy and medicine. It is a particularly welcome 
work at this time, as many of the standard works used in this 
country are deficient in manufacturing processes, and the retail 
pharmacist is seeking just such information as is found in these 
volumes. It is indeed encouraging with the awakened interest in 
pharmaceutical chemistry for a work like Carre's to appear, which 
is both practical and complete. 

Ferments and Their Action. By Carl Oppenheimer. Trans- 
lated from the German by C. Ainsworth Mitchell. London : 
Charles Griffin & Co., Limited. 

This is probably the most valuable laboratory manual on the 
enzymes and organized ferments that has been published, as the 
references to the literature are very complete and the selections 
admirably made. 

In the general part are chapters on the history of ferments ; defi- 



Am. Jour. Pharru. ) 
July, 1909. ; 



Book Reviews. 



357 



nition of the conception of a ferment ; the chemical nature of fer- 
ments ; the influence of external factors upon ferments ; the mode 
of action of ferments ; the physiological action of ferments ; the 
secretion of ferments, and the importance of the ferments to vital 
processes. 

In the special part are chapters treating of the proteolytic fer- 
ments ; trypsin ; bacteriolytic and hemolytic ferments ; proteolytic 
vegetable ferments ; coagulating ferments ; the saccharifying fer- 
ments ; animal diastases ; ferments of the polysaccharids resembling 
diastase ; enzymes of the disaccharids ; ferments which decompose 
glucosides ; other hydrolytic ferments ; the lactic acid fermentation ; 
alcoholic fermentation ; the biology of alcoholic fermentation ; the 
oxydases ; and oxidizing fermentations. 

A subject index, an index of authors, and a systematic bibli- 
ography complete this welcome addition to the literature of this 
subject. 

Formulaire des Medicaments Nouveaux. Par H. Bocquillon- 
Limousin. Avec une introduction par Henri Huchard. 21 me 
edition revue, corrigee et augmentee. Paris : Librairie J. B. Bailliere 
et Fils. 19, me, rue Hautefeuille pres du Boulevard Saint Germain. 
1909. 

In this excellent work are found a number of important addi- 
tions of which the following may be mentioned ; acoine, sesco-quinine, 
almateine, alsol, ammonium benzoate, anisotheobromine. arsenogene, 
chlorhydrate of arterenol, asquirrol, autane, bacillol, bromocolle, 
bromethylate of morphine, bromotane, bibrom-behenate of calcium, 
iodate of calcium, camphosal, carosuccin, coryloform, coryphine, 
dyspeptine, estone, Euphorbia peplns, fluoroform, formestone, formi- 
cine, formidine, fulgural, guaiac-saponin, gallogene, glyconic acid, 
griserine, hetraline, chlorhydrate of homonerone, hydroxycaffeine, 
iatrevine, ichtyolidine, iodocol, iodomenine, salolophosphate of 
lithium, lysane, lysosulfol, metal, neoform, neusidonal, nizine, para- 
lysol, pyroiodone, pyrolignic acid, quietol, rotra, salocresol, cholei- 
nate of sodium, sodonaphtyl, sulfogenol, sulfopyrine, sullacetine, 
tachiol, tannobromine, tannothymal, tannyl, thaolaxine, thiodine, 
thymotal, tuberculin C. L., urogosane, vasenol and viscosal. 

Revue des Medicaments Nouveaux et de Queloues Medica- 
tions Nouvelles. Par C. Crinon. 16 me edition. Revue et aug- 



358 



American Medical Association / Am - Jour - Pharm ' 

\ July, 1909. 



mentee. Paris: Vigot Freres, Editeurs. 23, Place de l'Ecole-de- 
Medecine. 1909. 

In this the sixteenth edition of Crinon's valuable work on newer 
additions to medicine and pharmacy will be found information on 
allosan, arsacetine, asyphil, bromethylate of morphine, camphosal, 
diplosal, eucerine, euphylline, metallic ferments, helkomine, hydro- 
pyrine, iodomenine, neoform, nitrite of sodium, paratoxine, sabro- 
mine, serum marin, and sodophtalyl. Some additional information 
is also given concerning: apiol, kephir, koumyss, salts of lithium, 
lobelia, mate, myrtol, guarana, phosphide of zinc, podophyllin, etc. 

Druggists' and Dispensers' Practical Show Card Instruc- 
tor. Published by W. A. Thompson, Pontiac, Michigan. 

As stated in the preface " the object of this treatise is to give a 
practical course of instruction in lettering and designing necessary 
for making all styles of show cards and price tickets required by the 
pharmacist." 



THE MEETING OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL 
ASSOCIATION.* 

In years to come the Sixtieth Annual Meeting of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association, held in Atlantic City, June 8-1 1, 1909, 
will be looked back to as inaugurating a new era in the progress 
of the science of medicine. Seldom have preventative and curative 
measures received such thoroughgoing consideration, and seldom 
indeed have so many medical men jointly agreed upon the need for 
devoting more care and attention to the development of these all- 
important factors in the practice of medicine. 

In connection with the discussion of curative methods it may 
be said that seldom has so much attention been paid to the de- 
velopment of the National Pharmacopoeia as this year. Special 
committees on the Pharmacopoeia reported, in the Section on Prac- 
tice of Medicine, the Section on Stomatology, and the Section on 
Ophthalmology. The Pharmacopoeia was also considered at some 
length in the proceedings of some of the other sections, notably in 
the Section on Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, where the chair- 



* Abstract of Report. — Editor. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1909. J 



A in erica n Medical Association. 



359 



man, Dr. William Allen Pusey, discussed the relations between 
dermatology and. the Pharmacopoeia. 

Mr. Geo. M. Beringer, as chairman of the delegates of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, presented the felicitations of 
the members of that organization and pointed out how members of 
the Section on Pharmacology and Therapeutics might be of service 
in the revising of the National Formulary and thus promoting the 
progress of the sciences relating to pharmacy. At a subsequent 
meeting the recommendations made by Mr. Beringer were consid- 
ered and, on motion, the incoming chairman of the section was re- 
quested to appoint a committee of five to consider the National 
Formulary and the advisability of retaining or deleting the several 
preparations now included in that book. 

Both of the sessions on Thursday, June 10, 1909, were devoted 
to the discussion of problems relating to the Pharmacopoeia and 
National Formulary and pages of this Journal would be required 
to adequately reflect all of the interesting material that was pre- 
sented. The report of the A. M. A. committee on the United 
States Pharmacopoeia included a review of the several lines along 
which medical organizations are preparing to take an active part in 
the coming revision of that book and outlined a plan for correlating 
these several lines of activity in a practical way, and thus promote 
the work and avoid unnecessary duplication. 

C. S. N. Flallberg, Chicago, presented an interesting communica- 
tion on additions to and eliminations from the Pharmacopoeia of 
the United States from the viewpoints of statistics. Another com- 
munication bearing on the same subject was a discussion of some 
of the preparations of the United States Pharmacopoeia from the 
practitioner's standpoint, by M, IT. Fussell, Philadelphia. 

L. F. Kebler, Washington, discussed the nomenclature of the 
United States Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary mixtures and 
also presented a communication on the nature of preparations used 
in the treatment of drug addictions. 

A paper by Henry Leffmann, Philadelphia, on " What can 
Physicians do to Improve the Pharmacopoeia," brought out the asser- 
tion, by one of the members present, that the writer of the paper 
had on two occasions been nominated as a delegate to the national 
convention and had failed to attend the meeting. The critic of the 
paper pointed out that physicians could do much to improve the 
Pharmacopoeia if they would carefully consider its needs and short- 



360 



American Medical Association. 



Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
July, 1909. 



comings, attend the decennial convention and there present their 
suggestions, and then see to it that they are embodied in the book 
by the Committee of Revision. 

On the recommendation of the Committee on Awards in the 
Scientific Exhibit, consisting of Drs. Barker, Mayo, and Christian, 
the House of Delegates of the A. M. A. awarded to the American 
Pharmaceutical Association " a diploma of merit for exhibits of 
superior merit " for the exhibition of official drugs and preparations 
held under the auspices of the Philadelphia Branch of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association. In this connection some reference 
should be made to the very interesting meeting held by the Philadel- 
phia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association in connec- 
tion with this exhibition. This meeting was held on the morning 
of Friday, June n, and was virtually a symposium on the U. S. P., 
N. F., and N. N. R. The first paper presented, " The U. S. P. and 
N. F. Preparations versus Nostrums/' by Otto Raubenheimer, of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., contains a fund of information on the origin and 
evolution of pharmaceutical preparations and should, and no doubt 
will, be made available to every pharmacist who is at all desirous 
of advancing the status of his calling. 

H. P. Hynson, Baltimore, presented a communication on the 
" More Radical Revision of the Pharmacopoeia," in which he recom- 
mended that all compound U. S. P. pharmaceutical preparations be 
relegated to the National Formulary. M. I. Wilbert, Washington, 
discussed the relation of the N. N. R. to the U. S. P. W. L. Cliff e 
read a paper by Geo. M. Beringer, Camden, on improvements in 
the N. F. I. V. S. Stanilaus, Philadelphia, discussed the tests of 
the U. S. P., and Jos. P. Remington outlined some of the possibili- 
ties of the ninth revision of the U. S. P. 

The attendance at the meeting was unexpectedly good, repre- 
senting members of the American Pharmaceutical Association from 
Brooklyn, New York, Philadelphia, Atlantic City, Baltimore, and 
Washington, and the general result was particularly gratifying, 
considering the late date on which the meeting was organized. It 
should prove a stimulus for future efforts along the same line, and, 
in connection with the sessions of the Section on Pharmacology and 
Therapeutics, such meetings should do much to demonstrate the 
possibilities in connection with a national development of the 
sciences relating to pharmacy. M. I. Wilbert. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 



% %~ 

AUGUST, ipop x ^ ^ 



THE NATIONAL FOOD AND DRUGS ACT OF JUNE 

30, 1906.* 

By Geo. P. McCabe. 
Solicitor of the Department of Agriculture and Member of the National 
Board of Food and Drug Inspection. 

I feel honored that there should come to me this opportunity 
to address the Utah Pharmaceutical Association, not only because 
of a great interest in the national law which is the subject of my 
remarks, but because of the character and standing of this associa- 
tion and of the individuals who compose it. Upon the good sense, 
honesty, ability, and public spirit of the druggist and- pharmacist, 
much depends in the enforcement of the law. 

From the earliest recorded time the pharmacist has been a 
prominent figure, not only in his chosen profession, but often in 
the council chamber and in the arena of public affairs. The early 
fathers of medicine and pharmacy, Hippocrates and Dioscorides, 
Greeks, and Celsus, a Roman, practiced these twin arts, and 
were, at the same time, prominent in political affairs. As a matter 
of historical record, it is certain that Arcagathus, one of the richest 
and most influential Greeks of his day, kept a shop in Rome for the 
sale of drugs about one hundred and eighty-seven years before the 
Christian era. Galen, also, the great physician of the second 
century, whose influence is felt in medicine to-day and whose name 
survives in the familiar pharmaceutical preparations called 

* Address delivered before the Utah Pharmaceutical Association. July 
15, 1909. 

(361) 



362 National Food and Drugs Act. j Am ; Jour - ? n h J* rm - 

■ . I August, L909. 

galenicals, was a pharmacist and also dispensed drugs in Rome. 
The genuine progress made by the Arabians in pharmacy is un- 
doubtedly due to the personal interest Mahomet himself took in 
the study, for which he had a special liking. 

Charlemagne was a royal pharmacist, who found time, in the 
scant leisure of his later life, to establish a drug farm and to dabble 
in some of the attractive experiments of the apothecary's art. 

An interesting and curious figure in the history of pharmacy is 
Philip of Hohenheim, called Paracelsus, who was born, if my 
memory serves me right, about 1490. He had practically no early 
education, but such was the natural force of the man that he left an 
impression on pharmacy and medicine that is distinct to-day. His 
was an uncontrollable spirit and many stories are told of his in- 
tolerance of the opinions of contemporaries and predecessors, of 
how, for instance, he publicly burned the works of Galen, in the 
public square of his native town. 

Candor demands that we call attention also to those skilled in 
the knowledge of drugs who used their knowledge for harmful 
purposes. During the Middle Ages pharmacy, in some of its 
branches, was used as a tool by certain famous, or perhaps infamous, 
men to remove their powerful adversaries. Two of the Borgias, 
the celebrated Italian house, Caesar and his sister, Lucretia, had 
considerable knowledge of poisons and of the antidotes for them, 
and made frequent use of their knowledge to dispose of their 
enemies. Equally illustrious, celebrated as patrons of art and 
literature, men of uncommon force of mind and character, were 
two, members of another prominent Florentine house, the Medicis, 
Lorenzo the Magnificent and Cosmo the Great, Dukes of Florence. 
Like the Borgias, they used the apothecary's art simply as a 
political weapon and to make themselves immune to poison by 
antidotes. 

You will be interested no doubt to know what steps the Secre- 
tary of Agriculture has taken to protect the drug supply of the 
country. Most of our drugs, in one form or another, are imported 
from foreign countries. The law says that no drug shall come into 
this country if it is adulterated or misbranded or may be dangerous 
to the health of the people of the United States. Accordingly samples 
are taken of drugs offered for entry into the United States, and if 
they are adulterated or are dangerous to the health of our people, 
their entry is not allowed and it is required that they be shipped 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 

August,1909. 



National Food and Drugs Act. 



363 



out of the limits of the United States. If they are merely mis- 
branded, the importers are required to relabel them correctly. 
Hundreds of shipments of drugs either have been denied entry into 
the United States or have been relabelled before admission. Some 
of the worst classes of importations of drugs have ceased altogether 
since the law has been in effect. 

To the retail druggist, this work may seem commendable but 
on the whole very remote from him. This is not the fact. In 
this examination at ports of entry by expert United States officials 
lies a great protection for the retail druggist. All of you pharma- 
cists are under State pharmacy laws which hold you responsible for 
the purity of the drugs you sell. Theoretically you are supposed 
to ascertain the quality of every article that you dispense. Prac- 
tically, it is possible for you to do this only in a small minority of 
cases. Your only safety lies in having the determination of purity 
made prior to the time the articles come into your hands. Before 
the national law was enacted you had no such protection, and you 
know you could not then rely upon either the genuineness or the 
purity and quality of the drugs used by the manufacturer. Even 
when the drugs were good, in many cases, the manufacture of the 
preparations was not so conducted as to insure reliability. 

It is not meant even to intimate that this work of port inspec- 
tion of crude drugs is complete. It has been begun only, and some 
salutary results have come already ; yet, as the work is perfected, 
the ultimate results will far exceed those now apparent. The rea- 
sons why greater progress has not been made are many. The first 
step was the collection and examination of crude drugs in this 
country and abroad. The examination of these samples furnished a 
basis of information for further procedure, but it took time for this 
information and the instructions for guidance of the drug collectors 
to reach all parts of the world. This preliminary work has, how- 
ever, been largely completed, and the effect of the work done is 
shown in the drugs being offered for entry, in which there is an 
unmistakable change for the better. 

The pure food law has now been in operation for about two 
years and a half, and, while the law was passed primarily for the 
protection of the consumer, it is legitimate to ask in what way it 
has been of service to the wholesale as well as the retail druggist. 

One phase of the question, and by no means the least, is a moral 
one. Before the Act was passed, there was no restraint on the 



3°4 



National Food and Drugs Act. 



j Am. Jour. Pharttl. 
| August, ,1909. 



kind of drugs and chemicals placed on the market. Because of 
competition with unscrupulous dealers, the man who wished to 
carry on his business with clean hands was either forced to adopt 
the tactics of the unscrupulous or go to the wall. Those who wished 
to conduct business in clean fashion were in the majority, but it 
took only a few, who were willing and ready to adopt dishonest 
tactics, to create havoc in the ranks of those who wished to be 
honest. Just so long as there was no restraining hand, adulteration 
of drugs was profitable and easy, but now the Government has a 
powerful weapon in hand to protect the honest man conducting his 
business in a decent, reputable fashion. As a result, there can be 
no doubt that the business integrity of the honest wholesale and 
retail druggists is protected. If for no other reason, the law has 
been well worth while. The dishonest we still have with us, and it 
will be many years before the millennium, but the haling into court 
of some of these adulterators and " misbranders " is having a whole- 
some effect. It is of interest to know that after the passage of this 
law some concerns practically went out of business of their own 
volition. This is certainly a wholesome result, for it was not the 
legitimate business that thus suspended, but the business whose 
very existence was based on fraud. 

It is unnecessary to argue pro and con, whether a high class 
article, with merit back of it, has, everything else being equal, a 
better chance in the business world than one lacking in such quali- 
ties. If there is one place where merit is appreciated it is in drugs, 
as the use of no other class of articles so affects the home. The 
physician gives his medicines with the expectation that they are 
of a certain potency, and he expects certain results. If the results 
are not obtained because the drugs used are adulterated, it may be a 
matter of life or death. The refinements of prescription filling, 
where the slightest variation from the standard worked out by 
learned and painstaking experimenters through many years is very 
objectionable, demand that the retail druggist be supplied with 
pure drugs and standard preparations. Nothing can more seriously 
threaten the health of the people than an unsafe, substandard drug 
supply. Under the pure food and drugs law you are able to obtain 
much more readily drugs of known potency. This places your 
business on a much more substantial basis. It increases the con- 
fidence of the practicing physician as well as of the laity in your 
wares, and ultimately it will lead to increased personal satisfaction 



Am Av{gusM909^' } National Food and Drugs Act. 365 

in conducting your business and to increased financial returns as 
well. 

Every true business man likes to have real confidence in the 
wares in which he deals. You are no longer completely at the 
mercy of the manufacturers, taking what you can get, but you 
can more readily obtain that which you seek and what the public 
wants and should have. An era of more honest dealing in drugs 
has been entered upon, and the time is ripe for you and for us all to 
get the benefit of it. 

The Food and Drugs Act has been of benefit to the retail drug- 
gist by making it possible for him to get goods of high grade and 
standard quality from almost every wholesaler with whom he deals, 
instead of from a small proportion of them. It has benefited the 
retail druggist who has always handled nothing but standard goods 
by forcing his competitors to raise their prices in consequence of 
having to carry a higher quality of goods than was necessary under 
former conditions. It has also benefited him by increasing his 
standing in the community and among those who are familiar with 
the provisions of the law and the fact of its enforcement. 

The law has benefited the honest wholesale druggist who has 
always sought to comply with the standards as established by the 
Pharmacopoeia and. the various authorities. For instance, formerly 
if a retail pharmacist asked the price of oil of sweet almond from 
the wholesale druggist, he would get a certain price from the 
reputable jobber who handled only the pure goods and he would 
get a very much lower price from the jobber who was in the habit 
of substituting oil of peach kernel or some other similar seed and 
labelled oil of sweet almond. This condition of affairs is now 
changed so far as interstate commerce is concerned, and it is 
apparent that all jobbers are on the same basis. 

Under the law it is forbidden to manufacture or sell in the 
territories or to ship in interstate commerce any misbranded or 
adulterated drug. Under this provision of law the Department of 
Agriculture has been very active, and most of you have observed, 
no doubt, that the labels of many proprietary articles have been 
toned down and no longer promise to cure all the ills of humanity. 
You will be interested in a brief description of some of the prin- 
cipal drug cases in which convictions have been had in the courts 

In August, 1907, one of the inspectors of the Department pur- 
chased a number of samples of a drug preparation extensively used 



366 National Food and Drugs Act. {^ u J ?" s r t ' So*™' 

throughout a large portion of the United States. It was repre- 
sented to be a cure for headache, neuralgia, and other related com- 
plaints. The preparation was manufactured in the city of Wash- 
ington and was put up in bottles of various sizes, and these in turn 
enclosed in cartons upon which appeared the following statements : 
" Harper's Curforhedake Brane-Fude. Read inner circular. Guar- 
anteed under the Food and Drugs Act, June 30, 1906. No. 6707. 
Each oz. contains 30 per cent, alcohol and 16 grs. acetanilid. A 
positive relief for headache, neuralgia, nervousness, insomnia, &c. 
It is taken in doses of two teaspoonfuls in a little water and re- 
peated in 20 or 30 minutes if not relieved, and again in 30 minutes 
after the second dose, if that should not give the desired effect. 
For insomnia, two teaspoonfuls at bedtime ; for nervousness, two 
teaspoonfuls every 2 or 3- hours." The bottles themselves were 
similarly labelled. Each carton contained a folded circular de- 
scribing the preparation as " A most wonderful, certain and harm- 
less relief. The rapidity by which it cures and the after effects 
being pleasant and without any depression whatever, containing 
no morphine or poisonous ingredients of any kind, is, I think, 
sufficient guarantee of its superior qualities." You will observe 
there was a direction on the carton to read the inner circular. The 
preparation was promptly analyzed in the Bureau of Chemistry and 
found to consist of 24.2 per cent, of alcohol, 15 per cent, of 
acetanilid, 1.5 per cent, of caffeine, 1 per cent, of antipyrin, together 
with varying quantities of potassium, sodium, and bromides. By 
comparison of this analysis with the statements on the label, the 
Department was of the opinion that the preparation was misbranded 
within that provision of Section 8 of the Act which declares that a 
drug is misbranded if the package or label which contains it shall 
bear any statement, design, or device regarding the drug or any of 
its ingredients or substances contained in it which shall be false or 
misleading in any particular. Human ingenuity has not yet been 
able to devise a food for the brain as contradistinguished from a 
food that nourishes other portions of the body, and it was quite 
palpable that the substances contained in this preparation were in 
no sense foods for the brain. The danger of advertising a drug, 
particularly one containing the ingredients that composed this 
preparation, as a food for the brain must be apparent to all of you. 
The idea that the brain capacity could be increased by increasing the 
quantity of the drug consumed was a most dangerous one to those 



Am jour Pharm.) National Food and Dru?s Act. 367 

August, 1909. J <-> \j 1 

who might accept it. The statement that it was a brain food was, 
therefore, false and misleading within the statute. The further 
statements in the circular heretofore mentioned that the preparation 
was a most wonderful, certain, and harmless relief, and contained 
no poisonous ingredients of any kind were clearly false, because, 
in the opinion of the Department, the preparation did contain 
poisonous ingredients — one very powerful poisonous ingredient, 
namely, acetanilid ; therefore, it could not be a harmless relief, 
particularly as there was nothing in the circular or on the bottle or 
the carton that would tend to restrain the purchaser from consum- 
ing as much of the preparation as his strength and endurance would 
permit him to swallow. The facts were duly reported to the 
Department of Justice, and in January, 1908, the United States 
Attorney filed an information in the Police Court of the District 
of Columbia against the manufacturer of this preparation ; in Feb- 
ruary thereafter the defendant was put upon his trial which lasted 
for sixteen days, at the expiration of which the jury returned a 
verdict of guilty and the defendant was sentenced to pay a fine of 
$700. 

This was the first case tried in the United States under the 
Food and Drugs Act. This case contains several points that will 
be of considerable interest to you, but I wish to direct your attention 
to one in particular, and that is, that if in the preparation for com- 
merce of a drug product you accompany it with a descriptive cir- 
cular in which there are false and misleading statements, you are 
liable under the Act, because this circular is, in the eyes of the law, 
just as much a part of the label as the label pasted on the bottle. 

Shortly after this case was tried, the Department received in- 
formation that a druggist in Washington was selling promiscuously 
cocaine in small bottles upon which there were no labels. You 
recall that provision of Section 8 of the Act which provides that a 
drug is misbranded if it fails to bear a statement on the label of 
the quantity or proportion of alcohol, cocaine, etc. Now, a casual 
reading of this provision of the law seems not to require that a label 
actually appear on the bottle or package, yet when this is necessary 
in order to state the quantity of alcohol, cocaine, etc., in the eyes of 
the law a label must be there in order to fulfil the requirements 
of the law that the presence of these drugs must be declared ; and 
I may say to you that where this question has arisen in the courts 
there has been no dissent from the ruling that a label must be put 



368 National Food and Drugs Act. S^™" 

upon the bottle or package, and the statements required by the law 
as to these drugs must be there. The Department of Agriculture 
promptly reported the facts in this case to the Department of Justice 
and the defendant was duly put upon his trial, convicted, and fined 
$100. 

One of the most amazing frauds with which the Department 
has had to deal was that of an alleged skin food manufactured in 
the State of Ohio and put upon the market in attractive guise under 
the name of " Sartoin Skin Food." Much to the astonishment of 
the Department it was found that the preparation had rather an 
extensive sale. The label on the outside of the tiny package con- 
taining the so-called " skin food " bore this statement : " Sartoin 
Skin Food. Formula : 2 oz. rose water, 4 oz. sartoin, 1 oz. cologne 
spirits, 16 oz. hot water. Properties — produces a soft, velvety tint 
on the roughest of skins and is remarkably effective in the treat- 
ment of pimples, blackheads, rash, blemishes, and sunburn and 
chapped skin. Also highly beneficial for men's toilet after shaving ; 
relieves all soreness and smarting." A circular enclosed inside of 
the package declared that the preparation was probably the most 
effective remedy known to science for a.11 skin blemishes and would 
produce normal growth of all parts not fully developed or which 
were shrunken. The analysis of the Department disclosed that the 
preparation consisted of epsom salts colored with a pink dye. Of 
course the Department promptly reported the case for prosecution 
for the false and misleading statements on the label and in the 
circular. The defendant as promptly plead guilty. 

In line with " Sartoin Skin Food " was another preparation 
manufactured in Baltimore, Maryland, and labelled and sold as 
" Hancock's Liquid Sulphur." On the label of this preparation it 
was claimed that it was " Nature's greatest germicide. Perma- 
nently cures the most stubborn cases of blood and skin disorder. 
An absolute disinfectant. Purifies the blood by absorption, and 
removes all unhealthy secretions from the body. A perfect sulphur 
spring in the retirement of your home. The great cure for eczema, 
acne, itch, herpes, ringworm, pimples, prickly heat, diphtheria, 
catarrh, canker, sore mouth and throat, granulated eyelids, ulcerated 
conditions, cuts, burns, and scalds. All diseases of the scalp." The 
Department obtained samples of this preparation from a dealer in 
the city of Washington and promptly submitted them to analysis, 
which developed that the article was nothing more than an aqueous 



Am Aii°u^;i P 909!" m '} National Food and Drugs Act. 369 

solution of commercial calcium sulphide. Of course the preparation 
was not a liquid sulphur, since sulphur will not remain in solution a 
sufficient time to make it a commercial commodity, and was certainly 
not " Nature's greatest germicide," nor a great or any cure for 
diphtheria. Information was duly filed against the manufacturer, 
and upon his plea of guilty the court fined him $100. 

Another preparation formerly manufactured in Ohio was " Con- 
centrated Oil of Pine Compound." Samples were obtained by the 
Department and analyzed and it was found that the preparation was 
a mixture of fixed oil, a resinous substance, and a small amount of 
volatile oil obtained by steam distillation resembling turpentine. 
This analysis plainly showed that the article could not truthfully 
be called a " Concentrated Oil of Pine Compound," and it was 
therefore misbranded. The members of the firm of manufacturers 
were duly prosecuted and convicted upon their plea of guilty and 
were sentenced to pay fines and the costs of the court. 

Samples of a preparation labelled " Blackburn's Cascara, Wild 
Lemon, Castor Oil Pills, Compound " were obtained by the Depart- 
ment in Michigan in January, 1908, and analyzed. The analysis 
showed that the preparation consisted of calcium sulphide, capsicum, 
atropine (introduced, probably, in the form of belladonna extract), 
and a mere trace, if any, of castor oil. The label was, therefore, 
false, deceptive, and misleading because the preparation purported 
to be castor oil pills, when, in fact, it did not contain a medicinal 
dose of castor oil, if, indeed, there was any present at all. The 
manufacturer in Ohio was prosecuted, convicted, and sentenced to 
pay a fine. 

In October of last year, one of the collaborating agents of the 
Department discovered in a drug store in Topeka, Kansas, forty-one 
boxes of a preparation labelled " Muco-Solvent cures croup, whoop- 
ing-cough, diphtheria, all throat troubles, and catarrhal disorders." 
It was apparent that the statement in this label that it would cure 
diphtheria and the other diseases mentioned was false, misleading, 
and deceptive. The goods were seized and confiscated. 

In June, 1908, an inspector of the Department of Agriculture 
found in the possession of one of the department stores in the city 
of Washington eighty-five dozen packages of preparations labelled 
" Mme. Yale's Excelsior Fruitcura," " Mme. Yale's Fertilizer 
Tablets," " Mme. Yale's Excelsior Hair Tonic, " Mme. Yale's 
Excelsior Complexion Bleach," " Mme. Yale's Antiseptic," " Mme. 



?>7o National Food and Drugs Act. \ Am ; Jour - F^ a n rm - 

sJ/ ( August, 1909. 

Yale's Blush of Youth," and " Mme. Yale's Skin Food." For the 
skin food it was claimed on the package that it was the only genuine 
skin food in the world ; that it was absolutely guaranteed to remove 
wrinkles and every trace of age from the face ; that it was soothing 
in its effect on the skin, healing as a magic balm, and fattening in 
its qualities. The Department's analysis showed that it consisted 
of 76.5 per cent, of vaseline, mixed with fixed oil or fat and zinc 
oxide, colored with a pink dye, and perfumed. For the Fruitcura it 
was claimed on the package that it was a cure for every ill to which 
a woman was sexually heir from infancy to old age ; that it was a 
specific for the generative organs and an elixir of life; and that it 
would cure all so-called incurable diseases of women. The analysis 
of this preparation showed that it consisted of 76.97 per cent, of 
volatile matter (largely water with 16.66 per cent, of alcohol), 
29.71 per cent, of sugar, and small quantities of plant drugs. For 
the Fertilizer Tablets it was claimed on the package that they were 
a specific for curing flatulency and all gastric troubles and obesity. 
The analysis of this preparation showed that it was composed largely 
of charcoal, compounded with potassium bitartrate and sugar. For 
the Hair Tonic it was claimed on the package that it would stop 
the falling of the hair, would cure and prevent dandruff and all scalp 
diseases, and would overcome any hereditary tendency to baldness 
or grayness. The analysis of this preparation showed that it con- 
sisted of 15.56 per cent, of alcohol, 82 per cent, of water, and small 
amounts of glycerin, perfumed with bergamot oil. For the Com- 
plexion Bleach it was claimed on the packages that it would remove 
moth patches and all skin discoloration and create natural beauty ; 
would make the flesh firm and expel every impurity ; and was a 
chemical secret known only to Madam Yale. The analysis of this 
preparation showed that it was mainly a saturated solution of borax 
in orange flower water. For Yale's Antiseptic it was claimed on 
the package that it was a preventive of prickly heat, nettle-rash, 
eczema, and all diseases of the skin and scalp ; was a perfect germ- 
icide and an antiseptic and a sure preventive of typhoid fever. 
The analysis showed that it consisted of 97.6 per cent, of volatile 
matter (16.96 per cent, of alcohol, 4 per cent, of formaldehyde, and 
76.64 per cent, water), 2.37 per cent, of boric acid, and aromatics. 
For the Blush of Youth it was claimed on the package that it was as 
refreshing as concentrated dew, pure as purity ; that it would spir- 
itualize the expression, give the countenance the glow, lustre, and 



Am \n J S 5o9 rm '} National Food and Drugs Act. 371 

beauty of childhood, and preserve the morning of life indefinitely. 
The analysis showed that it consisted of 56.15 per cent, of volatile 
matter (6.30 per cent, of alcohol and 49.85 per cent, of water, 
colored with a coal-tar dye and perfumed), and about 43.85' per 
cent, of glycerin. It needs no further evidence than the foregoing 
analyses to convince you that these several preparations were 
flagrantly misbranded. The goods were seized and confiscated by 
the Government, and the labels have since been reformed. 

Only a short time ago the Department had occasion to report 
a case against a company in New Jersey which had shipped from 
that State to Illinois ten barrels of saltpetre. The saltpetre was 
adulterated, since it differed from the Pharmacopceial standard, 
which is 99 per cent, pure, while it contained a little more than 7 
per cent, of sodium chloride. It was also misbranded because 
labelled " saltpetre," when in fact it was not saltpetre within the 
definition of the Pharmacopoeia. The manufacturers were con- 
victed and fined. 

Although not strictly a drug, it is doubtless true that mineral 
waters are sold by most druggists. The Department of Agriculture 
has had occasion to examine a number of mineral waters, and in 
two instances, which I will mention, has found it necessary to in- 
stitute proceedings against them. 

One case involved a water sold extensively in the District 
of Columbia under the name of " Great Bear Spring Water." 
Samples of this water were collected by the Department and their 
analysis showed that the water was adulterated because it contained 
the colon group of organisms. A large quantity of the water was 
seized, condemned, and destroyed. 

Samples of another water sold in and around the District of 
Columbia under the name of " Basic Lithia Water " were procured 
and analyzed. The bottles containing this water were labelled, 
among other things, " Uric acid solvent. A pure, light, freestone, 
lithia water. Invaluable as a constant and exclusive drinking water, 
and in the prevention and cure of rheumatism, gout, malaria, typhoid 
fever, and diseases of the kidneys, liver, blood, and nerves." 
Analysis showed that there was practically no lithium carbonate 
in the water nor any other substance which would warrant the 
statements as to medicinal virtues made on the label, and further 
that it contained the colon group of organisms, and was, therefore, 
unfit for human consumption. Ninety-six bottles of this water were 
seized, confiscated, and destroved. 



37 2 National Food and Drugs Act. j Am ; Jour ; 1 p t ^ rm - 

6 I August, 1909. 

I think it may be helpful to you, to indicate briefly some of the 
legal points, which, from the experience of the Department, come up 
almost daily under this law in the conduct of a drug business. 

In purchasing your drugs from the wholesaler, manufacturer, 
or any other source, you should require the person or firm from 
whom you make the purchase to give you a guaranty. In this 
connection you should bear in mind that a guaranty is of no pro- 
tection to you unless given to you by the person from whom you 
purchase. A serial number guaranty will be of no avail to you 
unless it represents the guaranty of the person from whom you 
purchase. If you purchase from a jobber a drug bearing the serial 
number of the manufacturer who sold to the jobber, that guaranty 
will avail you nothing, because the law says that the guaranty to be 
of any protection to you must be from the party from whom you 
purchase. In this instance, then, you should require the jobber to 
give you a guaranty. 

The law requires every package or bottle containing a drug 
which is, in whole or in part, alcohol, morphine, cocaine, opium, or 
certain other related dangerous or habit-forming drugs mentioned 
in the Act, to bear a statement thereon of the quantity and proportion 
of these substances. Now you will observe that you must not only 
state the name of any one or more of these substances in the 
preparation, but you must also disclose the quantity or proportion 
present. In declaring these substances, the intent of the law is that 
they must be stated in common commercial terms, not under names 
known only to chemists or physicians. For instance, alcohol should 
be declared as such and not as " spiritus rectificatus." And, as I 
have heretofore stated, you cannot escape this requirement of the 
law by omitting to put labels on the packages or bottles containing 
these substances. I may say that this precaution will not ordinarily 
affect the retail druggist, since he rarely engages in interstate com- 
merce, but if he should do so, even in one or a few instances, he 
will do well to observe the requirements of the Act. 

The law denounces as " misbranded " any drug the label or 
package of which bears a statement, design, or device which is mis- 
leading, false, or deceptive in any particular. This is plain language 
and easily understood, and all that it requires is the whole truth. 
Extravagant claims for curative qualities of drugs should be avoided. 

I assume you all know that the Act embraces within its provi- 
sions any substance intended for cure, mitigation, or prevention of 



Am. Jour. Phariu. ) 
August, 1909. J 



National Food and Drugs Act, 



373 



disease in animals as well as in human beings, so that all I have 
said in reference to these precautions applies as well to drugs for 
animals lower than man as to those for man himself. 

You should bear in mind another requirement of the Act, which 
is that any drug recognized in the United States Pharmacopoeia or 
National Formulary, when sold under the Pharmacopceial name, 
must conform in strength, quality, and purity to the standard laid 
down therein, unless the actual standard of strength, quality, or 
purity of the drug is plainly stated on the bottle or other container. 

I would particularly admonish and counsel you to avoid any 
attempt to circumvent the letter of the law by doubtful constructions 
of its terms. The law is designed to prevent frauds, imposition, and 
deception in commercial relations with customers and fellow citizens. 

The Department of Agriculture asks of the Utah Pharmaceutical 
Association, and of every pharmacist in this country, that they will 
use their best endeavors to assist in the enforcement of the Food 
and Drugs Act. Its benefits to you are apparent and its benefits to 
the country as a whole cannot be overestimated. The retail druggist 
can aid the Department in the enforcement of the law by dis- 
seminating information concerning it and what is being done to 
enforce it. He can aid by insisting on having drugs as close to the 
standard strength as possible, irrespective of allowable deviations as 
stated on the label. He can also aid materially in endeavoring to 
secure legislation in his own State in conformity with the Federal 
law ; and, finally, he can aid by reporting to the proper authorities 
any infringement of the law which comes under his notice. The 
Department is always glad to receive such reports, if made in good 
faith, and the source of information is always treated as confidential. 

The wholesale druggist can assist the Department by handling- 
only such goods as are in full compliance with the law. Many 
wholesalers have their own pharmacists and analyze all goods pur- 
chased by them, and they are in a position to inform the Department 
who are the violators of the law and also what manufacturers are 
selling goods at prices lower than the pure products should bring. 
The wholesalers can also be of assistance by allowing the Federal 
inspectors to go through their stocks to look for misbranded or 
adulterated goods. 



374 Compounding and Dispensing. { Am. jour, pharm. 

1 d r & \ August, 1909. 

THE LEGAL ASPECT OF COMPOUNDING AND 
DISPENSING. 

By Allen C. Thomas. 

To the competent pharmacist or druggist the legal aspect of 
compounding and dispensing " has no terrors." Expressed simply, 
the law requires that he shall be equipped with a practical and tech- 
nical knowledge of his vocation and that he shall exercise due care 
in the application of this knowledge. 

By the law I mean those legislative enactments, sometimes called 
statutes, and that body of judicial decisions growing out of a deter- 
mination of the points at issue in the particular cases presented to 
the Court for interpretation. 

These decisions are based primarily on the general principles 
governing all obligations of a civil and criminal nature, and second- 
arily upon those principles peculiarly applicable to pharmacal 
jurisprudence. 

Our civilization daily becomes more complex, changes and devel- 
opment give rise to innumerable questions of scientific, social, and 
economic importance, and new branches are constantly spreading 
from the tree of legal knowledge. How great these branches of 
jurisprudence may become, time alone can tell. 

Little more than a century ago Blackstone, writing his commen- 
taries, considered- sixteen or seventeen pages sufficient to adequately 
summarize the law of corporations ; to-day the commentaries of 
Seymour D. Thompson on this one subject cover six volumes of 
more than a thousand pages each and by no means has the last word 
been said. 

From the year 1615 when King James I by letters patent consti- 
tuted the apothecaries a separate company of London, distinct from 
that of the grocers, down to the present generation there was little 
or no legislation on the subject. So striking was this condition as to 
cause Ordronaux to say when writing, about 1869: 

" Strange as it may seem in a country where so many law-making 
bodies are each annually producing a volume of enactments, intended 
to meet ail present and future necessities of, or to supply all past 
deficiencies in, municipal government — strange as it may seem, a 
science so intimately related to human health and the preservation 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1909. j 



Coii} founding and Dispensing. 



375 



of life, as that of pharmacy, has as yet received legislative recogni- 
tion in but a very few States." 

About that time, however, questions of public health were begin- 
ning to claim attention in this country and it has fallen to the lot 
of this generation to recognize and enforce their importance in the 
public economy, and within our recollection there has grown up 
that immense body of laws providing for public health and safety 
and held to be constitutional as a valid exercise of what is termed 
" police power." 

In 1872 the first regulation of the business of druggist was 
attempted in this State and its operation was confined to the City of 
Philadelphia. In 1887 this regulation was enlarged and extended 
by the Act of Assembly of May 24 to include 1 the State. This Act 
created the State Pharmaceutical Examining Board and authorized 
it to exercise supervision over the pharmacists of this State in 
accordance with the provisions of said Act. Then .it may be said the 
profession of pharmacy was established in Pennsylvania. 

The enactments first considered the status of the pharmacist and 
aimed to restrict the profession to competent and qualified persons, 
requiring of every practitioner that he obtain a certificate of com- 
petency and qualification from the State Pharmaceutical Examining 
Board, and prescribing the manner of obtaining said certificate and 
distinguishing between the qualified assistant and the registered 
manager. The Act provided certain penalties for such as violated 
its provisions. Section 6 applied to any person engaging as manager 
without having obtained such certificate, three exceptions being 
noted : first, the practitioner of medicine who supplied his own 
patients ; second, the storekeeper dealing in commonly used medi- 
cines and poisons ; and third, the makers and dealers in patent medi- 
cines. Section 8 provides that no person shall be allowed by the 
proprietor or manager of any store to compound or dispense the 
prescriptions of physicians except under the immediate supervision 
of said proprietor or his qualified assistant, unless holding a 
certificate. 

Having thus established the status of the pharmacist, the legis- 
lature then concerned itself with the regulation of his business, 
respecting, first, the sale and registry of poisons, second, the quality 
and purity of his drugs. The development of the second of these 
regulations, viz., the quality and purity of drugs, has been most 



376 Compounding and Dispensing. { A ^ u J g°ust' i909 rm ' 

conspicuous. Section 10 of the Act of 1887 related to the first of 
these regulations. A poison was defined to be any drug, chemical, 
or preparation which, according to standard works on medicine or 
materia medica, is liable to be destructive to adult human life in 
quantities of 60 grains or less. It was further provided "that no 
person shall retail any poisons without affixing a label printed or 
plainly written containing the name of the article, the word poison, 
and the name and place of business of the seller. Neither shall he 
deliver poison to any person without satisfying himself that such 
poison is to be used for legitimate purposes." 

In addition to the above it is the further duty of any one selling 
or dispensing poisons which are known to be destructive to adult 
human life in quantities of five grains or less, before delivering 
them, to enter in a book kept for this purpose the name of the seller, 
the name and residence of the buyer, the name of the article, the 
quantity sold or dispensed, and the purpose for which it is said to 
be intended, which book of registry shall be preserved for at least 
two years and shall at all times be open to the inspection of the 
coroner or Courts of the county in which the same may be kept. 
Two exceptions are noted to this section of the Act : first, as to the 
dispensing of physicians' prescriptions specifying poisonous articles ; 
second, as to the sale to agriculturists of such articles as are com- 
monly used by them as insecticides. 

The regulation of the quality and purity of drugs was referred 
to in Section 9 of the Act, and as there expressed was intended to 
prevent wilful and deliberate falsification or adulteration of drugs, 
the viewpoint being that of the correction of the pharmacist. In 
1897 the viewpoint had changed and in the enactment of that year, 
of May 25, the subject is viewed from the standpoint of the public 
and with regard to their safety and protection. In other words, the 
element of intent on the part of the pharmacist is eliminated from 
the question and a fixed standard is established which he is required 
to follow and maintain. 

This feature of the law has recently seen the greatest develop- 
ment. Simultaneously the Legislature passed the Dairy and Pure 
Food Acts. A comparison of these two Acts shows a remarkable 
similarity and speaks eloquently of the progress of the day toward 
the highest and best moral and scientific principles. 



Am \if g Tt', 1 S)9 I : m '} Compounding and Dispensing. 377 

In view of its general importance, I feel justified in giving" the 
text of the Drug Act. 1 

AN ACT 

Preamble. — To prevent the adulteration, alteration, and substi- 
tution of drugs and medicinal preparations, and providing penalties 
for violation thereof. 

Section i. Be it enacted, etc., That No person shall, within this 
State, manufacture for sale, offer for sale, or sell any drug which 
is adulterated within the meaning of this Act. The term drug used 
herein shall include any medicinal substance or any preparation 
authorized or known in the cc Pharmacopoeia of the United States," 
or the " National Formulary," or the American Homoeopathic Phar- 
macopoeia, or the American Homoeopathic Dispensatory. 

A drug shall be deemed to be adulterated within the meaning 
of this Act: 

1. If any substance or substances have been mixed with it so 
as to depreciate and weaken its strength, purity, or quality. 

2. If any quality, substance, or ingredient be abstracted so as 
to deteriorate or affect injuriously the quality or potency of the 
said drug. 

3. If any inferior or cheaper substance or substances have been 
substituted in whole or part for it. 

4. If it is an imitation or is sold under the name of another 
drug. 

5. If the drug shall be so altered that the nature, quality, sub- 
stance, commercial value, or medicinal value of it will not corre- 
spond to the recognized formulae or tests of the latest edition of 
the " National Formulary," or of the " Pharmacopoeia of the United 
States," or of the American Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia, or the 
American Homoeopathic Dispensatory, regarding quality or purity. 

On complaint being entered, the State Pharmaceutical Examin- 

1 Since the preparation of this paper the legislation in the matter of the 
manufacture and sale of adulterated drugs has been revised by passage of 
-the Act of Assembly of the 8th of May A.D., 1909, to be in force and effect 
from and after the first of October A.D., 1909. By this Act the method of 
enforcement of the law is somewhat altered, the powers conferred on the 
State Board extended, and while in some respects greater liberality is 
shown to the manufacturer and seller, provided the standard is correctly 
stated on the label, yet in other respects he is held to a stricter accountability 
in the manufacture and sale of pharmacal preparations. — A. C. T. 



3/8 



Compounding and Dispensing. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1909. 



ing Board is hereby empowered to employ an analyst or chemist 
expert, whose duty it shall be to examine into the so claimed adul- 
teration and report upon the result of his investigation, and if said 
report justifies such action, the Board shall duly cause the prosecu- 
tion of the offender as provided in this law. Whoever violates any 
of the provisions of this Act shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and 
upon conviction shall be fined a sum not exceeding one hundred 
dollars, or undergo an imprisonment not exceeding ninety days, or 
both. 

Sec. 2. All laws or parts of laws inconsistent herewith are 
hereby repealed. 

Approved — the 25th day of May, A.D. 1897. 

Daniel H. Hastings. 

You will say a most exact and comprehensive enactment. 

There is an important distinction observable between the Drug 
and Food Acts respecting labelling. In the latter Act Section 3 
provides that it shall not apply to mixtures or compounds recognized 
as ordinary articles or ingredients of articles of food, if each and 
every package sold or offered for sale be distinctly labelled as mix- 
tures or compounds and are not injurious to health. 

Attorney-General Elkins in an opinion, reported 5 District 
Reports 104, respecting a mixture compounded of coffee and a 
certain amount of chickory, rye, wheat, or peas and labelled " Best 
Rio, Prime Rio, French Rio," and the like, with the additional 
words " coffee compound," declared this was to be considered an 
adulteration within the meaning of the Act and was not protected 
by the label, on the theory that such an article was not coffee and 
that the label " coffee compound " was not indicative of the actual 
fact, and further that coffee so adulterated is not an ordinary article 
of food and therefore not exempt from the penalties of the law. 

Although the label may in some cases protect the manufacturer 
and vendor of foods, it will not save the manufacturer and vendor of 
drugs. There is no such provision in the Pure Drug Act and no 
matter what label is placed on the article, if it fails to conform to 
the standard pharmacopceial preparation it will be deemed an 
adulteration. 

The question may be raised that the article is not a pharmaco- 
pceial substance and that the Act strictly applies only to such as are 
mentioned in the several authorities cited and thereby a possible 
means of evading the law be afforded. 



BtiSSK™*} Compounding and Dispensing. 379 

This very point has arisen in the following form and may later 
be the subject of judicial interpretation: A purchaser had asked 
for camphorated oil and the article sold was labelled camphorated 
oil. The chemist, in making- his analysis., discovered the preparation 
to be below U.S. P. strength and recommended a prosecution. The 
suit was started and the defense contended that the U. S. Phar- 
macopoeia contained no such preparation, while the prosecution con- 
tended that the preparation was an adulteration of the U.S. P. 
article, linimentum camphorae (camphor liniment). 

How sufficient this defense or others of a similar nature will 
prove has not been determined ; the above case is now pending trial. 
It is probable that some expert testimony may be required to prop- 
erly inform the Court on the question of fact. It is, however, my 
opinion that the prosecution will prevail and the spirit of the Act 
be upheld. 

In an opinion rendered to the State Pharmaceutical Examining 
Board, reported 14 District Reports, page 397, Attorney-General 
Carson advised the prosecution of manufacturers and dealers in this 
State making and selling what are in reality inferior preparations 
of formulae that are present in the Pharmacopoeia and National 
Formulary, but which are labelled in a manner different from that 
usually pursued by makers and vendors of standard preparations ; 
where, for instance, instead of tincture of ginger U.S. P., which is 
usually labelled essence of Jamaica ginger, there is a preparation 
made consisting principally of capsicum, grains of paradise, or other 
pungent or hot drug and water with just sufficient alcohol to keep 
it from souring and a small quantity of ginger to impart certain of 
the characteristics of the genuine article, the product being then 
labelled " climax picnic ginger," " gilt edge ginger," that such 
matter was fully covered in the Act of May 25, 1897, and upon 
proper complaint made that it was the duty of the Board to employ 
an expert analyst or chemist to make examination and, if his report 
justify it, to proceed criminally. 

Again I anticipate that the province of the Board may be attacked 
by the grocer who sells an article which he claims conforms to the 
standard of the National Act on this subject, and if this article is 
such as might be used according as the occasion- demands, either 
as a flavor or a medicine, a defense might very naturally be made 
that the standard and quality being that required by the National 
Act, the State Board has no authority in the matter. 



3 8o 



Compounding and Dispensing. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1909. 



This is a new field. The State Board has only made a beginning 
in this department of its work. The present conditions of affairs, 
the trend of public opinion and professional spirit demand 
that the work shall proceed. The number of prosecutions are con- 
stantly increasing and I predict that this will eventually become a 
most fruitful source of litigation. The duty of preserving and con- 
serving the welfare of the public and, as well, the rights of the 
profession have been delegated to the State Pharmaceutical Exam- 
ining Board and the responsibility for the future progress in this 
field rests with that department of the Commonwealth. 

There is an Augean stable to be cleaned and the effort will be 
bitterly resented and fiercely contested by the important interests 
attacked. The removal of the opportunity for illicit gains of the 
quasi druggist, the manufacturer, the wholesale grocer, and that 
army of proprietary medicine dealers masquerading under the name 
of druggist is bound to be opposed. Ethical and scientific as well as 
legal problems are involved. It would be well to see that your 
interests in the strenuous days to come are in the hands of capable, 
fearless men, men of integrity, foresight, and recognized standing. 

Aside from the statutory enactments above referred to, which 
are treated as a branch of criminal procedure, there is that other 
branch of the law which is applied in the civil Courts. The phar- 
macist is bound to consider that vast body of law, the foundation 
of which is found in the generic principles of the law of contracts, 
sales, negligence, and agency. 

It is not my purpose, nor is this the occasion, to refer to a mass 
of cases or to consider the various questions and phases of questions 
and the refined distinctions made by the Courts of the land generally 
on these subjects. Added to the regulations imposed by statute, the 
pharmacist would verily believe that he was travelling over legal 
quicksands that threatened every moment to engulf him. My subject 
confines me to a consideration of these principles as applied to con- 
ditions developed out of the practice of pharmacy, and my duty I 
conceive to be to deduce certain general working principles. These 
principles are similar to and have developed out of the law govern- 
ing commercial transactions. The nature of the pharmacist's busi- 
ness, however, imparts to his business a greater degree of respon- 
sibility in proportion to its hazardous nature. 

The pharmacist contracts to use the right kind of drugs, drugs 
that are of proper strength, and to compound such drugs with a 
degree of care made necessary by his peculiar business and the 



4 1ut5S P "j Compounding and Dispensing. 3 Sl 

possible serious consequences, and he guarantees in the operation 
of his business that he possesses the requisite scientific knowledge 
and skill. 

The common law doctrine, caveat emptor, let the purchaser 
beware, is reversed in the case of the pharmacist and the doctrine is 
that of the civil law, let the seller beware, caveat venditor. 

In the case of Fleet vs. Hollencamp, 10 Massachusetts Reports 
197, the plaintiff sued the defendant for negligently permitting a 
portion of the poisonous drug, cantharides, to be intermingled with 
some snake root and Peruvian bark, which latter he had been ordered 
to take on the advice of his physician and in consequence of which 
he had been rendered very sick. It seems that a short time before 
the defendant, or an employee in his store, had ground up the can- 
tharides and without cleaning the mill had prepared the preparation 
ordered by the plaintiff. The Court in its opinion stated that " the 
general customer is not supposed to be skilled in the matter and, as 
represented in this case, does not know one drug from another, 
but in the purchase of drugs the customer must rely upon the 
druggist to furnish the article called for and in this particular busi- 
ness the customer who has not the experience and learning necessary 
to a proper vending of drugs would not be held to the rule that he 
must examine for himself. On the contrary the business is such 
that in the very nature of things the druggist must be held to warrant 
that he will deliver the drug called for and purchased by a customer. 
It must be considered, as decided in this case, that the pharmacist is 
guilty of negligence if he does not apply the knowledge and skill 
he is presumed to have with ordinary care, but as was said in 
Brown vs. Marshall, 47 Michigan Reports 576, the pharmacist is 
held to a stricter accountability in the matter of the ordinary care 
exercised by a prudent man, because of the possible serious con- 
sequences of his act and because of his superior knowledge." 

The responsibility is the same in compounding a prescription 
as in dispensing a drug and the proprietor is responsible for the 
acts of his clerk, if the latter is acting within the scope of his 
employment. In the case of McCubin vs. Hastings, spirits of 
camphor was substituted for camphor water, ordered in the pre- 
scription of the attending physician. The prescription was com- 
pounded by the clerk in the store of the defendant. The defendant 
was absent from the city at the time and the services of this clerk 
had been engaged by his brother. The Court, nevertheless, held 
the defendant was none the less responsible, the employment was 



382 



Compounding and Dispensing. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 

J August, 1909. 



authorized, and his responsibility for the acts of his employees cannot 
be disputed. The contention that a master is only responsible for 
the acts of his servants when he might have prevented the act and 
did not, was dismissed, the Court saying there would be no respon- 
sibility in the principal except for such acts as were done in his 
presence. 

In the same way liability may be incurred by improper labelling. 
In the case of Thomas vs. Winchester, 6 X. Y. 397, a physician had 
prescribed a dose of dandelion for the wife of the plaintiff : the 
article sold was belladonna, which was believed at the time to be 
dandelion and was so labelled. The resident druggist had pur- 
chased the article as extract of dandelion from Aspinwall, a drug- 
gist of Xew York. Aspinwall bought it of the defendant as extract 
of dandelion, believing it to be such. The judge charged the jury 
that if they should find from the evidence that either Aspinwall or 
the local druggist was guilty of negligence in vending, or that the 
plaintiff or those who administered it to her were chargeable with 
negligence, the plaintiff was not entitled to recovery, but if they 
were free from negligence and if the defendant was guilty of negli- 
gence in putting up and vending the extracts in question, the plaintiff 
was entitled to recover. The defense that there was no privity of 
contract between the plaintiff and a remote vendor of the medicine, 
the Court held could not be maintained. It was decided that in 
labelling a poisonous drug with the name of a harmless medicine 
for public market there can be no doubt of liability in civil action. 

The facts in one other case may be interesting dealing with the 
question of contributory negligence where the plaintiff went to a 
jar of belladonna, took out on the point of his knife what he thought 
was a dose of extract of dandelion, and called the attention of one 
of the defendants to it and asked if it was a proper dose and there- 
upon took it. where, it appears the jar was properly labelled. The 
question of the plaintiff's contributory negligence was raised and 
considered sufficient to defeat his contention that the defendant 
was guilty of negligence in not discovering the plaintiff's danger, 
although the plaintiff had consulted him with regard to the size 
of the dose. One of the judges filed a dissenting opinion to the 
effect that if the defendant had seen or was aware of the plaintiff's 
danger and failed to exercise ordinary care to prevent it. he would 
be liable. 

Gibson vs. Torbert. 115 Iowa 163, is authority for the rule that 
no liability attaches to a druggist for injuries to a customer for 



^iSiSS™'} Compounding and Dispensing. 383 

lack of instructions. It has also been held that if a prescription is 
so illegibly written that, notwithstanding ordinary care, a mistake 
is made the druggist is not liable in damages. 

It may thus be seen how close these matters come to the indi- 
vidual and how much a correct understanding of them serves to raise 
the profession in the esteem of the public. The passage of such 
laws as I have referred to effects this laudable purpose and advances 
the standing and reputation of the profession. Xo longer is the 
pharmacist regarded as a charlatan or held in disrepute as one who 
plies a dark and mysterious trade. The prevailing opinion of the 
apothecary a few centuries back is well illustrated by a passage from 
" Romeo and Juliet " : 

" I do remember an apothecary. — 
And hereabout he dwells, — which late I noted 
In tattered weeds, with overwhelming brows, 
Culling of simples ; meagre were his looks, 
Sharp misery hath worn him to the bones : 
And in his needy shop a tortoise hung, 
An alligator stuffed, and other skins 
Of ill-shaped fishes ; and above his shelves 
A beggarly account of empty boxes, 
Green earthen pots, bladders and musty seeds, 
Remnants of packthread and old cakes of roses. 
Were thinly scattered to make up a show. 
Xoting this penury, to myself I said 
' And if a man did need a poison now. 
Whose sale is present death in Mantua, 
Here lives a caitiff wretch would sell it him.' " 

All this is changed and with the enactment of the statutes and 
the application of the principles above referred to we are twice 
blest, " it blesseth him that gives and him that takes." Thev at 
once promote the dignity of the profession and become a boon to 
the public. As has been ably said and may be appropriately quoted 
by me in closing, 

Understood and appreciated by the public, protected and fos- 
tered by the law, the calling of the pharmacist is rising to its legiti- 
mate place of dignity among the learned professions of the world : 
and the men who represent it are now the peers of any in respec- 
tability and social standing, as they have always been in intelligence 
and learning." 



3§4 



Capture of the Pharmacopoeia. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1909. 



THE CAPTURE OF THE PHARMACOPOEIA ; WITH 
SUGGESTIONS -FOR ITS RECAPTURE.* 

By Henry Leffmann. 

My object in this paper is to present briefly the course of events 
by which the substantial control of the United States Pharmacopoeia 
has passed from the physicians to the pharmacists and to suggest 
another plan of revision. Some persons who have heard mention of 
the title of the paper have inferred that I am intending to criticize 
unfavorably the pharmacists, but my disapprovals are for the doctors 
who by the neglect of the work of revision have obliged the phar- 
macists to take it up. 

The United States Pharmacopoeia in its inception was a purely 
medical document. The data that I present on this point are derived 
solely from the book itself. The first step towards a national regula- 
tion of the quality of drugs was taken when Dr. Lyman Spalding, in 
1817, presented before the New York County Medical Society a plan 
for convening the principal medical institutions and societies in four 
districts of the country, arranged according to geographic conveni- 
ence, which four conventions were to send delegates to a national 
convention at Washington. As the history of the movement has 
often been presented I need do no more than give a brief outline. 
Dr. Spalding's suggestion bore fruit, and on January 1, 1820, the 
first convention assembled at Washington, D. C. The book was 
published in December of that year, being the only issue which 
appeared in the year of its convention. The members of the con- 
vention were few, and all had the M.D. degree. In the discussions 
and agitation for the calling of the convention, it does not appear 
that the druggists and apothecaries were regarded as parties to the 
framing of the book, though the convention by resolution encouraged 
them to use it. It was decided to sell the copyright for ten years 
and to use this money to pay the expenses of the convention, and if 
a surplus remained to distribute it among those medical organiza- 
tions that had sent delegates. At the first convention the decennial 
revision system was established, changes in the interval being for- 
bidden. It must be noted that at the time of calling of this con- 
vention no college of pharmacy existed in this country, the oldest 

* Read at the meeting of the Philadelphia County Medical Society., 
March 24 (Wednesday). 



Am iu J g°u?M9o a 9" m "} Capture of the Pharmacopoeia. ■ 385 

of such institutions, The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, having 
been founded a year later. The title page of the first Pharmacopoeia 
bears the statement that it is published " by authority of the medical 
societies and colleges " and it was bilingual, the Latin and English 
text appearing on facing pages. It was a small volume, and had two 
lists, one of the materia medica and one of preparations. The 
bilingual text was not used in any subsequent edition, but the dis- 
tinction between materia medica and preparations was maintained 
through several revisions. 

In the three following revisions, 1830, 1840, and 1850, the 
declaration of exclusive medical control was continued in a state- 
ment on the title pages that these editions are issued by the " author- 
ity of the National Medical Convention." In all the earlier con- 
ventions the number of delegates was small, and in one case several 
congressmen were made part of the membership, because they 
were graduates in medicine. 

The convention of 1840 originated the formal Committee of 
Revision. At this time the co-operation of colleges of pharmacy 
was invited, but the members of the Committee of Revision were 
still all physicians. This committee consisted of seven persons, of 
whom three were Philadelphians. 

Representative pharmacists were present as full delegates for 
the first time in 1850. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy sent 
three and the New York College two. It is to be noted that a dele- 
gate was present from the Medico-Chirurgical College of Philadel- 
phia. About thirty delegates in all were present: the revision 
committee consisted of eight, of whom one was a pharmacist. Three 
members of the committee were Philadelphians. 

The next revision (i860) eliminated the exclusive medical 
authority, the volume being designated as issued " by the National 
Convention for Revising the Pharmacopoeia." The convention con- 
sisted of twenty physicians and ten pharmacists. The revision 
committee in addition to the president (a physician and member 
ex officio) consisted of four physicians and four pharmacists, but 
one of those having the degree of M.D. and here counted as a 
physician was practically a pharmacist in his relations to the revision. 

The convention of 1870 consisted of over sixty delegates in 
actual attendance, about one-third being pharmacists. The revision 
committee, consisting of fifteen members, had about the same pro- 
portion of the two classes of delegates. In this committee were one 



386 Capture of the Pharmacopoeia. { Am \„^™f " SoS™' 

New York delegate and four Philadelphia delegates. I have laid 
some stress on the extent to which Philadelphia influence was shown 
in these committees because, on the occasion of the publication of 
the revision of 1880, a change occurred that gave rise to much 
feeling. The revision committee consisted of twenty-five members, 
about equally divided among physicians and pharmacists. New- 
York had six representatives and Philadelphia four. With the 
exception of the first edition — 1820, printed in Boston — all the 
revisions had been printed in Philadelphia, but the control that 
New York secured broke the chain and the revision of 1880 was 
published in that city. 

It is not necessary to discuss in any detail the classification of 
the conventions and revision committees of 1890 and 1900. The 
pharmacists had passed into substantial control, and in the last 
revision committee the proportion of actually practicing physicians 
is quite small. The last convention took a step of great importance 
in providing for a Board of Trustees. It is interesting to determine 
how far the two classes of delegates have been considered in the 
appointment of this Board and I think when one looks at the con- 
stitution of it and at the list of those who, outside of the' revision 
committee, have been consulted during the preparation of the 1900 
revision, the expression " Capture of the Pharmacopoeia " is justified. 

The revision committee consists of twenty-six members, includ- 
ing the president of the convention. Twelve of these have the M.D. 
degree, but among these at least four are not engaged in clinical 
work and three others are more directly interested in pharmaceutic 
work, being either connected with colleges of pharmacy or repre- 
senting pharmaceutic associations in the convention. It appears, 
therefore, that on a strict construction only five of the revision com- 
mittee represent medical practice in its bedside features. During 
the five years that the committee was at work it consulted about 
twenty-five outsiders, but even in this list we find only two or three 
who represent the medical profession. 

The Board of Trustees is composed of seven persons, of whom 
two have the degree of M.D., and one of these is a professor in a 
college of pharmacy. 

What inferences may be drawn from these facts? Not that the 
profession should return to the plan of 1820. It is true that the 
history shows that the regular medical profession has neglected its 
duty in this matter as it did in regard to medical education, allow- 



A °\uSim n "} Capture of the Pharmacopoeia. 387 

ing abuses of the college methods to go on for many years. The 
colleges received students insufficiently prepared and graduated 
them without sufficient instruction ; not in a few instances, but by 
thousands. A few persons saw the dangers of the college methods 
as a few doctors have seen the duty of the profession in regard to 
the Pharmacopoeia. Much has been at last accomplished in medical 
education due almost entirely to the efforts of the regular medical 
profession, for the irregular schools have never done anything revo- 
lutionary in this respect ; they have followed, not led, the movement. 

I have made part of my title " the recapture " of the Pharma- 
copoeia ; but I am not of the opinion that the control of the pharma- 
cist has been necessarily to the disadvantage of revision. What 
course matters would have taken if the medical profession had con- 
tinued in absolute control cannot now be determined ; but it is a 
condition that now confronts us, not a theory. The work is, I th'nk, 
unnecessarily cumbersome and contains a good deal of unnecessary 
matter, but it is the object of this essay to look ahead, not backward 

It is, in my opinion, now time to make the United States Phar- 
macopoeia a national work in the full sense of that expression. We 
live in a very different world from that in which the book had its 
origin. The little band of doctors that met in Washington on New 
Year's day, 1820, in the hot youth of the Republic, when George III 
was King and James Monroe President, would have been shocked 
to hear that a time would come when Congress would make a law 
establishing the provisions of the Pharmacopoeia as a legal standard. 
They would have regarded such a drift toward centralization as a 
blow to republican institutions and in destruction of American lib- 
erty. We moderns feel no such alarm, recognizing that all the 
steps toward a better union are over the ruins of State individualism. 
Now that penal enactments give the requirements of the Pharma- 
copoeia the force of law it is but wise and just that the framing 
of these requirements should be carried out under official sanction. 
The United States Government should summon the convention and 
provide for the expenses of the delegates. There is no need for 
the numerous attendance that has become customary of late years. 
There is no reason that every college and society of pharmacy and 
medicine should be authorized to send accredited delegates. The 
work of the last revision was done by a few men, not more than 
twenty-six authorized persons in all, and from what I have learned 
in a very large experience of committees, boards, and commissions, 



388 



Capture of the Pharmacopoeia. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ August, 1909. 



I feel inclined to say that if the minutes of the revision committee 
were published, it would be found that a few competent and active 
spirits did most of the work and determined the main lines of policy. 
If the American Medical Association and the American Pharma- 
ceutical Society were each authorized to send, say, ten delegates, 
and the medical departments of the Army, Navy and Marine-Hos- 
pital Service each, say, three delegates, a convention could be held 
fully as representative as any that has ever assembled for such a 
purpose. The publication should be carried out by the United 
States Government. A Committee of Revision should be designated 
which would have power to make necessary changes in the interval 
between revisions. Revisions should be once in five years. The 
decennial revision satisfied the conditions of 1820, but progress in 
pharmacy and medicine is too rapid now for such a long interval. 
The preparation of the revision should not occupy over one year. 
The circumstances that attended the publication of the last revision, 
namely, that it took five years to finish, are wholly inconsistent with 
the principle 011 which such a work is published. 

During the preparation of the revision the work should be 
brought before the public for discussion through publication of the 
more important suggested changes in the leading medical and phar- 
maceutic journals. In this manner important criticism will be 
available, some errors and inconsistencies would be avoided and no 
injury would be done to any one. I think that the size of the book 
could be materially reduced, without interfering with its usefulness 
in the field for which it is intended. Many of the analytic processes 
could be included in special bulletins as is now done in food analysis 
work, and to these the special workers could refer. 

A work that determines the conditions on which criminal pro- 
ceedings are brought should originate and be controlled by official 
authority, not by private management. The framers of the current 
revision recognized that the book had become a danger in this 
respect and placed in it a formal statement that it is a standard for 
drugs and not for foods. Under the sanction and control of the 
general government, the book will become in reality the " United 
States Pharmacopoeia." 



Am \u J o°^ t So? 01 ' } Pharmacists and Pharmacopoeia. 389 

THE PHARMACISTS AND THE UNITED STATES 
PHARMACOPOEIA* 
By George M. Beringer. 

Dr. Henry Leffmann has presented for your consideration the 
fact that the Pharmacopoeia of the United States originally prepared 
and published " by authority of the medical societies and colleges," 
has gradually, through the medium of the decennial conventions for 
revision to which pharmaceutical societies were invited to send dele- 
gates, become the joint work of both physicians and pharmacists. 
In the later revisions the influence of the pharmacists has become so 
prominent that he accuses the medical profession of neglecting its 
duty and surrendering the Pharmacopoeia to the pharmacists who 
have by this bloodless victory " captured " the book and now control 
and decide its character. 

Without gainsaying the statements presented by Dr. Leffmann, 
I desire to present a picture taken from a different viewpoint. I 
will venture to advance as a preliminary proposition, that the 
present condition and control is but the result of the natural evo- 
lution of pharmacy as a distinct branch of medicine and is due to 
the progress and changed conditions in the practice of medicine 
that has taken place since 1820, when Dr. Lyman Spaulding edited 
the first edition of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States. 

The student of the history of pharmacy knows that during the 
period of the early settlements and throughout the colonial period 
in America, pharmacy was not practised as a distinct art and calling. 
The early " apothecary shops " were mainly the dispensaries of 
physicians for supplying their patients and the mixing was usually 
entrusted to an apprentice or beginner in the study of medicine. 
It was about 1765, that Dr. John Morgan introduced in Philadelphia 
the practice of writing prescriptions, or, as he styled it, " the regu- 
lar mode of practicing physic." He argued that " the very different 
employments of physician, surgeon, and apothecary should not be 
followed by any one man ; they certainly require different talents. 
Let each cultivate his respective branch apart, the physician, surgeon, 
apothecary, etc. ; the knowledge of medicine will then be daily im- 
proved, and it may be practised with greater accuracy and skill." 



* Presented before the Philadelphia County Medical Society, March 24, 
1909. 



39° Pharmacists and Pharmacopoeia. {^u^st SS rm * 

The early part of the nineteenth century may be considered as 
the formative period of pharmacy on this continent, and in 1821 the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was instituted as the first school 
established for the education of apothecaries in America. One of 
the very first acts of this college was the appointment of a com- 
mittee on the Pharmacopoeia, thus evidencing the early and active 
interest of its members in having correct formulas and national 
standards for drugs and medicines. This committee reported in 
June, 1 82 1, when the first U. S. Pharmacopoeia was scarcely six 
months old, and recommended a continuance of the committee to 
institute a further examination of the book with a view of correcting 
the errors it contained. 

The first revision of the Pharmacopoeia, following the convention 
of 1830, was published in 1831, and was edited by Dr. George B. 
Wood, then a professor in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
and Dr. Franklin Bache, who in the same year became its professor 
of chemistry. Is it not fair to assume that the editors incorporated 
the views and suggestions for improvements arising from its 
members? It will be thus seen that from the very commencement 
of pharmaceutic activity and organization in America, pharmacists 
have exerted a marked influence on the revisions of the Pharma- 
copoeia. While it is true that the Pharmacopceial convention of 
1850 was the first to which incorporated colleges of pharmacy were 
invited to send delegates, the action of the preceding convention 
was, however, quite significant of the inevitable trend of progress. 
The convention of 1840 authorized the Committee on Revision to 
request the co-operation of colleges of pharmacy. In response to 
that request a committee of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
prepared a report. Preceding the receipt of this report the Com- 
mittee on Revision had prepared its review and was ready to pro- 
ceed to publication. However, when the report of this college was 
received in 1841 they rewrote their book and in the preface to that 
revision occurs the following reference : " This contribution from 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy consisted of a revised copy 
of the Pharmacopoeia, elaborated with ability and great industry 
and presenting, along with numerous individual additions and alter- 
ations, some new features in the general plan. It, therefore, re- 
quired close attention and deliberate examination on the part of 
the committee who found themselves under the necessity of going 
over the whole ground which they had recently traversed." 



Am Au J cS; 1909™' } Pharmacists and Pharmacopoeia, 391 

It is not too broad an assertion to state that the pharmacist is in 
the Pharmacopceial convention and on the Committee on Revision 
because his special training and knowledge are necessary to the 
success of the work, and his brother, the practitioner of medicine, 
early recognized this and sought his co-operation. In 1841, William 
Procter, Jr., was engaged as secretary of the Committee on Revision 
and in their behalf made numerous experiments on the preparation 
of such chemical products as ether and Hoffman's anodyne. The 
following is a copy of an original autograph letter which is now 
preserved in the archives of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy : 

" April 3d, i860. 

" My Dear Mr. Procter :— 

" I send you herewith most cheerfully my check for $100, which 
I consider but a small compensation for the services rendered by 
you to the committee of the Col. of Physicians in revising the 
Pharmacopoeia. 

" Very truly yours, 

" Geo. B. Wood." 



It must be constantly borne in mind that the Pharmacopoeia is 
largely a book of formulas, and that the methods of manipulation 
and proper combination of drugs are important to the success of 
the preparations, and hence the skill acquired by the pharmacist in 
the practice of his art is necessary in the framing of correct processes 
and directions for manufacture of the medicines. 

The Pharmacopoeia reflects the progress of medicine and of 
medicinal sciences along certain lines only and its scope precludes 
the recognition of advances in other directions either entirely or 
nearly so. To illustrate, it can only incidentally recognize advances 
in therapeutics, pharmacology, surgery, electropathy, etc., by intro- 
ducing the formulas for such remedies as may become useful from 
such progress. On the contrary, progress in pharmacognosy and 
the chemistry of drugs and medicines come within its proper field 
and must be accorded ample consideration, and it is noteworthy that 
in the recent revisions they have claimed marked attention and have 
enhanced the value of the book as well as materially increased its 
size and altered its character. Here again, we are confronted by 
the fact that these are in the domain of pharmaceutical study and 
application and naturally account for the prominence and influence 



3Q2 Pharmacists and Pharmacopoeia. \ Am : Jour ; f n h n a ft rttl - 

x August, iyuy. 

of pharmacists in the recent revisions. So we see that the " capture " 
has not been by design, nor by accident, but is only following the 
proper lines of Pharmacopoeial scope and progress and the devel- 
opment of professional pharmacy. 

I am compelled to doubt the wisdom of the recommendation to 
restrict the membership of the convention to delegates from the 
American Medical Association, the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, and the various branches of the medical service of the 
National Government. One of the most encouraging signs of the 
time is the greatly increased interest in the Pharmacopoeia. This 
is not only noticeable in the medical profession, but also in all 
branches of the drug trade and chemical industries. Its adoption 
as a legal standard by the Food and Drugs Act has made these 
manufacturers and dealers and importers take notice of its require- 
ments, and everywhere there is manifested a sincere desire for its 
improvement and to make its descriptions, tests, and requirements 
practical and accurate. 

Probably one serious error 1 in the preparation of the book in 
the past has been the lack of interest shown by the practical men, 
who permitted the teachers and theorists to assume all the burdens. 
While proud of the last revision, we must recognize that, like all 
human works, it is far from perfect. Dr. Leffmann is quite right in 
demanding that practical clinicians should be represented on the 
Committee on Revision. The National Wholesale Druggists' Asso- 
ciation has likewise by resolution expressed itself : " That there 
should be added to the committee several chemists of large experi- 
ence in manufacturing and one or more druggists who are familiar 
with the drug markets of the world." So we see that the next con- 
vention will be confronted with a problem of how to recognize all 
the interests that desire to assist in the preparation of the revision 
and not enlarge its membership or that of the Committee on 
Revision. I quite agree with the statement attributed to Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington, the chairman of the Committee on Revision, 
that " The larger the number of interests represented in the next 
Pharmacopoeia the better for the book." In the light of past experi- 
ence the convention should certainly exercise critical judgment in 
selecting the future committee to obtain the best talent and the most 
practical knowledge and at the same time eliminate dead wood. 

The proposition to have the work of revision under government 
sanction and control and the Pharmacopoeia published by the United 



August m" } Pharmacists and Pharmacopoeia, 393 

States Government is to my mind, at the present time, an exceed- 
ingly dangerous one. The tendency to autocratic and beaurocratic 
officialism is but little less obnoxious than the tendency to partisan- 
ship and political domination and this would preclude much of the 
most independent and most reliable work. Official jealousy and 
suspicion would most likely discredit valuable work of the practical 
manufacturer, the experienced clinician, or pharmacist. I doubt if 
we are yet ready to adopt paternalism in this connection with all 
of its possible attending evils. 

The government does not publish the standard legal works and 
text-books on law and there is no more justification for it to engage 
in publishing legal works on medicine and pharmacy. 

No one interest or set of men, however learned as specialists, 
could to-day prepare a Pharmacopoeia that would be satisfactory, 
because as a legal standard so many varied interests become affected 
by it. Equity and justice demand the co-operation of all of these 
interests and likewise that of the government service. 

The United States Pharmacopoeia is not yet perfect and every 
interest concerned should be encouraged to assist in its improvement 
and perfection. There is hardly a subject that will not "permit of 
further study and investigation, and much experimental work is yet 
needed to determine the scientific accuracy of descriptions, assays, 
and processes. These are the very avenues of progress and they 
should be kept open and inviting. 

Let us by all means avoid the fate of Hindoo learning so graph- 
ically portrayed by the author of " Ben Hur " in the language 
attributed to Melchoir in the meeting in the desert : " Such, O 
brethren, are the Great Shastras, or books of sacred ordinances. 
They are dead to me now ; yet through all time they will serve to 
illustrate the budding genius of my race. They were promises of 
quick perfection. Ask you why the promises failed? Alas! The 
books themselves closed all the gates of progress. Under pretext 
of care for the creature, their authors imposed the fatal principle 
that a man must not address himself to discovery or invention, as 
Heaven had provided him all things needful. When that condition 
became a sacred law, the lamp of Hindoo genius was let down a 
well, where ever since it has lighted narrow walls and bitter waters." 



394 



Formaldehyde and Cane Sugar. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
{ August, 1909. 



IS FORMALDEHYDE PRODUCED BY BOILING SOLU- 
TIONS OF CANE SUGAR? * 
By Charles H. La Wall. 

About a year ago A. A. Ramsay published a statement 1 to the 
eftect that when solutions of cane sugar are boiled without pressure 
at from ioo° C. to 103 ° C, as would be the case in making jellies 
and preserves, formaldehyde is produced in appreciable amounts. 
This paper was widely quoted and was said to render valueless the 
tests for formaldehyde applied to jellies, preserves, etc. 

As this result was contrary to observations made by the writer 
in the examination of a large number of samples of jellies, etc., all 
of which gave negative results when tested for formaldehyde, it 
was concluded to make some further experiments with a view to 
ascertaining the correctness of the statement. 

Upon examining Ramsay's paper the most striking point was the 
fact that the only reaction used to detect formaldehyde was the 
well-known Hehner milk-sulphuric acid test, which was applied to 
various fractions of the distillate. It is a well-known fact that this 
same Hehner test is a group reagent for various aldehydic bodies, 
and that it is likely to lead to erroneous conclusions when unsubstan- 
tiated by any other test was shown in a paper read by the writer 
before the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association in 1905, and 
published in several journals at that time, to the effect that vanillin, 
which is methylprotocatechuicaldehyde, gives positive results by 
this test, and that samples of vanilla ice cream, therefore, will always 
be reported as containing formaldehyde when examined for that 
substance by the Hehner test alone. 

At the time that observation was made it was shown that the 
most satisfactory confirmatory test is the Rimini test with phenyl- 
hydrazine hydrochloride and sodium nitroprusside, followed by solu- 
tion of sodium hydroxide, which produces a decided blue color in 
the presence of 1 part of formaldehyde in 500,000 of solution, and 
which has the additional advantage over the Hehner and other sul- 
phuric acid contact tests that there is no danger of carbonization 
and consequent obscuring of the test when applied to solutions con- 
taining sugar. 

* Read at the April meeting of the Scientific Section of the Philadelphia 
Branch of the A. Ph. A. 

1 Journ. and Proc. Royal Soc. of New South Wales, 41, 172, abstracted 
in the Analyst, vol. 34, p. 28. 



Am \if°S' So"™' } Formaldehyde and Cane Sugar. 395 

In addition to this, the writer also had ample confirmation of 
the fact, which Ramsay reported negatively, that furfuraldehyde is 
produced when cane sugar solutions are boiled. The following 
experiments, therefore, were conducted with a view to ascertaining 
the behavior of distillates, obtained under the same conditions as 
described by Ramsay, to the Hehner test, to the Rimini test, and 
also to the recently published tests for furfuraldehyde by means of 
solution of aniline acetate. 2 

A 20 per cent, solution of cane sugar was boiled for some time 
and then distilled, the distillate being collected in several fractions, 
designated as No. 1 and Xo. 2 in the tabulated statement of results. 
Check tests were made simultaneously with formaldehyde solutions 
containing respectively 1/50,000 and 1/1,000,000 of that substance. 

A solution of commercial levulose was then distilled in the same 
manner as the sugar solution and the same tests were applied. 

A 20 per cent, solution of cane sugar was boiled and distilled 
with 1 per cent, of citric acid, and a similar solution was prepared 
with tartaric acid and likewise distilled and tested as in the fore- 
going cases. Check tests were also carried out, using furfuralde- 
hyde in dilute solution, one being made with commercial furfuralde- 
hyde, the other prepared by boiling bran with diluted sulphuric acid 
and distilling, thus obtaining the furfuraldehyde freshly for the 
experiments. 

The tabulated results of these experiments are as follows : 

Hehner's test Rimini test Analine ace- 

for for tate tor 

formaldehyde formaldehyde furfuraldehyde 

Cane sugar distillate No. 1 positive negative positive 

Cane sugar distillate No. 2 positive negative positive 

Formaldehyde 1/50,000 positive positive negative 

Formaldehyde 1/1,000,000 positive positive negative 

Levulose distillate positive negative positive 

Cane sugar distillate (with citric acid) positive negative positive 

Cane sugar distillate (with tartaric acid) positive negative positive 

Commercial furfuraldehyde positive negative positive 

Freshly made furfuraldehyde . . positive negative positive 

By the foregoing results it will be clearly seen that the Hehner 
test reacts positively with every solution tested, while the Rimini 
test gives positive results only with those solutions to which formal- 



bulletin no, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Examination of Commercial 
Honeys. 



396 



Formaldehyde and Cane Sugar, 



j Am. Jour, that-til. 
\ August, 1909. 



dchyde had been added, and that the aniline acetate test gives posi- 
tive results for furfuraldehyde in every solution except those pre- 
pared with formaldehyde alone, in which it could not possibly have 
been present except as an impurity. 

From the nature of the reaction it would be fair to conclude that 
if formaldehyde were produced under such conditions as have been 
described it would be found in a concentrated form in the residue. 
The residue in the flasks, therefore, after the distillation of the plain 
cane sugar, the levulose, and the two lots of acidulated cane sugar 
solutions, were all tested for formaldehyde by the Rimini test, carry- 
ing alongside blanks prepared from part of the same residue, to 
which formaldehyde in the proportion of 1-100,000 had been added 
to ascertain if there was any substance present which would inter- 
fere with the detection of formaldehyde under these conditions. 
These tests resulted negatively in each case where the plain residue 
was tested and positively in each case where formaldehyde was 
known to be present. 

Check experiments were then made with the distillate from bran 
containing furfuraldehyde freshly prepared and it was found that 
when this distillate was very much concentrated there was a slight 
observable difference in the color of the Hehner test as compared 
with that produced by formaldehyde alone, but that diluted solutions 
of furfuraldehyde could not be distinguished from formaldehyde, 
either in the intensity or the color of the reaction. 

A number of samples of commercial jellies and several of home 
origin were then distilled and the distillate tested by the foregoing 
methods. In every case the Hehner test gave positive results, as 
did also the aniline acetate test for furfuraldehyde, while in not a 
single instance could even a faint reaction be obtained by the Rimini 
test, either in the distillate or in the concentrated residue left after 
the distillation. 

The conclusion is obvious, therefore, that cane-sugar solutions do 
not develop formaldehyde when boiled under ordinary conditions, 
but that furfuraldehyde is produced, which reacts in such a manner 
with the Hehner test as to deceive the analyst who relies upon it 
alone, without confirmation by the Rimini test. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1909. ) 



Correspondence 



397 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy, 
Dear Sir : 

At the recent meeting of the P. Ph. A. it was stated on the floor 
of the meeting by the Honorable Theodore Campbell, a member of 
the State Legislature, from Philadelphia, that the Internal Revenue 
Office had information which would lead them to believe that a 
number of druggists in Pennsylvania and other States were selling 
alcohol without having taken out the necessary $25.00 Internal 
Revenue special tax. commonly called the retail liquor dealers 
license. 

Failure to take out this license subjects the proprietor of any 
store selling alcohol to an additional penalty of 50 per cent., making 
a total of S37.50. and the Internal Revenue authorities would be 
compelled to go back as far as they could secure evidence, even to 
the time of the dealer starting in business, and collect the $37.50 
penalty for each and every year. 

It was a surprise to me and to many of the members to find that 
there were druggists foolish enough to attempt to evade this law. 
but a consultation with the Internal Revenue collector for this 
district and his deputy have convinced me that there are a number 
in this State who are doing so. 

I was requested by a vote of the meeting to call this matter to 
the attention of the editors of all the leading pharmaceutical journals 
in the country, to the end that they make as strong an announcement 
of the liability of the druggists to this tax as thev could see fit to do. 
A strong editorial on this subject in your paper would probably 
save a great many foolish druggists from incurring a heavy penalty, 
in addition to considerable notoriety. 

Assuring you that whatever you can do in this matter will be 
appreciated by the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. I am. 

Very truly yours, 

Edgar F. Heffxer. 
July 3. 1900. Secretary. 

P. S. The Internal Revenue year begins July 1. and the license 
can be taken out any time during the month without incurring the 
extra penalty. 



39§ 



Book Reviews. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1909. 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

Principles of Pharmacy. By Henry V. Amy, Dean and 
Professor of Pharmacy in the Cleveland School of Pharmacy, De- 
partment of Pharmacy, W estern Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. 
With 246 original illustrations. Philadelphia and London : W. B. 
Saunders Company, 1909. Cloth, $5.00. 

There are one or two good books on pharmacy written by Amer- 
ican authors, but another one would be acceptable. The trouble 
with most writers on pharmacy is that they do not work hard 
enough at pharmacy, i.e., the pharmaceutical part of the Pharma- 
copoeia. One wonders at this when one sees the mass of material 
at their command and realizes the amount of needful work that 
could be done. 

Professor Amy says of his book that " the frank intention of 
this book is to explain the Pharmacopoeia from its pharmaceutical 
standpoint, and if that standard says that a certain chemical is a 
dextrogyrate ketone, or that a certain drug is a ' sclerotium,' the 
writer believes that the average student should be able to learn 
what such terms mean without having to search through a dozen 
books." 

Now this is exactly what a work on pharmacy is hardly likely 
to accomplish, and the best illustration of this is seen in Professor 
Amy's own -book. We fail to see how a student can form an 
intelligent conception of the definition of camphor from the work 
in hand. Again the half page, which is devoted to giving the 
student an idea of the definition of ergot, had better be eliminated, 
as some of the statements are erroneous, and the student had better 
consult a good modern botany where fewer words and a few figures 
would illustrate this subject. 

The sooner authors of text-books on pharmacy abandon the. idea 
that these works should be commentaries on the Pharmacopoeia, and 
that a text-book on pharmacy should be a treatise' on botany and 
chemistry as well as pharmacy, the better it will be both for teacher 
and student. The student needs and should have that systematic 
training in chemistry which will enable him to understand what is 
meant by the term, ketone, and that training in botany which will 
enable him to understand what part of the plant and what group of 
p 1 ants is meant by the term, sclerotium. He is a poor student indeed 
if he does not learn enough about both botany and chemistry to be 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1909. / 



Book Reviews. 



399 



able to look up these terms in the respective text-books on these 
subjects. 

In Professor Amy's book we find in Part I the consideration of 
pharmaceutic operations, including pharmacopoeias, metrology, 
specific gravity, heat, applications of heat, comminution, solution, 
lotion, decantation, collation, filtration, clarification, decolorization, 
separation of immiscible liquids, precipitation, crystallization, 
granulation, exsiccation, dialysis, and extraction. Part II is devoted 
to the consideration of galenic pharmaceutic preparations. Part III 
treats of inorganic chemistry. In Part IV the subject of organic 
chemistry is considered. Part V is devoted to pharmaceutic testing. 
In Part VI the nature of the prescription and the compounding of 
prescriptions are fully considered. In Part VII are laboratory exer- 
cises in galenic and chemical preparations. 

The book contains a number of good features, as the discussion 
of the arithmetic of pharmacy and the exercises in chemical arith- 
metic. Some of the chemical explanations are also quite well stated. 
With a change in the point of view of the author as to the nature 
and extent of the subject of pharmacy, or his approach to it more 
as a specialist, the reviewer believes that Professor Arny has an 
excellent opportunity of freeing the second edition from certain 
misstatements which serve to mar his otherwise praiseworthy 
undertaking. He, as well as some other teachers of pharmacy, 
apparently labors under the impression that the Pharmacopoeia is 
a treatise on pharmacy and that vice versa a text-book on pharmacy 
is a treatise on the Pharmacopoeia. A little reflection will show that 
it is extremely hazardous for any one man to attempt to write 
authoritatively on the three or four or more branches or departments 
which are included in the Pharmacopoeia, and with the rapid ad- 
vances in the sciences, and the tendency to specialization and di- 
vision in work, this point of view is coming to be recognized more 
and more. 

New and Non-Official Remedies. The new edition of this 
book, containing an enumeration of the medicinal substances that 
have been examined by the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry, 
prior to January i, 1909, and which appear to comply with the rules 
of the Council, has been published and is available, for a nominal 
sum, from the Journal of the American Medical Association, 103 
Dearborn Avenue, Chicago, 



400 



Ebcrt Memorial. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 

j August, 1909. 



Pharmacists should be interested in making this annual publica- 
tion as complete and as reliable as possible, and could and should 
assist the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry materially in prevent- 
ing the misuse of confidence. The book contains the rules of the 
Council, and descriptions of upwards of 300 proprietary prepara- 
tions which appear to comply with the rules now in force. An inde- 
pendent application of these several rules, by individual pharmacists, 
and the prompt report of any evident objections, would be appreci- 
ated by members of the Council and would certainly tend to guaran- 
tee a more wide-spread adherence to, and a more strict compliance 
with, the rules themselves. M. I. Wilbert. 

The Desk Book of Facts for Physicians and Pharmacists. 
By Ralph Walsh, M.D., Washington, D. C. 

This book contains a list of new remedies giving the action, 
solubility, and dosage of each ; a list of important official remedies ; 
and lists of poisons and antidotes and incompatibilities. It also 
contains information on drugs that interfere with the action of other 
drugs ; nutritives ; precautions to be observed in infectious and con- 
tagious diseases ; popular names and synonyms of numerous drugs ; 
a list of veterinary remedies ; solubility of drugs ; some tests in 
urinalysis ; practical test for estimating renal insufficiency ; some 
rules to be observed in the artificial feeding of infants ; table of 
Latin terms and abbreviations used in prescribing, etc. 



EBERT MEMORIAL. 

On May 21, 1909, there was held in the city of Chicago, cere- 
monies in honor of the memory of Albert E. Ebert who died 
Xovember 20, 1906 (class of 1864, P. C. P.). 

A monument consisting of a boulder, with a bronze memorial 
tablet, was placed upon the grave at Graceland Cemetery. Ad- 
dresses were delivered by Prof. Joseph P. Remington, representing 
Ebert's Alma Mater, the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy ; by Prof. 
Henry M. Whelpley, representing the Trustees of the United States 
Pharmacopceial Convention ; by President J. E. Huber of the Illinois 
Pharmaceutical Association ; by Prof. C. S. N. Hallberg of the 
Chicago College of Pharmacy : by Mr. Wilhelm Bodemann of the 



Am Au J -°u"t i909 rm j Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 401 

Chicago Veteran Druggists' Association; and by Dr. Edward 
Kremers, representing the pharmacists of America. 

The monument was presented to the Ebert estate by Oliver F. 
Fuller, President of the Chicago Veteran Druggists' Association, 
and was accepted by Mr. T. S. Jamieson, one of the executors, on 
behalf of the estate and presented by him to the American Phar - 
maceutical Association, President Oscar Oldberg accepting it. 

The occasion was one of national importance ; the trustees and 
the other visitors were entertained by the C. V. D. A. at a noon 
luncheon and, in the evening, the Chicago Branch of the A. Ph. A. 
entertained the guests, Professor Remington acting as toastmaster. 

A replica of the bronze tablet was sent to the Dean of the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, who presented it to the College 
and it will be mounted and hung on the walls. It will be remem- 
bered that Albert E. Ebert left his entire estate to the American 
Pharmaceutical Association. 



PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

The quarterly meeting of the members of the College was held 
June 28, 1909, at 4 o'clock p.m. in the library. In the unavoidable 
absence of the President, the First Vice-President, Mahlon N. Kline, 
presided. 

The minutes of the annual meeting held March 29 were read 
and approved. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for the meetings in 
March, April, and May were read by the Registrar and approved. 

The Committee on By-Laws reported adversely on the proposed 
amendment to the by-laws to abolish the fee for the certificate of 
membership. The meeting sustained the recommendation of the 
committee. 

The Committee on Membership reported the names of several 
members who were in arrears for annual dues, and it was, on motion, 
ordered that their names be dropped. 

The Historical Committee, through Chairman George M. 
Beringer, reported that during the year a condensed historical 
sketch of the College was prepared for publication in the memorial 
volume of the scientific institutions, medical colleges, and hospitals 



402 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am ; u J ^ r t ' \^ m ' 

of Philadelphia, to be published as a part of Founders' Week Cele- 
bration of the city, held in October, 1908. The committee made 
the suggestion that in order to fittingly celebrate the centenary of 
the College a complete history of the College since its foundation 
should be published. In connection with such a volume the notable 
events in the careers of the officers, teachers, and graduates should 
be included, as the personal element of such a historical sketch would 
add very materially to its value and general interest. As the 
preparation of such a historical volume would require a great deal 
of time, the committee placed the proposition before the College 
at this' time so that it might receive careful consideration. The 
committee also suggested that additional cases be provided to care 
for the numerous additions to the historical collection. 

The recommendation of the committee in reference to publishing 
a history of the College was well received, when, on motion of 
Professor Remington, the President was requested to appoint a 
committee of five to prepare a plan and scope of the work, to report 
at a later meeting, 

An autograph letter of Sir Morrell Mackenzie was presented by 
Mr. Joseph Jacobs, for which the thanks of the College were voted 
to him. 

The Committee on Necrology, Professor Sadtler, Chairman, 
reported the deaths of two members during the year, viz., William 
J. Miller and Jacob H. Redsecker. 

The Committee on By-Laws proposed several amendments to 
the by-laws relating to membership, the most important one being 
to strike out the paying an initiation fee, action on which is to be 
deferred till the next meeting of the College. 

The delegates to the thirty-ninth annual meeting of the New 
Jersey Pharmaceutical Association, held at Lake Hopatcong June 
9-1 1, reported that the meeting was fairly well attended and a 
great deal of interest and enthusiasm was manifested at the various 
sessions. Professor Henry Kraemer conveyed the greetings from 
the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, and Professor C. B. Lowe 
gave a lecture on " Emergencies." The Committee on Papers and 
Queries presented a number of papers, and the Committee on U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia had endeavored to obtain critical reviews of a number 
of official preparations, and as a result papers were presented upon 
plasters, cerates, ointments, troches, and syrups. 

The social features were very much enjoyed and consisted of 



Am Au J s °ust i P 909 rm *} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 4°3 

trolley and boat rides and a vaudeville show. One of the notable 
events was the formation of a Ladies' Auxiliary. 

The effort to increase the membership from New Jersey in the 
American Pharmaceutical Association was heartily endorsed. 

Among those elected to honorary membership was Professor 
C. B. Lowe. 

After considerable discussion the association endorsed the propo- 
sition to have incorporated in the State Pharmacy Law a prerequisite 
clause, and the Committee on Legislation were directed to prepare 
a draft of such a bill to be submitted to the next session of the 
Legislature. Such an enactment will place Xew Jersey in harmony 
with New York and Pennsylvania in pharmaceutical requirements. 

Delegates to the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association re- 
ported a? follows through the Chairman, Professor C. B. Lowe: 

" The thirty-second annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Phar- 
maceutical Association was held at Bedford Springs, June 24-27. 
An important report which provoked considerable discussion was 
that of the Committee on Legislation, John C. Wallace, Chairman. 
The passage of the Pure Drug Bill for Pennsylvania differs from 
the national Pure Food and Drugs Law in that it does not allow 
any variation from U.S.P. standards, in the case of six drugs and 
preparations containing them, as specified in the law (see American 
Journal of Pharmacy, January, 1909). While the law was not 
entirely satisfactory to all of the pharmacists of the State, many of 
whom did not think it wise to allow any variation at all, it was 
thought to be the best which could be enacted at the present time. 
The new cocaine law was also referred to ; this in addition to the 
restrictions contained in the old law compels both manufacturers 
and wholesalers to keep a record of all sales of cocaine or prepara- 
tions containing it. The number of papers presented was forty-five. 
The next meeting is to be held at Buena Vista Springs." 

The following members were elected delegates and alternates 
to the Convention to Revise the L nited States Pharmacopoeia to be 
held in Washington, D. C, in May, 1910. Delegates: Professor 
Joseph P. Remington, Professor Samuel P. Sadtler, Professor 
Henrv Kraemer. Alternates : Professor F. X. Moerk, Professor 
Charles H. La Wall. 

The following appointments were made: 

Delegates to the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation to be held at Los Angeles, California, August 16: Professor 



404 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { K \*™li 3X rm " 

Joseph P. Remington, Joseph W. England, Freeman P. Stroup, 
William Mclntyre, and William L. Cliffe. 

Committee on Nominations : Jacob M. Baer, Walter A. Rumsey, 
William Mclntyre, Otto W. Osterlund, William E. Lee. 

Historical Committee : George M. Beringer, Jacob M. Baer, 
Henry Kraemer, Warren H. Poley, C. A. Weidemann. 

Committee on Necrology: Samuel P. Sadtler, Henry Kraemer, 
Gustavus Pile. 

Professor Henry Kraemer proposed a number of names for 
honorary membership, which according to the rules lie over for 
action at the next meeting. 

Professor Joseph P. Remington presented on behalf of Mr. N. H. 
Martin, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, an honorary member of 
the Alumni Association of the College, a beautiful silver loving 
cup, with this inscription on it : " Presented to the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy in loving remembrance of American and 
English leaders in pharmacy by N. H. Martin, Plon. Mem., May, 
1909. Brady, Deane, Reynolds — Procter, Parrish, Maisch, Ebert." 
The cup was awarded to the last graduating class (1909), and in 
turn to any class which excels the scholarship average of an immedi- 
ately preceding class. The Secretary was directed to convey to 
Mr. Martin the thanks of the College for this valuable gift. 

Professor Henry Kraemer, on behalf of Joseph A. Heintzelman, 
presented a number of books he had used in his student days, also 
the program of his graduating class (1859). He also presented 
on behalf of Joseph Jacobs, two volumes of the American Journal 
of Pharmacy (1830-1831), and a number of pamphlets on botany 
and allied subjects. The thanks of the College were voted to these 
gentlemen for their donations. 

The Committee on Library were authorized to grant the use of 
any duplicate sets of books not otherwise used to any of the various 
departments of the College. 

An application for life membership was received from one of the 
recent graduates. 

A member called attention to the fact that the College had no 
printed form to use in filling out credentials, when, on motion, the 
Secretary was directed to procure a form for credentials. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 



Am Au J gu£ Soo™" } Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 405 

ABSTRACTS FROM THE MINUTES OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

March 2. Thirteen members were present. The Committee on 
Property reported the completion of the bronze sign on the front 
of the College Building, and that plans for a hot-house, to be built 
on the roof of the Annex Laboratory building, were progressing. 

The Committee on Supplies reported that the expense for equip- 
ping the Pure Food and Drugs Laboratory amounted to four 
thousand eight hundred dollars ($4800.00). 

The Committee on By-Laws reported adversely to changing the 
time for ending the fiscal year of the College. The recommen- 
dation of the committee was sustained. 

April 6. Twelve members were present. Mr. Mahlon N. Kline 
was elected Chaintian, Mr. George M. Beringer, Vice-Chairman, and 
Mr. Jacob S. Beetem, Registrar. The Chairman announced the 
various standing committees for the year. 

The Committee on Scholarships reported the award of the Ed- 
ward T. Dobbins Scholarship for the first time. 

The Committee on Appropriations reported the estimated 
amounts for the ensuing year that would be needed by the various 
committees and departments authorized to make expenditures. 

The Committee on Announcement reported that copy for Bulle- 
tin No. 4 was being prepared and that the pocket edition relating 
to the Course in Pharmacy would be merged in this number. 

The Special Finance Committee reported that some additional 
contributions had been received for the Pure Food and Drugs 
Laboratory. The special committee, consisting of Messrs. Reming- 
ton, Sadtler, and Poley, were reappointed. 

Mr. Christopher Koch requested that permission be granted the 
Pennsylvania State Board of Pharmacy to hold their examinations 
at the College. In granting the request, Mr. Beetem, Secretary to 
the Board of Trustees, was instructed to convey to Mr. Koch the 
appreciation of the Board that another one of the graduates of the 
College had been honored by an appointment to the State Board of 
Pharmacy. 

May 4. Fourteen members were present. The Committee on 
Instruction reported having received from the Faculty reports of 
the details of the work in the various departments, with suggestions 
for the future. The several recommendations of the committee were 
approved ; these included the recommendation of lengthening the 



406 



Notes and News. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
August, 1909. 



courses for each year, whereby a material increase in the three-year 
course is secured. 

The Committee on Examinations reported that all the examina- 
tions had been held and full details would be given at the adjourned 
meeting. 

The Committee on Theses reported examining the theses and 
entering a record of them and read suggestive rules regarding the 
writing of theses. 

The annual report of the Treasurer was presented. 

May ii. Adjourned meeting; ten members were present. The 
Committee on Examinations read a list of names of students recom- 
mended by the committee to receive the degrees of Doctor in Phar- 
macy, and Pharmaceutical Chemist, and the Certificates of Pro- 
ficiency in Chemistry, and Proficiency in Pure Food and Drugs 
Course. The Registrar was directed to cast a ballot for those recom- 
mended, whereupon they were declared entitled to receive the de- 
grees and certificates. The committee further announced the names 
of those students entitled to prizes, and the names of those entitled to 
honorable mention. The Chairman then announced the names of 
those who would present the prizes at the coming commencement. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D. 

Recording Secretary. 



NOTES AND NEWS. 

The Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation for 1908 appeared in the early part of 1909, and constitute 
a volume which reflects credit upon American pharmacy. The 
editing by the General Secretary, Professor Caspari, has been well 
done. Considering the size of the book and the responsibility in- 
volved in its publication, it has appeared with a promptness that 
should be gratifying to the members of the association. 

University of Maryland. — The exercises of the centennial 
celebration of the foundation of the University of Maryland, held 
from May 30 to June 2, 1907, have been published in the form of a 
memorial volume of 267 pages, which is illustrated with a number 
of portraits and other half-tone reproductions, and contains much 
interesting historical matter. The Maryland College of Pharmacy is 
now a department of the University. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1909. j 



Notes and Nezvs. 



407 



Digest of Comments on the Pharmacopoeia of the United 
States of America. — This is a continuation of the " Digests of 
Criticisms " instituted by the late Dr. Charles Rice, the last of 
which appeared in 1901. The present pamphlet deals only with 
the literature of the latter half of 1905, representing the period from 
the publication of the U.S. P. viii to December 31, 1905. It is 
stated in the preface that because of the wide-spread and growing 
interest in the U.S. P. viii, and because of the official connection of 
the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service with the United 
States Pharmacopceial Convention, the Board of Trustees of the 
latter organization requested the co-operation of the Surgeon- 
General of the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service of the 
United States in the compilation and publication of a " Digest of 
Comments " bearing on the articles official in the U.S. P. viii. This 
" Digest of Comments " was compiled by Murray Gait Motter and 
Martin I. Wilbert, and is issued as Bulletin No. 49 of the Hygienic 
Laboratory. The Digest comprises 292 pages, and affords an ex- 
cellent summary of the literature pertaining to pharmacy for the 
period mentioned. 

It will be seen that there is a break of four years between the 
time of the publication of the last " Digest of Criticisms " and the 
present Bulletin, but as the literature of this period is pretty well 
covered by the Report on the Progress in Pharmacy of the Amer- 
ican Pharmaceutical Association, it is available for reference so far 
as it goes. This circumstance suggests not only the co-operation of 
the Hygienic Laboratory and U. S. Pharmacopceial Convention, 
but also the further co-operation of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association with these two organizations. 

Dr. E. R. Larned, of the department of experimental medicine, 
Parke, Davis & Co., Detroit, Mich., gave an interesting and in- 
structive illustrated lecture at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
Thursday evening, April 8, on the subject of " Methods of Prepara- 
tion and Standardization of Extracts and Biological Products." 

The President's Cup presented by Howard B. French, Ph.G., 
in trust to the graduating class of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy attaining the highest average in scholarship, was awarded, 
for the first time in five years, to the class of 1909. 

International Congress of Pharmacy. — The next meeting 
will be held in Brussels, September 1-5, 1910, under the patronage 



408 



Notes and News. 



f Am. Jour. Pharni 
\ August, 1909. 



of His Majesty Leopold II, King of Belgium. Those desiring to 
present papers or to be otherwise identified with the work of the 
congress, should address the Secretaire General, Dr. A. Schamel- 
hout, rue Malibran, 12, Brussels, Belgium; being particular to 
specify their profession, titles, and address. 

The Medico-Pharmaceutical Section of the Cleveland 
Academy of Medicine was organized on Friday evening, June 25, 
in the auditorium of the Cleveland Medical Library. President 
Lower and Secretary Ford of the Academy acted in their respective 
capacities, and the following officers for the current year were 
elected and installed: Chairman, Lewis C. Hopp; Vice-Chairman, 
M. G. Tielke ; Secretary, Dr. J. B. McGee ; Councillor for the Sec- 
tion, Dr. L, J. Tuckerman. The claim was made at the meeting that 
" this was the first time that a local medical society has formed a 
section in which doctors and druggists met on an equal basis, repre- 
sentatives of each calling having equal voice in the selection of 
officers of the section." It is intended to have at each meeting a 
paper on some class of U.S. P. and N.F. preparations, followed by a 
free discussion of the paper by both physicians and druggists. It is 
also intended to have at each meeting a discussion on incompatible 
prescriptions. A committee was appointed to arrange for a perma- 
nent exhibit of U.S. P. and N.F. preparations in the auditorium 
of the Cleveland Medical Library. 

The American Pharmaceutical Association Convention 
will be held at Los Angeles, Cal., August 16-23 inclusive, the Hotel 
Alexandria having been selected as headquarters. All communica- 
tions should be addressed to Thomas W. Jones, Local Secretary, 
1726 West Twenty-second Street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

The Midland Druggist and Pharmaceutical Review is the 
title of the new publication formed by the merging of two well- 
known contemporary pharmaceutical periodicals. Professor James 
H. Beal, formerly editor of the Midland Druggist, is managing 
editor of the new journal, and Professor Edward Kremers, formerly 
editor of the Pharmaceutical Review, is scientific editor. The pub- 
lication office is at Columbus, Ohio. 

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Thera- 
peutics. — This is a new journal, the initial number of which made 
its appearance in May. It is edited by Dr. John J. Abel, professor 



Am. Jour. Pharm. } 
August, 1909. J 



Notes and News. 



409 



of pharmacology, Johns Hopkins University, with the assistance of 
fourteen associate editors, among whom are the most prominent 
pharmacologists of this country. At least six numbers of the 
Journal will be issued yearly, and will constitute a volume of about 
650 pages. The Williams & Wilkins Publishing Company, 2427- 
2429 York Road, Baltimore, are the publishers, and the subscription 
price postpaid is $5.00 per annum. 

Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association. — The sixth and last of the season's series of free 
lectures and demonstrations in the post-graduate course of instruc- 
tion for local pharmacists was given at the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy, 145 North Tenth Street, on Tuesday evening, April 20, 
1909, at 8 o'clock. 

Professor H. H. Rusby, of Columbia University, spoke on " The 
Necessity of Botanical Identification as a Basis for Other Pharma- 
cological Work," and Professor Henry Kraemer discussed the sub- 
ject of " Botany as a Hobby and Useful Science for Pharmacists," 
illustrating his remarks with specimens of growing medicinal plants 
and lantern slides. 

Dr. George T. Moore, formerly connected with the Bureau of 
Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, and for several 
years past identified with the botanical work of the Marine Bio- 
logical Laboratory, at Woods Hole, Mass., is now a member of the 
teaching corps of the Shaw School of Botany Washington Univer- 
sity, St. Louis, Mo. The School of Botany enjoys full use of the 
facilities of the famous Shaw Botanical Garden, which include, in 
addition to experimental grounds, plant houses and laboratories, a 
collection of over 11,000 distinct species or varieties of living plants, 
an herbarium of over 600,000 specimens and a botanical library of 
nearly 60,000 books and pamphlets. Dr. William Trelease is at the 
head of the Shaw School of Botany, which offers two research 
fellowships, of $500 each, for the next academic year. 

Poisons in Mushrooms. — Ford gives {Science, July 23, 1909) 
a resume of the later chemical work on the poisonous constituents of 
mushrooms, beginning with that of Kobert, together with descrip- 
tions of their effects upon man and other animals. In all about 
20 forms have been examined. Kobert isolated an hemolysin, or 
principle which dissolves the red blood-corpuscles, from Amanita 
phalloides, which he took to be a toxalbumin and to which he gave 
the name phallin; and later reported the existence of an alcohol- 



Notes and News. 



JAni. Jour. Pharro. 
( August, 1909. 



soluble poison which he considered to be an alkaloid. Ford and his 
co-workers (Drs. Abel and Schlesinger) for the most part confirm 
the observations of Kobert, but with some sharper distinctions as 
to the true nature of the toxic principles. They have shown " that 
aqueous extracts of Amanita phalloides contain two poisons which 
may be separated by concentration to a small bulk and precipitation 
by ethyl alcohol." The precipitate contains the hemolysin (phallin 
of Kobert), or aniamta-hemolysin as Ford designates it. The 
filtrate . contains a toxin which Ford classifies as amanita-toxin. 
The hemolysin is destroyed by heating to 70 ° C, and by the digestive 
ferments, and has been shown to be a " very sensitive glucoside, con- 
taining in its molecule fixed amounts of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, 
and sulphur." The amanita-toxin in its pure state has proven to be 
one of the most powerful poisons known, " four-tenths of I milli- 
gramme killing a guinea-pig within 24 hours." Other poisons are 
found in other fungi, as muscarine in A. muscaria, which appear 
to differ in their chemical constitution. 

The American Institute of Chemical Engineers held its 
first semi-annual meeting, June 24-26, 1909, at the Polytechnic In- 
stitute, Brooklyn, N. Y., with Prof. Samuel P. Sadtler as presiding 
officer. 

American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties. — The 
proceedings of the 9th annual meeting held at Hot Springs, Ark., 
September 7-12, 1908, have just been issued. In all, thirty-three 
institutions now hold membership in the conference. The address 
of the President, J. T. McGill, while entitled " The Increasing Re- 
sponsibilities of the Pharmacist," deals largely with the question of 
preliminary education. 

The Wellcome Research Laboratories, Khartoum. — The 
third Report of these Laboratories has been issued, and includes the 
results of fresh researches on a large number of scientific subjects, 
presenting valuable knowledge on certain branches of tropical medi- 
cine, entomology, chemistry, etc. Of special interest to pharmacists 
are the reports of the chemical section on the occurrence and collec- 
tion of Sudan gums, the investigations into the bacterial origin of 
gums, and those on the composition of the fats and oils of Sudan 
fruits. The report contains 477 pages of text and 361 illustra- 
tions, many of which are colored, and may be had by addressing 
the Toga Publishing Co., 45 Lafayette St., New York. Owing to 
the cost of production, a charge of $5.00 has been fixed for it. 



THE AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF PHARMACY 




Pharmacology, as now being developed, has been defined as 
" The scientific investigation of the action of substances, other than 
foods, when administered to the living organism." 

This scientific or careful study of the action of drugs and poisons, 
in the animal body, is a development of comparatively recent times. 
Less than a century ago, Magendie, following up some suggestions 
made by his great master, Bichat, laid the foundation stone of the 
science of drug action, and, incidentally, pointed out the possible 
application of the first substance to be investigated pharmacolog- 
ically — strychnine. The substance experimented with, by Magendie, 
was upas, a Java arrow poison, which later was found to contain 
the same active principle as is found in nux vomica. 

The pharmacologic studies instituted by Magendie were con- 
tinued by his pupil Claude Bernard,, who met with considerable 
success in demonstrating the action of various substances used in 
medicine. 

From the days of Magendie and Bernard to the present time the 
science of pharmacology has attracted a number of investigators, 
who in turn have enriched medicine by their research and study. 
The master mind in the development of this science was, no doubt, 
Oswald Schmiedeberg, the director of the Pharmacological Institute 
at the University of Strassburg and the generally acknowledged 
founder of the modern systematic study of active medicaments in 
connection with the animal organism. 





SEPTEMBER, ipop 




ON THE EVOLUTION OF PHARMACOLOGY. 



By M. I. Wilbert. 



(411) 



412 



Evolution of Pharmacology. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ September, 1909. 



The general importance of the study of pharmacology is well 
illustrated by the fact that for many years practically all successful, 
or at least all permanently valuable, drugs have come to us by way 
of the pharmacological laboratory, where their value, use, and limi- 
tations were determined before they were administered, even experi- 
mentally, to human beings. 

The first of the drugs to be introduced in this way was hydrated 
chloral, which was experimentally tried out by Liebreich, professor 
of pharmacology in the University of Berlin, some forty years ago. 
Among other valuable additions to the armamentarium of the physi- 
cian it will suffice to enumerate antipyrine, phenacetin, sulphonal, 
trional, and cocaine as being indicative of the nature and value of 
the materials thus introduced. 

In our own country the introduction of pharmacology as a dis- 
tinct study in connection with the course in medicine dates back 
only to 1 89 1, when Dr. John J. Abel was elected to the newly created 
chair of pharmacology in the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor. 

At the organization of the medical school in connection with 
Johns Hopkins University Dr. Abel was selected to fill the chair of 
pharmacology in that institution and Dr. Arthur R. Cushny suc- 
ceeded to the same chair in the University of Michigan. 

While as yet we have nothing that even approximates the 
Imperial Health Office in Berlin, the Royal Institute for Experi- 
mental Therapeutics at Frankfort-on-the-Main, or the pharmaco- 
logical institutes connected with the more influential universities in 
Germany, we are, nevertheless, to be congratulated in. having the 
foundation of the science of pharmacology, in this country, laid 
strong and deep by two such eminently practical and thoroughly 
scientific men as Abel and Cushny. 

Pharmacologic investigation in connection with the several scien- 
tific laboratories of the United States Government dates back only 
a comparatively few years. The first work of this kind was insti- 
tuted in connection with the Bureau of Plant Industry, in 1901, and 
has been continued uninterruptedly since 1904, when Dr. A. C. 
Crawford was regularly appointed pharmacologist in the bureau. 
A similar line of work was instituted in the Bureau of Animal Indus- 
try, in 1908, and in the latter portion of the same year Dr. Salant 
was appointed pharmacologist in the Bureau of Chemistry of the 
Agricultural Department, so that, at the present time, that depart- 
ment has no less than three bureaus in which studies along pharma- 



Am. Jour. Pharrn. ) 
September, 1909. j 



Evolution of Pharmacology. 



413 



cologic lines are being carried on. So far these investigations appear 
to have been devoted largely to contaminations in food products, 
stock feeds, and the economic development of the animal industry in 
agriculture. The work in connection with these several bureaus, as 
indicated by the results already obtained in connection with " loco 
weeds " and the poisonous nature of the several oil cake residues 
used as stock feeds, promises to be of inestimable economic value. 

The first effort to develop a similar line of work, bearing more 
directly on the health and well-being of the human kind, was evi- 
denced by an Act approved July i, 1902, entitled: "An Act to 
increase the efficiency and change the name of the United States 
Marine-Hospital Service." This Act provides for the creation of 
a Division of Pharmacology in the Hygienic Laboratory of the 
Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service. 

Owing to lack of accommodations active work in connection with 
this Division was not inaugurated until March, 1904, when Dr. Reid 
Hunt was appointed chief of the Division of Pharmacology, Hygienic 
Laboratory, and entered upon his duties. 

While this Division is, primarily, engaged in routine work for 
the several branches of the Public Health and Marine-Hospital 
Service, it has even now amply demonstrated the possibilities inher- 
ent in a Division of this kind. Apart from the routine work, which 
is time-consuming without making for publicity, the Division of 
Pharmacology, Hygienic Laboratory, has contributed materially to 
our knowledge of the action of alcohol, adrenalin, and the related 
compounds, thyroid, and a number of other more or less important 
drugs and chemicals. 

The Division also assisted in developing the American standard 
for antidiphtheritic serum, the control of which, with allied products, 
is vested in the Hygienic Laboratory of the Public Health and 
Marine-Hospital Service. Important as the control of sera and 
various biologic products undoubtedly is it would not be difficult to 
show that from the point of usefulness it is secondary in impor- 
tance to the need for developing reliable and readily applied stand- 
ards and tests for some of the more potent and medicinally more 
valuable drugs in our materia medica. 

While there is scarcely a single drug the uses and limitations of 
which have been satisfactorily defined, and while the pharmacologic 
study of our present materia medica will no doubt require the con- 



414 



Evolution of Pharmacology. 



J Am. Jour. Pharru, 
j September, 1909. 



certed efforts of pharmacologists for many years to come, there are 
certain problems that merit immediate and thorough investigation. 

Among the drugs, or rather classes of drugs, that require exhaus- 
tive study to clear up a number of mooted points it will suffice to 
point to the anaesthetics, the hypnotics, and the mydriatics, to say 
nothing of such even more difficult problems as are offered by sub- 
stances like thyroid, the suprarenal gland and its active principle,, 
ergot, strophanthus, and digitalis. The latter drug is a particularly 
good illustration of the need for developing a satisfactory method, 
for controlling its preparations. 

The work that has been done with digitalis, and in the aggregate 
it probably exceeds the work done on any other drug, with the pos- 
sible exception of the active principle of the suprarenal gland, all 
goes to demonstrate the need for conscientious and active control. 

Gottlieb, Focke, and Lowe have all called repeated attention to 
the variable nature of preparations of digitalis. Cushny asserts 
that he found the so-called active principles of digitalis to vary 
even more than the galenical preparations, and Dixon has no hesi- 
tancy in asserting that " Many hundreds of patients die annually 
from digitalis and allies not possessing the virtues which are required 
of them." 

With this evidence before us it need not surprise us to learn 
that no less an authority than Frankel, the noted German clinician, 
suggests that the government should provide laboratories in which 
the physician can have the digitalis preparations which he uses in 
his practice physiologically tested. 

In this connection we must remember that a preparation once 
tested is still subject to decomposition and that decomposition- 
products of digitalis are particularly toxic, more so even than the 
active principles themselves, without, however, the regulating influ- 
ence on the heart. Bearing in mind then that inferior or decom- 
posed digitalis preparations may shorten life either because of their 
inefficiency or because of the toxic principles that have been devel- 
oped, and remembering the all-important function of digitalis and 
its wide-spread use in certain cases of circulatory disturbance, there 
are but few medical men at least who will not agree with Frankel 
that some method of guaranteeing the activity and the usefulness of 
the preparations of digitalis, at the time they are to be used, is 
highly desirable. 

How this is to be done remains a problem for the future to solve. 



.Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
September, 1909. / 



Drug Store Conveniences. 



415 



It may be that, as is now clone with sera, a time limitation may be 
feasible, or it may be that the future pharmacy will in reality be a 
pharmacologic laboratory where the action as well as the nature 
of a medicament will be determined before it is dispensed. At all 
events it will be criminal to continue in our present slipshod manner 
of dispensing" medicaments of unknown composition or unknown 
uses when we have at our command the possibility of developing a 
science that will insure a true indication and a safe guide in the 
administration of active medicaments. 



DRUG STORE CONVENIENCES. 
By E. Fullerton Cook. 

A New Paste-pot. — The paste-pot of the average drug store is 
the source of much annoyance ; it is frequently unsightly and the 
paste in poor condition, and if it is to be kept otherwise it requires 
daily attention. The paste is usually homemade, either from flour, 
starch, or dextrin, with small amounts of alum, aluminum sulphate, 
and preservatives, and there are an abundance of good formulas 
available. But the practical difficulty arises when the paste begins to 
dry on the surface, about the edges of the pot, and on the brush, 
and then small, hard particles get into the paste as it is spread. 

The shape and style of the pot here suggested are not new. A 
few years ago a glass pot, similar in shape, was offered for sale by a 
large sundry house, but the metal top, which screwed on, was made 
of sheet metal, nickel plated, and in a few weeks began to rust, dis- 
coloring the paste and continually sprinkling small particles of rust 
on the surface, and an earlier experience with a similar pot had 
been that hot paste, poured into the glass container, caused it to 
break. 

This inconvenience and the inability to find on the market any- 
thing meeting the demand have brought about the devising of the 
pot here described which has proven entirely satisfactory, after 
four months of use. 

A quart, pure aluminum kettle, having an aluminum lid which 
slipped on but fitted tightly, the lid and the body of the kettle being 
each drawn from one piece of sheet aluminum and very strong. 



4 i6 



Drug Store Conveniences. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( September, 1909. 



was bought from a department store for seventy cents. The handle 
was removed and a round hole, one and one-half inches in diameter, 
punched in the centre of the lid, after which the top was depressed 
towards the centre by using considerable pressure. 

The pot is now complete but a brush must be provided. It was 
impossible to find a suitable brush which was not bound in a metal 
which would rust, but selecting one which would readily pass 
through the opening in the lid, the metal was first shellacked, then 
wrapped closely with twine from the bristle to the wood, and this 
in turn was heavily shellacked with two or more coats. A disk of 
rubber, about one- fourth inch thick, was now cut from a rubber 
cork, two inches in diameter, a small hole punched in the centre, 
and the brush handle passed through this. When the brush is 
standing in the pot the rubber disk effectually excludes air and 
prevents the paste from drying, and when the brush is to be used 
the excess of paste may be wiped oft as it is withdrawn. 

The advantages of this pot are as follows : (i) As long as well- 
made paste is in the pot it is ready for use; it will not dry; (2) the 
pot does not rust nor discolor the paste and acids will not attack 
it, although alkali will cause the metal to darken; (3) hot paste may 
be poured into the pot without danger of breaking or the paste 
may even be cooked in the kettle ; (4) the brush may be freed from 
an excess of paste as it is withdrawn and the excess drops back 
into the pot. 

Its convenience and satisfaction far outweigh it£ original cost 
which was as follows: pot, 70 cents; punching, 10 cents; brush, 15 
cents; shellac, 5 cents; rubber cork, 25 cents; total, $1.25. 

A Container for Purified Cottox. — The necessity for having 
purified cotton available in the laboratory and yet protected from 
dust has developed the apparatus here described. 

A box was made, from wood, of a size suitable to hold a pound 
roll of purified cotton. The lid was hinged and slots cut in each 
end so that a stove-bolt which was to serve as the axis of the cotton 
roll could be slipped into place. 

It was found necessary to devise means of preventing the cotton 
from unrolling by its own weight or when a bunch was pulled from 
it, and the first step was therefore to fasten the end of the roll of 
cotton to the bolt. This was accomplished by fastening a long, 
thin piece of steel at one end of the bolt, slipping the cotton under 
this, and then clamping it at the other end by means of a ring which 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
September, 1909. J 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



4*7 



slips over it. The cotton is then rolled tightly on the bolt, from the 
original roll, taking care to avoid exposure or soiling, and is now 
slipped into the box. Here, however, a ratchet device has been 
arranged which prevents the cotton from unrolling unless a button 
on the .outside is pressed. 

It is believed that such an appliance, if obtainable, would be a 
valuable addition to the equipment of any prescription department, 
and it can be readily made by any one with slight mechanical ability. 

This is an opportunity to also call your attention to a line of 
white enamelled ware, sold in the house-goods departments of many 
stores, which may be applied with great advantage to many drug 
store laboratory operations. We have used them for water-baths 
for several years. The plates admirably adapt themselves to 
covers for funnels and percolators. The bowls of many sizes are 
inexpensive and strong and clean, and may be used in innumerable 
ways : in making ointments ; in moistening drugs for percolation, 
and, in fact, for almost every purpose for which a porcelain dish is 
required. 



PROGRESS IN PHARMACY. 

A QUARTERLY REVIEW OF SOME OF THE MORE INTERESTING 
LITERATURE RELATING TO PHARMACY. 

By M. I. Wilbert, Washington, D. C. 

Before this number of the American Journal of Pharmacy 
reaches its readers the American Pharmaceutical Association will 
have concluded its annual sessions, which are to be held this year 
in the city of Los Angeles near the far-off coast of the broad Pacific, 
from the 16th to the 20th of August. 

For such of the pharmacists of this country as are able to attend, 
this meeting will no doubt prove to be one of unusual interest and 
profit. All of the several sections have provided excellent programs 
and the trip across the continent is itself an event to be looked for- 
ward to as a source of profit as well as pleasure. 

Scarcely less interesting will be the meeting of the National 
Association of Retail Druggists which is to be held in the city of 
Louisville, Ky., the week of September 6. Many of the members of 



4i8 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



("Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ September, 1909. 



that organization are looking forward to a record meeting, so far as 
attendance is concerned. 

The State pharmaceutical association meetings held this year 
appear to have been more than usually well attended. The scien- 
tific papers were numerous, and altogether it would appear as .though 
interest in matters relating to true pharmacy was on the increase 
throughout the whole country. 

The Seventh International Congress of Applied Chemistry was 
held in London, May 27 to June 2 inclusive. Upwards of 1000 
communications were presented in the several sections. 

The Pharmaceutical Section under the presidency of Mr. N. H. 
Martin, of New-Castle-on-Tyne, presented an unusually interesting 
program, nearly forty papers being read and discussed. In this 
connection it appears that considerable progress was made to fur- 
ther international uniformity, not alone in standards for potent medi- 
caments but also in methods of analysis and standardization 
generally. 

In the section on Pharmaceutical Chemistry several papers were 
read bearing on the variation in strength of potent drugs, and, on 
motion, it was agreed to appoint a provisional committee to inquire 
into the practicability of securing: (1) greater uniformity in the 
commercial supplies of potent drugs, and (2) approximation in the 
Pharmacopoeias of the world to common standards of activity. This 
committee has been appointed and will no doubt present a compre- 
hensive report and a practicable scheme of procedure at the next 
International Congress of Applied Chemistry, which is to be held in 
the city of Washington in 1912. 

Other meetings of 'interest to pharmacists are the 12th Inter- 
national Congress on Alcoholism held in London, July 18 to 24, 
1909, and the 16th International Medical Congress held in Budapest, 
Hungary, August 29 to September 4. 

An International Congress of Pharmacy is to be held in Brussels 
in 1910, from September 1 to 5, which is to be devoted exclusively 
to the discussion of questions of international character. With the 
interest that has been aroused in connection with the International 
Congress for Applied Chemistry in matters relating to the desirabil- 
ity of establishing international standards for the more widely used 
drugs, this meeting at Brussels promises to b? not alone well 
attended but also a powerful influence for progress. 

Closing Medical Colleges. — An editorial points out that during 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
September, 1909. J 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



419 



the past five years no less than thirty medical colleges, through 
merger or otherwise, have voluntarily closed their doors. This 
action has been taken chiefly that higher standards of medical 
education might prevail. It is quite evident that we are entering 
upon an era of reconstruction in medical education, and that event- 
ually the medical schools in the United States, collectively, will be 
equal if not superior to those of any other country. — /. Am. Med. 
Assoc., 1909, v. 52, p. 1842. 

Dr. J. F. Stevens, the dean of the Nebraska College of Medicine, 
in an open letter announcing the closing of his school asserts that : 
"While academic training and opportunity (in America) have 
grown into magnificent and commanding proportions, the profes- 
sional schools, with the exception of a small minority, have re- 
mained essentially elementary or even worse. In medicine the spirit 
of progress has at last become supreme and on all sides may be seen 
the work of destruction, 1 e-organization and rebuilding." (/. Am. 
Med. Assoc., 1909, v. 52, p. 1862.) It might be added, in this con- 
nection, that the rapid progress that is being made in matters relating 
to medical education has been brought about directly by the efforts 
of the Council on Medical Education of the American Medical 
Association. 

Secrecy vs. Lack of Knozvledge in Medicine. — A recent editorial 
in the Journal of the American Medical Association (1909, v. 53, 
p. 211) discusses the repeatedly made insinuation that because the 
physician does not know all about the active constituents of some 
of the well-known drugs it is not necessary for him to know much 
about the constituents of the proprietary remedies offered him by 
manufacturers. The writer points out that the fact that the physi- 
cian has not been able to fathom all of the mysteries of some of the 
more widely used drugs, the physiological actions of which are 
familiar to him, is no reason why he should even countenance prep- 
arations the mystery of which is purely artificial and exists only 
for the purpose of gain cr deceit. 

The Valuation of Galenical Preparations. — Earl Dieterich, a 
German manufacturer of pharmaceutical preparations, discusses the 
valuation of ready-made galenical preparations and points out that 
the capable pharmacist can, and that it is his duty to, control the 
preparations that he buys so as to be able to assure the physician 
that the medicaments furnished are fully in conformity with the 
official requirements. He also calls attention to the fact that this 



42Q. 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
( September, 1909. 



control is equally necessary whether the preparations are made by 
the pharmacist himself or purchased ready made. — Pharm. ZentraJb., 
1909, v. 50, pp. 537-539- 

The Regeneration of the Pharmaceutical Laboratory.— To insure 
the identity and activity of pharmacopceial medicaments, in Germanv, 
it has been proposed to compel the home manufacture of all galeni- 
cal preparations. The Pharmazeutische Zeitung (1909, v. 54, p. 
467) contains a complete list of the preparations that it is proposed 
to include in the forthcoming requirement. The list as printed in- 
cludes aromatic waters, fluidextracts, tinctures, syrups, spirits, lini- 
ments, solutions, plasters, ointments, wines, and the preparation of 
all drug powders from the crude material. 

Foot-and-mouth Disease. — A statement from the Bureau of Ani- 
mal Industry of the U. S. Department of Agriculture outlines the 
origin and the method of spreading the recent epidemic of foot- 
and-mouth disease, by cattle infected by means of a contaminated 
vaccine virus. While there was and is now no danger of communi- 
cating this disease to human beings, its existence unnoticed for so 
long a time is unfortunate. — /. Am. Med. Assoc., 1909, v. 52, pp. 
1 679- 1 680. 

Coal-tar Antipyretics. — Bulletin 126 of the Bureau of Chemistry, 
entitled " The Harmful Effects of Acetanilid, Antipyrin and Phe- 
nacetin " presents a compilation of the reported cases of poisoning 
by these drugs and incidentally illustrates the danger of the popular 
use of coal-tar antipyretics. 

Comments on the U.S.P. — Bulletin 49 of the Hygienic Labora- 
tory, Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service, is the first of a 
series of comments on the Pharmacopoeia compiled at the request 
of the Board of Trustees of the U.S.P. Convention. An editorial 
in the Pharmaceutical Era points out that : " As an expression of 
Federal interest in a volume of National consequence Bulletin 49 
marks a fresh milestone in the U.S.P. progress secondary only to 
the action of Congress in making it the official standard by legal 
enactment in the Pure Food and Drugs Act of June 30, 1906." The 
Chemist and Druggist (London) says of Bulletin 49 : " It is a use- 
ful compilation, not only for the Revision Committee but for all 
pharmacists who are enthusiasts in pharmacy." 

Criticisms of the British Pharmacopoeia. — Henry G. Greenish, 
the secretary of the Ph. Brit. Committee of Reference in Phar- 
macy, in thanking contributors of criticisms says : " The desire has 



Am. Jour. Pnarni. ) 
September, 1909. j 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



421 



frequently been expressed that all reports should be published for 
discussion previous to the issue of the Pharmacopoeia, as the more 
fully they are criticized, destructively as well as constructively, the 
more likely is the next edition of the Pharmacopoeia to represent 
the views of British pharmacists and to reflect credit on those who 
have taken part in the work of revision." — Chem. and Drug., 1909, 
v. 74, p. 891. 

British Pharmacopoeia — At a recent meeting of the Pharmaco- 
poeia Committee of the General Medical Council it was pointed out 
that valuable reports, containing suggestions for the better adapta- 
tion of the Pharmacopoeia to local requirements in distant parts of 
His Majesty's dominion, continue to reach the committee from 
government authorities outside the United Kingdom. The com- 
mittee hope to hold a special meeting during the autumn for the 
purpose of coming to a decision on certain points relating to the 
new Pharmacopoeia and in particular on the question of omissions 
or inclusion of the several articles dealt with in the returns supplied 
by the licensing bodies and other medical authorities at home and 
abroad. — Pharm. J. (London), 1909, v. 28, p. 770. 

French Codex. — The new French Codex came into force on May 
15 of this year, according to P. Dorveaux (Bull, des Sc. Pharmacol., 
1909, v. 16, p. 323). The present is the fifth edition of this work. 
The first edition was published in 1818, succeeding to the " Codex 
Medicamentarius seu Pharmacopcea Parisiensis." The second edi- 
tion was published in 1837, tne third in 1866 and the fourth in 1884, 
with a supplement published in 1895. The now official fifth edition, 
published in 1908, has the same title as the fourth : " Codex Medica- 
mentarius Gallicus, Pharmacopee francaise redigee par ordre du 
Gouvernment, Paris." The book, large 8vo, contains xxiv + 999 
pages. The divisions which characterized former editions have dis- 
appeared and the contained medicaments and formulas are now 
arranged alphabetically. 

The French Codex still retains an unusual number of poly- 
pharmacal preparations. Tinctura vulneraria, for instance, con- 
tains 19 ingredients, electuarium diascordium (much simplified) 
still contains 16, compound wine of squill 12, compound oil of hyo- 
scyamus 11, and compound syrup of rhubarb 10. 

H anbury Medal. — The adjudicators of the Hanbury medal have 
awarded the medal this year to Prof. W. O. A. Tschirch, of Berne, 
Switzerland. To readers who have gone somewhat deeply into 



422 



Progress in Pharmacy. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 

\ .September, 1909. 



the study of pharmacy on the scientific side, particularly to students 
of pharmacognosy, the work of Professor Tschirch is well known. 
He was born at Guben, in Prussia, on October 16, 1856, and for 
nearly thirty years has been an active contributor to pharmaceutical 
literature. — Pharm. J. (London), 1909, v. 28, p. 790. 

Biologic Products. — A review of the discovery of the impor- 
tance of internal secretion and the possible use of the several sub- 
stances in therapeutics is followed by a brief description of a number 
of substances and preparations derived from organs of animals. 
The descriptions of pituitary substance, parathyroid gland, and red 
bone-marrow indicate that these substances are being marketed in a 
commercial way, while the descriptions of thymus gland, mammary 
gland, parotid gland, testicle, spleen, ovary, and corpus luteum indi- 
cate that no preparations, of an unobjectionable nature, are as yet 
available, or at least none are mentioned. — /. Amer. Med. Assoc., 
v. 52, p. 1929- 

Aconitine. — K. Makoshi